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Kidoriyon

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Surati Kidara dar tanga

Madraki asosi roje ba Kidoriyon (Kashmiriyon) dar akhbori makhazhoi zerin hastand. Dar solnomai Bey-shi rivoyat meshavad, ki hokimi yujiho az hamlai jojho khavf burda, darbori khudro ba shahri Bolo kuchond. «Pas az in podshohi dilovari yujiho Sidolo az kuhhoi baland ubur kardu ba shimoli hinduston hamlavar shud va shimoltar az Gantolo panj davlatro zeri dast ovard». Badi in solnoma voqeahoi soli 424-ro naql mekunad. Az digar rivoyati Bey-shi malum meshavad, ki Sidolo ba nohiyahoi yujihoi sagir ham hukmfarmo budaast, vale soni «khunnho uro pesh kardaand va u ba garb raftaastu» hukumatro ba dasti pisarash dodaast.[1]

CHand nav tangaho hastand, ki dar rui onho ba brahmi «Kidara Kushona sha» navishta shudaast. Hurufoti tanga dalolat mekunad, ki on dar kim-kadom nohiyai janub, dar pasi hindukush barovarda shudaast va muvofiqi malumoti numizmati ba davrai solhoi 390–430 nisbat dorad. A.Bivar in tangahoro tahlil namuda, ba khulosae omad, ki in guna tangahoro pasi ham kamash du hokim sikka mezadand.[2] K.Enoki isbot mekunad, ki Kidoriyon taqriban dar solhoi 412–437 Takhoriston va Qandahorro tasarruf karda budand.[3]

Dar makhazhoi garb (Priski Poni) gufta meshavad, ki «gunnhoe, ki onhoro kidoriyon menomand», solhoi 456 va dar solhoi minbada ziddi Eroni sosoni muboriza burdaand. Dar zeri sanai soli 456 Priski Poni (19) khabar medihad, ki shohi «porti» (yane sosoni) ziddi gunnu kidoriyon mejangid. Hudi hamon makhaz zeri sanai soli 464 menavisad, ki hukumati Sosoniyon chunin iddaoe dosht: «Rimiyon (Vizantiya–B.G.) uhdador shudand, ki agar forsho ziddi gunnu kidoriyon nom toifae ba jang daroyand, yorii puli khohand rasond, zero agar dasti forsho bolo shavad, baroi rimiyon sud hamin meshud, ki gunnhoro (kidoriyonro) rukhsat nameshud ba sarzamini Rim daroyand» (Priski Poni, 25).

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Malum, ki Sidoloi makhazhoi Hitoy (talaffuzi qadimiash (kiwo-tâ-lâ)[4] va Kidorai rui tangaho khudi hamon yak nom ast. Ba har hol, dar borai digar jihathoi masala alhol bo itminon yagon gapi muayyan zada nameshavad. Agar ba makhazi Hitoy bovar kunem, mo ham gufta metavonem, ki kidoriyon kheshi kushoniyon va hatto yak juzi kushoniyon budand, vale in iddaoro digar makhazho tasdiq namekunand. Masalai munosibati kidoriyoni ba hinduston rafta va on kidoriyone, ki ba qavli Prisk, ziddi Sosoniyon jangidaand, mutlaqo noravshan ast. CHand farziyai zarifona peshnihod shudaast, muvofiqi yake az in farziyaho kidoriyonu khiyoniyon qarib yak toifaand va azbaski khiyoniyon ba nom tobei shohi kidoriyon budand, binobar in onhoro ham «kidoriyon»[5] menomidand. Malumote hast, ki Kidoriyon hanuz soli 477 az Gandhara ba Hitoy hayati saforat firistodaand.[6]

[1] Bichurin, II, s. 264–266.

[2] Ghirshman R., 1948, r. 78–79; Iivar A.D.N., 1956, 26–27; Lukonin V.G, 1967, s. 32–33.

[3] Unoki K., 1959, r. 11.

[4] Pulliot R., 1934, r. 43.

[5] Mandelshtam A. M., 1958.

[6] Unoki K., 1959, r. 27. Ba ravli vay, dar bayni solhoi 477–520 {aytoliyon dar Gandhara Kidoriyonro torumor kardaand (Unoki K.,  1955  b, r. 236; 1958, r. 1).

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