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Kartoshka ziroati muhimi khurok

Kartoshka ziroati muhimi khuroki, tekhniki va khuroki chorvost

Kartoshka yake az mavodi asosii khuroki inson ba hisob meravad. Behuda nest, ki mardum kartoshkaro “noni duyum” menomand. Muqarrar karda shudaast, ki az kartoshka ziyoda az 200 khel taom tayyor kardan mumkin ast. Inchunin dar sanoat az kartoshka ohar, kauchuk, kogaz, rang, spirt va gayraho hosil mekunand. Dar tib niz baroi tabobati kasalihoi gunogun az on istifoda mebarand. Bar zammi in, kartoshka khuroki sergizoi chorvo ba hisob meravad. Hulosa, kartoshka ziroati purarzishi gizoi, tekhniki va khuroki chorvo ba hisob rafta, khususiyathoi khubi tabobati dorad.

Surati Kartoshka
Surati Kartoshka

Kartoshka (tushka niz meguyand)  yake az rastanihoi lundabandanda (lundahosilkunanda) ba hisob rafta, ba oilai avranjiho taalluq dorad. Lunda navdai shakldigarkardai zerizaminii kartoshka buda, dar on moddahoi gizoi zakhira meshavad. Lundahoi kartoshka shaklkhoi gunogun doshta, dar aksari holatho shakli mudavvar va yo darozruya dorand. Lundaho az berun bo pusti tunuki kletchatkagi pushida shudaand. Pust lundaro az khushkshavi va tasiri zanburughoi kasaliovar muhofizat mekunad.

Dar sathi berunii lundai kartoshka chashmakchakho joygirand. CHashmakchaho bargi inkishofnayofta buda, az bagalbuni onho mugjahs paydo meshavand. Dar niholi kartoshka ba juz lundaho dar qabati khok boz reshaho inki- shof meyoband, ki odatan dar qabati bolotari khok shokha meronand. Az chashmak mugjahoi lundai kartoshka az 4 to 8 poya bo barghoyash ba rui zamin sabzida mebaroyand. Barghoi kartoshka par- monand meshavand. Guli onho rangi safed, kabud yo bunafsh dorad.

Har gul az 5 kosabarg, 5 gulbarg, 5 gardbarg va 1 mevadon iborat ast. Gul khud az khud gardolud shuda, mevai sabzi serob hosil mekunad. Dar meva, poya va pusti lundai kartoshka moddai zahrnok solanin gun meshavad. Hususan, miqdori solanin dar vaqti nashunamoi kartoshka khele ziyod ast. Az meyor ziyod budani solanin dar lundakartoshkai khuroki baroi salomatii odamon va hayvonot khavfnok ast. Bo pukhta rasidani lundai kartoshka miqdori solanin kam shuda, khavfi zahroludkunii on bartaraf meshavad.

Dar lundai kartoshka ohar (20,7 foiz), safeda (2 foiz), ravgan (0,1 foiz), namakhoi madani va vitaminhoi gunogun mavjud meboshand.

Kartoshka ba digar mamlakatho aslan az CHili va kuhsori Peru pahn gardidaast. Dar avval kartoshka chun rastanii oroishi shuhrat dosht. Tanho dar okhiri asri 17 dar Avrupo kartoshkaro baroi lundai khurdaniash parvarish mekardagi shudand.

Dar Tojikiston ba parvarishi kartoshka dar miyonai asri 19 shuru kardand. Holo kartoshka chun yake az ziroathoi asosi dar ta momi nohiyahoi jumhuriamon kisht karda meshavad. Kishovarzon; jumhuriamon dar parvarishu nigohubini kartoshka sohibtajriba buda, hosili balandi dilkhoh meruyonand. Dar aksari khojagihoi dehqoni az har gektar kartoshkazor 150-180 sentner hosil meruyonand.

Kartoshka navhoi gunogun dorad. Dar Tojikiston beshtar navhoi Rannyaya roza, Lorkh, Berlingen, Polyot, Kardinal va gay- raho kisht karda meshavand.

Afzoishi kartoshka. Agar tukhmi mevai kartoshkaro kisht kunem, az on nihol mesabzad, vale lundahoyash nihoyat khurd meshavand. Binobar on, kartoshkaro na az tukhmash, balki az lundahoyash ba tavri nashvi afzoish medihand.

Baroi koshtan lundahoi solimu benuqsro intikhob mekunand, ki vazni miyonai onho az 60 to 80 g boshad. Az hama behtarash kartosh- kai tukhmiro dar joi garmu ravshan nigoh medorand (taqriban 30 ruz to koshtani on). Dar in muddat chashmakmugjahoi kartoshka ba sabzish sar mekunand. In mukhdat sabzishi kartoshkaro tezonida dar muddati kutoh ba dast ovardani hosili barvaqtiro tamin meku- nad.

Dar ravshani lundai kartoshka sabzrang meshavad. CHunin lundahoi rangi sabz paydokarda qobiliyati ba kasaliho tobovari doshta, az onho rastanii solimu purquvvat mesabzad.

Baroi dar khok shinondan lundai kartoshkaro ba bakhshho taqsim mekunand va dar in holat boyad dar har bakhsh (yo qismi po]eashuda) 2-3 chashmakmugja boshad.

Lundai kartoshka dar holati 18—20°S garm budani harorati khok nagz nesh mezanad. Dar harorati 20-25°S boshad, vay boz behtar mesabzad. Kartoshka ba khunuki tobovar nest. Dar harorati — 3°S budani havo nobud meshavad.

Kartoshka ziroati rushnoidust buda, dar ayyomi gulshukuftash ba ob talaboti kalon dorad. Narkhi kartoshka solkhoi 2015-2019 az 1 somoni to  2,5 somoni ast, ki in vobasta ba fasli sol ast.

Pesh az kishti kartoshka zaminro shudgor va mola karda, nurihoi madani meandozand. Dar nohiyahoi nisbatan garmi jumhuriamon kartoshkai bahoriro okhirhoi oktyabr — avvali noyabr yo nimai du- yumi fevral-avvali mart mekorand. Lundahoi kartoshkai tukhmiro, ki dar fasli tiramoh mekorand, baroi dar zimiston khunuk naza- danash dar chuqurii 15—17 sm meshinonand. Kartoshkai tiramohi- ro, odatan, dar nimai duyumi mohi iyun-avvalhoi iyul dar chuqurii 6—8 sm meshinonand. Dar nohiyahoi kuhi kishti kartoshka dar mohi aprel va avvalhoi may ba maqsad muvofiq ast. Koshtani kartoshka beshtar dasti va dar khojagiho boshad, bo moshinhoi kartoshkashi- noni, anjom doda meshavad.

Dar davrai nashunamoi kartoshka bekhi niholhoi onro narm va khokgardon karda, az alafhoi begona toza mekunand.

Muvofiqi tavsiyai mutakhassison dar sharoiti jumhuriamon kar- toshkazorro pas az har 5—6 ruz obyori mekunand. Dar tamomi davrai nashunamoyash boshad, taqriban 14—15 marotiba obyori karda meshavad.

Baroi ruyondani hosili farovoni kartoshka ba kishtzor poru va nurihoi madani meandozand. Ba jamovarii hosili kartoshka hamon vaqt sar mekunand, ki agar barghoi kartoshka zard va pusti lundahoash gafs shuda boshand.

  1. Kartoshka mansubi kadom oila ast?
  2. Sokhti guli kartoshka chi guna ast?
  3. Ahamiyati gizoi, khuroki va tekhnikii kartoshkaro manidod kuned?
  4. Baroi sabzishi kartoshka chi guna sharoit lozim ast?
  5. Afzoishi kartoshka chi tavr surat megirad?
  6. Lundai kartoshka kadom uzvi shakldigarkarda ba hisob meravad?
  7. Dar sharoiti Tojikiston muhlati kishti kartoshkaro chi tavr muqarrar mekunand?
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