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KuHNAVARDi

kuhnavardiKuHNAVARDi, alpinizm, bo maqsadhoi varzishi va tadqiqot baromadan ba qullahoi kuh. K. dar odam khislathoi mardonagi, choloki va g.-ro tarbiya mekunad, neruyu tavon mebakhshad, hamohangii harakat va purtoqatiro inkishof medihad. Durust tashkil kardani K. va nafas giriftan az havoi kuhiston ba salomati tasiri musbat rasonda, yak nav istirohati faol mahsub meshavad. Hamzamon bo in baromadan ba kuhhoi baland asabhoi ustuvor va nerui ziyodi jismoniro taqozo menamoyad. In hama zeri tasiri fishori patsi atmosfera, tagiyr yoftani harorat va namii havo, afzoishi radiatsiyai ultrabunafsh garontar khohad shud. Binobar in kuhnavardro zarur ast, ki bahri noil gashtan ba maqsad omodagii jiddi binad.
Tojikiston sarzamini kuhhoi sarbafalak ast. S. 1952 dar Kumitai tarbiyai jismoni va sporti jumhuri federatsiyai kuhnavardon tasis doda shud. Kuhnavardoni tojik qullahoi balandtarini kuhhoi Pomir – Dusti (6800 m), Izvestiya (6840 m), Galaba (7439 m), Lenin (7134 m) va g.-ro fath namudand. Qullahoi fathnashuda dar jumhuri hanuz bisyorand.
Omili asosie, ki hangomi baromadan ba kuhhoi baland ba organizm tasir merasonad, norasoii oksigen (nig. Gipoksiya) ast; on kori nafaskashi va sistemai dilu ragro khalaldor mesozad, ishtiho gum va khob vayron meshavad, mumkin ast ikhtiloli kori dilu rag va sistemai asabhoi markazi ba vujud oyad.
Dar kuhnavardon tagyirot va ikhtiloli sistemayu uzvho, odatan, muvaqati buda, tez meguzarad. Darajai zuhuroti onho ba obutobi organizmi kuhnavard vobasta ast. Baroi ba sharoiti balandkuh mutobiq shudan muddate dar lagerhoi kuhnavardon zistan lozim meoyad.
Dar asnoi mashguliyathoi K. nazorati qatii dukhtur zarur ast. Dukhturi lageri kuhnavardi kuhnavardonro az muoinai avvalin, inchunin pesh az baromadan ba kuh va badi on az nazorati tibbi meguzaronad, baroi ba kuhhoi baland baromadan ijozat dodan yo nadodanro hallu fasl menamoyad, rejimi durusti akklimatizatsiya va mashqi makhsusi kuhnavardonro murattab mesozad, voyai khurokro vobasta ba sharoit va daraji dushvorii kuhbaroi muayyan mekunad.
Libosi kuhnavard boyad muvofiq, sabuk va munosib boshad, uro az khunuki, shamol va borishot emin dorad. Poyafzori charmini kuhgardi boyad ba poy muvofiq oyad. Baroi muhofizati chashm aynakhoi makhsus (nig. Aynak) zarurand.
Gizoi kuhnavardon boyad serkaloriya (na kamtar az 4500 – 5000 kkal) boshad: khurokro 4 – 5 marotiba dar yak ruz va ba qadri imkon garm khurdan lozim ast. Dar sharoiti kuh angishtob behtar va ravgan kame bad hazm meshavad, binobar in gizo boyad kamravgan va serangishtob boshad. Ba voyai khurok gizohoi duddoda, shokolad, qand, vitaminhoi S, V, noni khushk, fatirkulcha, meva va g. hamroh mekunand.
Baroi tayyorii ibtidoi ba lagerhoi kuhnavardi javonon va dukhtaroni 14 – 15-solai jisman obutobyofta firistoda meshavand. Ba kuhbaroihoi sabuk javonon va dukhtaroni az 17-sola boloro roh medihand. Baroi baromadan ba kuhhoi baland (6500 – 7000 m) ba odamoni az 22 – 23 to 40 – 42-sola ijozat ast. Ba kuhhoi khele baland boshad, faqat kuhnavardoni tajribador mebaroyand.
Tayyorii nodurusti jismoni va tekhniki, sarsari intikhob namudani hayat, ba nazar nagiriftani dushvorii safar, beintizomi, badsifati va norasoii asbobu anjom, khurok va nazorati tibbi metavonad mujibi falokat shavad. Binobar in dar jumhuri tartiboti qatii tashkil va guzaronidani safari kuh va ba kuhho baromadan mavjud ast (maqsadi asosii on peshgirii khavfi zarbu lat va falokat meboshad). Barnomai tayyorii kuhnavardon hatman omuzishi usulhoi khudyorirasoni va yorii hamdigarro darbar megirad.

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