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Kodi genetiki

Miqdori ziyodi aminokislotaho, ki tavassuti evolyutsiya intikhob shudaand, bo kislotahoi nukleinat sintez gardida, bo yak paydarhamii muayyan dar safedaho joygir meshavand. Dar zanjiri polipeptidi ba har yak aminokislota kombinatsiyai iborat az se nukleotid – triplet rost meoyad. Masalan, ba aminokislotai sistein tripleti ASA, ba valin – SAA, ba lizin – TTT va gayra.

kodi-geneteki

Hamin tariq, yakjoyashavii nukleotidho va payiham joygirshavii onho dar molekulai KDN kod meboshad, ki oid ba strukturai safeda khabar merasonad. Kod hamai imkoniyati yakjoyashavii se asosi nitrogeniro (az chor asosi nitrogeni) vorid menamoyad. CHunin yakjoyashavi mumkin 43 = 64 boshad va dar navbati khud 20 aminokislotaro kodgiri mekunad. Dar natija baze aminokislotaho bo yakchand tripletho kodgiri meshavand. In holat baroi guzaronidani akhbori genetiki

ahamiyati kalon dorad. Masalan, ba aminokislotai arginin mumkin ast triplethoi GSA, GST, GSS va gayra muvofiqi namoyand. Malum ast, ki tagyiroti tasodufii nukleotidi seyum dar in tripletho dar strukturai safedai sintezshavanda inikos nameyobad.

Dar har molekulai KDN, ki az millionho jufti nukleotidi iborat ast, akhbori paydarhamii aminokislotaho dar sadho safedahoi gunogun sabt shudaast. Qismi molekulai KDN, ki oid ba strukturai yak safeda khabar mebarad, chi tavr az digar qismho mahdud megardad? Triplethoe mavjudand, ki funksiyaashon ba vuqu omadani sintezi silsilai polinukleotidi meboshad, hamchunin triplethoe hastand, ki onho ba sintez mone meshavand. YAke az khosiyathoi asosii kod makhsusiyati on meboshad. Hej goh chunin holat ruy namedi

Rasmi 3.11. Kodi genetiki dar paydarhamii kodonhoi KDN:ysu

Fen – fenilalinin, Ley – leysin, Iley – izoleysin,

Met – metionin, Val – valin, Tir – tirozin,

Gis – gistidin, Gln – kislotai glutamin,

Liz – lizin, Asp – asparagin, Glu – glutamin,

Sis – sistein, Tri – triptofan, Arg – argenin,

Ser – serin, Gli – glitsin, Pro- prolin,

Tre – treonin, Ala – alanin.

Ist – okhiri sintezi safedai muayyan

Kod baroi hamai organizmhoi zinda umumi ast va hargiz qat namegardad. YAne, aminokislotahoi kodgirishavandai tripletho – kodonhoi KDN dar namudi akhbori tripletho (kodonho) – KRN-a hamesha yaklukht rasonda meshavand. Baroi sintez shudani safeda, akhbor dar borai payiham joygirshavii aminokislotaho dar strukturai yakumini on boyad ba ribosoma rasonda shavad. In ravand du davra – transkripsiya va translyatsiyaro dokhil menamoyad, ki oid ba onho dar bobi oyanda malumot doda meshavad.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Kislotahoi nukleinat chist?
  2. Kadom payvastagihoi oddii organiki hamchun qismhoi tarkibii kislotahoi nukleinat khizmat menamoyand?
  1. Kadom kheli kislotahoi nukleinatro medoned?
  2. Farqi sokhti molekulai KDN va KRN dar chist?
  3. Funksiyai KDN-ro gufta dihed.
  4. Dar hujayra kadom namudhoi KRN mavjudand?
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