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Kitobi darsii Botanika baroi sinfi 5-um

ISTIFODABARI AZ KITOBI DARSI

SHumo dar sinfi 5 az in kitobi darsii Botanika talim megired. Tavassuti mundarijai kitob shumo bo nomgui faslu bobhoi alohida shinos gardida, mavzuhoi lozimaro bo osoni daryofta metavoned.

Dar okhiri har yak mavzu bo maqsadi sanjishi darajai fahmishu donishi khonandagon savolhoi ba mavzu dakhldor doda shudaand. Pesh az savolho alomati guzoshta shudaast.

Kiotobi BotanikaRaqami rasmho dar matni mavzu va dar zerraqami rasmho bo alomati | ishora karda shudaast. Rasmho intikhoban ovarda shudaand va onho baroi osontar az khud kardani mavzuho ba shumo kumak merasonand.

Dar pushti muqovai avval va okhiri kitob rasmi rastanihoi dorugi va nodir, ki ba «Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston» dokhil shudaand, gird ovarda shudaast.

Pas az itmomi faslu bobhoi kitob ravishi guzarondani tajribahoi laboratori doda shudaast, ki az rui onho muallim bo shumoyon darshoi laboratori meguzaronad. In mashguliyathoi amali ba shumo imkon medihand, ki ba tavri ayoni ba gunogunkheli va jabhahoi gunoguni faoliyati hayotii rastaniho az nazdik shinos shuda, dar omuzishu hifzi onho malakayu mahorati zaruri hosil namoed.

Az shumoyon bisyor khohish mekunem, ki kitobro toza nigoh dored va bo on ehtiyotkorona munosibat kuned. CHunki dar oyanda az in kitob khoharon va barodaroni khurdsoli shumo metavonand istifoda barand.

Bo hissi minnatdori takid mekunem, ki ba juz adabiyothoi dakhldori dar barnomai talimi nishondodashuda, inchunin baze rasmho va mavodho az kitobi darsii “Biologiya: rastani, bakteriya, zanburug, gulsang”, M., 1992 (nashri 23-yumi rusi, baroi sinfhoi 6—7), muallifash V.A. Korchagina, kitobi nomburda, tarjuma az nashri 20-umi rusi, Dushanbe, «Maorif», 1992, mutarjim M. Hojimatov va “Biologiya: bakteriya, zanburug, rastani”. M., 1995 (baroi sinfi 6), muallifash V.V. Pasechnik mavridi istifoda qaror doshtand.

MUQADDIMA

Hangomi omukhtani fanni tabiatshinosi ba shumoyon malum shud, ki tabiati zinda az olami nabotot va hayvonot iborat ast. Ilm yo fannero, ki bo tabiati zinda sarukor dorad va onro hamatara- fa meomuzad, biologiya yo hayotshinosi menomand. Biologiya az du ka- limai yunoni: “bios” — hayot va “logos” — talimot iborat ast.

Ba juz hayvonot va rastaniho dar tabiat boz organizmhoe (yo mav- judothoe) niz hastand, ki harchand alomat va khususiyathoi ba ras- taniho monand doshta boshand ham, lekin rangashon sabz nest. Inho zanburugho meboshand, ki guruhhoi alohidai organizmhoro tashkil medihand. CHunonchi, baze namudhoi zanburughoi khurdanibob, zan- burughoi magori va gayraho.

Inchunin, guruhi makhsusero bakteriyaho tashkil medihand, ki nihoyat andozai khurd doshta, onhoro faqat bo tufayli asbobhoi kalonnishondihanda, masalan mikroskop, metavoned bubined.

Hamin tavr, tabiati zinda, ki onro fanni biologiya meomuzad, az 4 olam yo guruh iborat ast: bakteriyaho, zanburugho, rastaniho va hayvonot.

Pahnshavii rastaniho dar rui Zamin. Tavassuti kito- bi mazkur mo omuzishi tabiati zindaro az olami rastaniho ogoz mekunem. Rastaniho dar olami bekanor vase pahn shudaand. Onho- ro dar hama gushayu kanori Zamin didan mumkin ast: dar dashtu vo- diho, talu teppaho, kuhhoi sarbarfalak, dashthoi beob va bot- loqhoi kasnoguzar, dar bahru uqyonusho, kulho, havzu daryoho va hatto dar qutbhoi sarosar yakhpush.

Dar bogu gulzorho, gulgashtho, zaminhoi baroi kishtukor muvo- fiq va khojagihoi dehqoni rastaniho ba tavri vase parvarish kar- da meshavand.

Rastaniho dar tabiat mavqei khosro doro buda, aksari kulli onho rangi sabz dorand. Vale chi tavre, ki qablan qayd kardem, dar tabi- at rastanihoe niz hastand, ki rangashon sabz nest. Ba in qabil ras- taniho zanburugho dokhil meshavand. Ahamiyati rastaniho dar ta- biat az on iborat ast, ki onho havoro az gardu gubor pokiza kar- da, bo gazi oksigen, ki baroi nafasgirii hamai mavjudoti zinda bagoyat zarur ast, boy megardonand.

Rastaniho khuroki hayvonot meboshand. Hatto on hayvonoti dar- randai gushtkhur dar navbati khud hayvonotero sayd mekunand, ki alafkhurand.

Hususan, rastani dar hayoti inson ahamiyati favqulodda kalon dorad. Zero asosi khuroki insonro mahsuloti rastanigi, az qabili ord, yarma, sabzavot va mevaho, tashkil medihand. Mo agarchande mah- suloti hayvonoti — gusht, shir, mohi, tukhm, ravgan (charbu), panir va gayrahoro istifoda barem ham, lekin hayvonoti kalonu khurdi shokhdor, parrandagon aksaran ba sifati gizo rastanihoro isti- foda mebarand. Binobar on, dar on makone, ki rastani nameruyad, khayvonot niz khayot guzaronida nametavonad va on joyho bo muru- ri vaqtu zamon ba dashtu biyobonhoi behayot tabdil meyoband.

Inchunin, rastaniho ba sifati masolehi binokori, suzishvori, hamchun ashyoi khom dar sanoati dorusozi va digar sohahoi khojagii khalq vase istifoda burda meshavand. Az baze namudhoi onho — pakh- ta, zagir, kanab (kenaf) va gayraho nakhi khushsifat girifta meshavad, ki baroi dukhtanu tayyor kardani libos behad zarurand. Hol on ki nabototi khudruy in talaboti insonro qone gardonida nametavonad.

Dar rui Zamin taqriban 350-400 hazor namudi rastaniho mav- chudand. Az in miqdor 1500 namudashon ba rastanihoi mazru dokhil meshavand. Insoniyat dar davrahoi avvali inkishofi tarikhiash tukhmi ziroathoro na faqat baroi gizo, balki baroi kishtukor niz jam mekard. Az hamon davraho sar karda, odamon ba parvarishu kishtu kori ziroatho pardokhtand. Dar in muddati na on qadar tulonii tarikhi kishovarzi bisyor namudi rastanyhoi mazkur chu- non tagyir yoftand, ki daryoft kardani baze khususiyathoi avlodii onho dar avlodoni qadimai yoboiashon baso dushvor ast. Dar vata- ni oftobruyai mo — Tojikiston boshad, ziyoda az 4513 namudi ras- taniho mesabzad. Dar bayni onho mikdori ziyodi rastanihoe mav- judand, ki khususiyati tabobati doshta, dar tib mavridi istifo- dai hamajoniba qaror dorand.

Ilmero, ki rastanikho, faoliyati hayoti, sokhti beruni va darunii onhoro meomuzad, botanika menomand. Nomi in fan az kalimai yunonii «botane» ba vujud omadaast, ki manoi tahtullafziash sabza, alaf, rastani meboshad.

Ammo rastanihoro faqat omukhtan kifoya nest. Ba rastaniho bo ehtiyot va gamkhorona munosibat karda, onhoro hamatarafa muhofi- zat kardan lozim ast. Mutaassifona, dar mintaqahoi kuhi va bisyor nohiyahoi jumhuriamon beparvoyona buridanu to ba darajai nesgi ovar- dani darakhtu buttahoi jangalzor, beinsofona jamovari kardani nozu nemathoi tabiat, giyohhoi doruvori va gayraho davom dorad. Az in ru. shumoyon bo kushishhoi nachibi khud dar hifzi rastanihoi nodir sahmguzor boshed.

  1. Rastanihoi sabz dar tabiat chi ahamiyat dorand?
  2. Ahamiyati rastaniho dar hayoti odam chy guna ast?
  3. Biologiya chi khel fan ast va kadom guruhi organizmhoi zindaro meomuzed?
  4. Botanika chiro meomuzad?
  5. CHaro rastanihoi sabzro muhofizat kardan zarur ast?

MUNDARIJA

MUHADDIMA………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

SHINOSOII UMUMI BO RASTANIHOI GULDOR

  • 1. Uzvhoi rastani………………………………………………………………………. 9
  • 2. Meva va tukhm………………………………………………………………………… 12
  • 3. Pahnshavii meva va tukhm………………………………………………………. 14
  • 4. Davomnokii hayoti rastaniho………………………………………………… 16
  • 5. Darakht, butta, nimbutta…………………………………………………………………………….. 18

SOHTI HUJAYRAVII ORGANIZMI RASTANI

  • 6. SHinosoi bo asbobhoi kalonnishondihanda……………………………. 20
  • 7. Sokhti hujayrai rastani……………………………………………………….. 22
  • 8. Gunogunshaklii hujayrai rastani…………………………………………. 24
  • 9. Harakati sitoplazma. Ba hujayra dokhilshavii moddaho………… 25
  • 10. Sabzish va taqsimshavii hujayra…………………………………………. 27

TUHM

  • 11. Sokhti tukhmi rastanihoi dupalla va yakpalla…………………………………………. 29
  • 12. Tarkibi tukhm……………………………………………………………………… 31
  • 13. Sabzishi tukhm…………………………………………………………………….. 33
  • 14. Nafasgirii tukhm………………………………………………………………… 36
  • 15. Gizogiri va sabzishi maysa. Mukhdati kisht……………………… 37

RESHA

  • 16. Helhoi resha. Tipi sistemai resha. Hok. Ahamiyagi on baroi hayoti rastaniho. Muhofizati khok …………………………………………………..
  • 17. Sabzishi resha, qismhoi resha ………………………………………………..
  • 18. Obro jabbidani ………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • 19. Harakati ob va moddahoi madani dar rastaniho………………… 48

MUNDARIJA_________________________________________________________________ 5

  • 20. Nuri…………………………………………………………………………………… 50
  • 21. Nafaskashii resha……………………………………………………………….. 51
  • 22. Tagyiri shakli resha…………………………………………………………… 53

NAVDA

  • 23. Navda va mugja……………………………………………………………………. 54
  • 24. Az mugja inkishof yoftani navda………………………………………….. 57
  • 25. Sokhti berunii barg…………………………………………………………….. 59
  • 26. Sokhti hujayravii pahnaki barg…………………………………………… 61
  • 27. Fotosintez. Dar bargho hosil shudani ohar…………………………. 63
  • 28. Dar rushnoi gazi karbonatro furu burda, oksigenro khorij kardani bargkho………………………………………………………………………….. 65
  • 29. Nafasgirii bargho. Obro bukhor kardani bargho…………………. 67
  • 30. Mutobiqshavii rastaniho dar khokhoi nisbatan khushk…………… 71
  • 31. Tagyiri shakli barg. Hazonrez…………………………………………….. 73
  • 32. Ahamiyati rastanii sabz dar tabiat va hayoti inson……………….. 75
  • 33. Poya. Gunogunii poya. Qadkashii poya, shokharony……………………… 76
  • 34. Sokhti darunii poyai darakht…………………………………………………. 78
  • 35. Gafs shudani poya. Hosil shudani solhalqa……………………………. 80
  • 36. Harakati ob, modsahoi madani va organiki

dar tana (poya)……………………………………………………………………… 81

  • 37. Tagyiri shakli navda, reshapoya, lunda, piyozak………………………. 84

AFZOISHI NASHVII RASTANIHOI GULDOR

  • 38. Afzoishi nashvii rastaniho ba vositai navda………………………. 86
  • 39. Afzoishi nashvi ba vositai resha va barg……………………………… 90

GUL VA MEVA

  • 40. Gul. Ahamiyati gul baroi hayoti rastaniho. Sokhti gul…………… 92
  • 41. Tudagul (khushagul)………………………………………………………………. 95
  • 42. Gulro gardolud kardani hasharot, shamol……………………………. 96
  • 43. Suni gardolud kardani gul……………………………………………… 100
  • 44. Bordorshavii rastanihoi guldor……………………………………….. 101
  • 45. Hosil shudani tukhm va meva……………………………………………….. 103

RASTANI – ORGANIZMI ZINDA

  • 46. Funksiyahoi (vazifahoi) asosii hayoti rastaniho…………………. 105
  • 47. Mubodilai moddaho va tabdili energiya…………………………….. 106
  • 48. Aloqai mutakobilai uzvhoi rastani………………………………….. 108
  • 49. Rohhoi harakati moddaho dar rastani……………………………….. 110
  • 50. Zakhirashavi va istifodabarii moddaho……………………………… 111
  • 51. Sabzishi rastaniho. Tanzimi sabzish. Nuqtai sabzish.

Moddahoi zarury baroi sabzish …. ………………………………….. 11 2

  • 52. Harakati rastaniho………………………………………………………… 114
  • 53. Davrahoi hayoti rastaniho: janini, javoni, kamolot,

pironsoli…………….. …………………………………………………………. P6

TAJRIBAHOI LABORATORY……………………………………………………. 118

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