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Konstitutsiyai soli 1876 dar Turkiya

Dar ogozi solhoi 70-umi asri XIX imperiyai Usmoniyon ba marhalai buhroni darozmuddati khud dokhil shud. Karakhti dar istehsoloti mahalli afzoishi andozho va ziyodshavii narkhi navo nisbat ba siyosati sulton Abdul Aziz (1861 – 1876) norozigii doirahoi vasei aholiro ba vujud ovard. Boloravii navi harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalqhoi Balkan in buhronro boz ham vaznintar namud, chunki islohot ahvoli khalqhoi in mintaqai imperiyaro behtar nakard.

Vazi siyosii baamalomada baroi faoliyati “Usmonhoi nav” sharoit faroham meovard. Az afv istifoda burda, rohbaroni in harakat dar avvali solhoi 70-um ba Istambul bargashtand. Soli 1872 yake az rohbaroni “Usmonhoi nav” Notiq Kamol ba chopi ruznomai “Ibrat” shuru namud. Dar in nashriya maqolahoe chop meshudand, ki goyahoi ozodi va zarurati konstitutsiyaro tashviqu targib karda va faoliyati hukumati sultonro ba zeri tanqidi shadid girifta budand. Asosi barnomai “Usmonhoi nav” goyai istiqloliyati iqtisodi va siyosii mamlakat bud. Dar rohi amali shudani in goya onho mutlaqiyati feodaliro moneai asosi meshumoridand. Az in ru, talabi asosii siyosii onho tashkil kardani rejimi shohii konstitutsioni bud. Baroi rushdi sanoat, kishovarzi va tijorat onho talab mekardand, ki sistemai uhdadorii korkardadihi va zulmi mamuri barham va maorif taraqqi doda shavad. Oidi siyosati khoriji “Usmonhoi nav” talab mekardand, ki sistemam shargnomahoi taslimkorona va shartnomahoi nobarobar bekor karda shavand.

Soli 1873 hukumati sulton “Usmonhoi nav”-ro taqib kard. Ruznomahoi onhoro basta, Notiq Kamol va rohbaroni digari harakati ozodikhohi konstitutsioniro badarga kard. Lekin in chorahoi sulton peshi rohi pahnshavii goyahoi demokratiro girifta natavonistand.

Dar bayni ishtirokchiyoni harakati “Usmonhoi nav” yake az arboboni kaloni davlati Midhatposhsho niz bud. Az 9 to 11 mayi soli 1876 dar Istambul namoishi tezu tundi ziddi hukumat barguzor garlid, ki ba on jonibdoroni Midhatposhsho va ruhoniyon rohbari mekardand. In namoish hukumati Nadimposhshoro majbur kard, ki ba istefo ravad. SHurishchiyon shabi 30 mayi soli 1876 sulton Abdulazizro az hokimiyat mahrum kardand. Midhatposhsho umed dosht, ki ba joi Abdulaziz ba takhti sultoni Murodi V, ki eloni konstitutsiya va tashkili parlamentro vada karda bud, menishinad. Hamin tavr ham shud lekin Murodi V bo sababi marizi vazifahoi sultoniro ijro karda natavonist va dere naguzashta 31 avgusti soli 1876 az takht farovarda shud. Ba takhti sultonii Turkiya barodari Abdulhamidi II ( 1876 – 1909) nishast.

turciya

In vaqt dar Bosniya va Hersogovina muborizai musallahonai ozodikhohi ogoz yoft. Serbiya va CHernogoriya shurishgaronro dastgiri namuda, bar ziddi Turkiya jang cap kardand. Badi on ki Turkiya serbhoro torumor namud, Rusiya ba buhroni Bosniya va Hersogovina dakholat kard. Davlathoi digar ham baroi bo rohi siyosi hal kardani in buhron chorajuiho kardand. Qaror doda shud, ki dar Istambul konferensiyai namoyandagoni davlathoi Evropa jam oyad. Vaqte malum gardid, ki baroi konferensiya loihai avtonomiyai Bosniya, Hersogovina va Bulgoriya tayyor karda shudaast, Midhatposhshoi navakak vaziri buzurg tayingardida talab kard, ki baroi peshgirii dakholati khoriji betakhir konstitutsiyai Turkiya, ki onro u bo hamrohii Notiq Kamol tayyor karda bud, elon karda shavad. Abdulhamidi II az noiloji guzasht kard va 23 dekabri soli 1876, dar ruzi ogozi botantanai kori konferensiya, dar borai jori karda shudani konstitutsiya farmoni sulton qiroat karda shud

Konstitutsiyai mazkur tashkil kardani parlamenti dupalatagiro dar nazar dosht. On barobarii hamai shahrvandonro dar nazdi qonun sarfi nazar az dinu mazhab, dakhlnopazirii shakhs va molikiyat, manzil va andozi boadolat, mani uhdadorii korkardadihi va jarima, musodirakuni va ozodii shugl ba tijorat, sanoat va kishovarzi, ozodii matbuot va murofiai oshkoroi dodgohro bo tantana elon kard.

Ba baze mahdudiyathoi khud nigoh nakarda Konstitutsiyai soli 1876-i Turkiya dar tarikhi in davlat voqeai peshqadam bud. Eloni ozodihoi demokrati va tashkili parlament ba sokhti feodaliyu mutlaqiyat zarbai jiddi zad, mohi marti soli 1877 konferensiyai Isgambul be yagon natija kori khudro qat namud. Sulton Midhatposhshoro badarga kard. Badi in “Usmonhoi nav”-i digar niz taqib karda shudand.

Abdulhamid jonibdoroni Midhatposhshoro torumor karda boshad ham, ba bekor kardani konstitutsiya jurat nakard. Mohi marti soli 1877 jalasai avvali parlament kushoda shud. On az 119 vakil-71 musulmon va 49 gayrimusulmon iborat bud. Azbaski parlament gapdaro nabud, Abdulaziz onro parokanda kard va tiramohi soli 1877 intikhoboti navi parlamentro doir gardonid. Mohi fevrali soli 1878, badi dar jangi ziddi Rusiya shikast khurdani Turkiya, sulton faoliyati parlamenti navro ba muhlati nomuayyan man kard. Dar amal in kirdori Abdulhamid manoi mani konstitutsiyai soli 1876-ro dosht.

Badi parokanda kardani parlament va torumori “Usmonhoi nav” sulton Abdulhamid dar imperiya rejimi mutlaqiyati istibdodro tashkil namud. Dar davrai hukmronni in sulton Turkiya az nav ba aqib, yane ba sui tartiboti feodali bargasht.

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