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Kitobi Biologiya va Botanika

Kitobi darsii Biologiya baroi sinfi 9, 10 va 11 baroi hamai khonandagon malum ast, ki az chopi kitobi yakum Biologiya «Inson va sihatii u» ziyoda az 7-sol sipari gashtaast. Dar in muddat dar fanhoi anatomiya, fiziologiya va gigiena tagyirothoi gunogun ba amal omadaand. Az in lihoz zarur donistem, ki ba khonandagoni giromi in navigarihoro dar kitobi mazkur joy dihem.

biologiya-kitobKitob az rui barnomai talimi baroi maktabhoi tahsiloti hamagoni, ki Vazorati maorifi Jumhurii Tojikiston tasdiq kardaast, navishta shudaast. Muallifi in kitob az kulli ustodoni maktabhoi
hamagonii Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi irsol namudani fikru aqidahoi khud oid ba kitobi chopshudai soli 2001 siposguzor ast va dar navbati khud ba qadri imkon hamai kambudihoi peshnihodshudaro dar kitobi nav isloh namudaast.

Az sababi on, ki dar bisyor peshnihodho ustodon khostaand, ki kitobi mazkur «Anatomiya va fiziologiyai odam» nomguzori shavad va mo ba in rozigii khudro bayon menamoem va minbad kitobi nav bo nomi «Anatomiya va fiziologiyai odam» nashr karda meshavad.

Tansihati bakhtu saodati har yak fard buda, sharti asosii rivoj dodani samaranokii mehnati shakhs, puriqtidor namudani iqtisodiyoti mamlakat va farovonii khalq meboshad. Aksari odamon namedonand, ki organizmashon chiguna zakhirahoi ziyodi jismoniyu ruhi dorad, onho dark karda nametavonand, ki in zakhirahoro chi khel istifoda barand va inkishof dihand. Odamon baroi nigoh doshtani salomatii khud pesh az hama sokhti organizmi khud, faoliyati muqararii uzvho, qonuniyathoi inkishof, taraqqiyot va afzoishi onro donistanashon zarur ast. Inchunin baroi nigoh doshtan va takmil dodani khususiyathoi biologi, ki ba monandi digar mavjudot, ba inson niz mansub ast, donistan va tashkili sharoithoi zaruri talab karda meshavad. Baroi donistani onho fanhoi anatomiya, fiziologiya va gigiena yori merasonand:
Anatomiya – az kalimai yunoni girifta shuda, manoyash “jarrohi mekunam va meomuzam” meboshad. Ilmest, ki sokhti organizmi odamro meomuzad.

Fiziologiya – az kalimai yunoni girifta shuda, manoyash “tabiat” ast. Ilmest, ki funksiyai hamai uzvhoi badanro dar purragi va alohidagi meomuzad.
Anatomiya va fiziologiya bayni yakdigar aloqai khelo ham zich dorand. Nadonistani sokhtori in yo on uzv, khususiyati kori vay sababhoi paydoshavii bemorihoi gunogun va faroham naovardani sharoiti mutadili korii onho megardad.

Gigiena – az kalimai yunoni girifta shuda, manoyash “behdoshti salomatii organizm” meboshad. Ba vazifai in fan pesh az hama omuzishi sharoiti hayot, mehnat, istirohati odamon baroi nigoh doshtan, mustahkam namudani salomati, hifz namudan az bemorihoi gunogun dokhil meshavad.

Dar taraqqiyoti in se fan bisyor olimoni buzurg sahmi khudro guzoshtaand. Avvalin shakhse, ki oid ba sokhti badani odam malumoti sershumor dodaast, olim va dukhturi YUnoni qadim Hippokrat (460-377) meboshad. U yake az avvalinho shuda mafhumhoro dar borai sokhti badani inson jam ovardaast.

Badan tabib, faylasufi mashhuri tojik Abuali ibni Sino aqidahoi Hippokratro hamatarafa rivoju ravnaq doda, malumoti sershumorero dar borai bemorihoi gunogun peshnihod kardaast. U dar kitobi mashhuri khud “Al-qonun” (Qonuni tib), ki az panj jild iborat ast, dar borai fanhoi dar bolo nombarshuda hamatarafa malumot dodaast. Kitobi Abuali ibni Sino ziyoda az 600 sol injonib dar tamomi jahon baroi shifokoron dasturamali asosi buda, to hol onro istifoda mebarand. Muvofiqi farmudai Sino ob va havoi
iflos boisi paydoishi bemorihoi gunogun megardad.

Dar taraqqiyoti fanhoi anatomiya va fiziologiya inchunin sahmi olimoni rus N.I. Pirogov, I.M. Sechenov, S.P. Botkin, N.I. Pavlov, V.M. Bekhterev, A.A. Orbeli nazarras ast. Onho avvalin shuda nazariyai «nervizm»-ro kashf kardand va nishon dodand, ki baroi ba hayajon omadan va faol namudani kori organizm sistemai asab roli kalon mebozad va manbai asosii javobi organizm ba angezandahoi beruna va dokhila meboshad.
Sistemai asab kori hamai sistema va uzvhoro tanzim namuda, mutobiqati organizmro ba sharoiti mavjuda tamin menamoyad.

Salomati – vohidi yagonai holathoi biologi, ruhi va jismonii organizmi odam buda, nisbati faoliyati mehnatii har yak shakhs dar muvozinat meboshad. Dar zamoni hozira baroi tashkhisi bemoron asbobhoi hozirazamon mavjudand. Solhoi okhir az nav khuruj kardani bemorihoi siroyatkunanda dar jumhurii mo mushohida karda shud, ki dar natijai on odamoni ziyode favtidand.

Ba mushkiloti iqtisodiyu siyosi nigoh nakarda, davlati sohibistiqloli Tojikiston baroi peshgiri va tamoman az bayn burdani in bemoriho kushishi ziyodero ba kharj dod. Dar muddati kutoh dar jumhurii mo tedodi odamone, ki ba in bemoriho giriftor shudand, hele ziyod shud. Davlati mo gamkhorii khudro makhsusan baroi pironsolon va kudakon dareg namedorad. In imkoniyat medihad, ki nasli oyandai millati mo solim ba voya rasad. Ammo nishondodhoi soli okhir muayyan kard, ki dar jumhurii mo nashamandi afzuda istodaast, ki on va ba nasli oyandai mo zarari kalon merasonad. Hamai mo boyad dar peshgiri va az bayn burdani in bemori ba davlati khud kumak namoem.

Hamin tavr, har yak odami bo sokht va vazifahoi organizmi khud shinos buda, metavonad qoidahoi behdoshti organizmi khudro rioya kunad. Qoidahoi behdoshti shakhsi va jamiyatiro dar amal istifoda burda, shumo metavoned organizmi khudro purquvvat namoed, obutob dihed, khudro az har guna bemoriho emin dored, jisman inkishof yobed, odami bardamu solim va qobilu hamakor boshed va ba vatani azizi khud khizmat kuned.

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