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Kanishka va ravnaqi davlati Kushon

Mashhurtarin shohi Kushon — Kanishka meboshad. Tahlili nomi vay dar ilm boisi mubohisavu munozirai durudaroze gardid. G.Beyli izhori andesha kard, ki qismi avvali in nom az kalimai «kan» («khurd, javon») baromadaast va manoi tamomi kalima «javontarin» yo «khurdtarin» ast[1]. V.B.henning ham ba in fikr rozi, vale bar khilofi G.Beyli, vay ba suffiks manoi digar dod[2]. V.V.Ivanov taklif kard, ki suffiks takhori va khudi kalima kalimai mushtaraki forsu takhori shumurda shavad[3].

Agar manoi nomi Kanishka to ba hol aniq muayyan nashuda boshad, masalai muayyan namudani sanai ahdi vay az on ham mushkiltar ast. Zarofati farziyavu takhminhoi sershumor joi malumoti aniqro girifta nametavonad. Sanahoi nihoyat mukhtalif az soli 78 sar karda, to soli 278 milodi peshnihod shudaand. Dar vaqthoi okhir numizmathoi ham soveti va ham khoriji sanahoi sonitari (yo nisbatan sonitari) ibtidoi ahdi Kanishkaro durusttar meguyand, vale dar omadi gap, in aqidai onho boisi etirozi sakhti muqobiloni onho gardidaast. Az afti kor, bozyofthoi nav, alalkhusus bozyofthoi arkheologi in masalaro ravshan khohand kard, vale alhol in masala ba kuchai ravshani yo muayyani nazdik ham nashudaast. Inak, barobari sanai Kanishka, sanahoi ahdi digar shohoni Kushon ham az «asre ba asre chorkhez mekunand».

Muvofiqi malumoti mavjuda ahdi Kanishka kamash 23 sol davom doshtaast. Dar ahdi vay vusat va tamarkuzi minbadai mulkhoi hindustonii Kushon ba vuqu payvast: Panjob, Kashmir, Sind, Uttor Pradesh (dar sharq to khudi Banoras) dar tahti hokimiyati vay bud. Poytakhti davlat shahri Purushapura (Pishovuri hozira) qaror yoft[4].

Sarzamini davlati Kushon dar ahdi Kanishka bo yak khudi shimoli hinduston mahdud nashuda, qarib tamomi Afgoniston, bisyor nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona va Turkistoni sharqiro dar bar megirift.

Syuan-Szan navishta bud: «Peshtar, zamone ki Kanishka podshohi mekard, shuhrati vay dar davlathoi hamsoya pahn shud va iqtidori harbii uro hama etirof menamudand. SHohzodagone, ki dar kishvarhoi garbtari Hitoy budand, ba Kanishka itoat doshtand va ba in podshoh garavihoi khudro mefiristondand»[5].

Dar katibai soli 262-umi milodii shohi Sosoniyon — SHopuri I dar «Kabai Zardusht» gufta meshavad, ki tuli Kushonshahr to Pishovur (?), Kosh (Qoshgar yo Kesh – SHahrisabz), Sugd va hududi CHoch bud[6]. YOdgorihoi arkheologi va bozyofti tangaho imkon medihand bo kamoli itminon guem, ki nohiyahoi janubi Tojikistoni hozira (az jumla, Pomir) va Uzbekiston, inchunin vodii Zarafshon, beshak, dar hayati davlati Kanishka budand. Az ehtimol dur nest, ki dar davrai avji taraqqiyoti davlati Kushon Fargona ham dar hayati on, yo khud dar zeri tasiri on bud, in nuktaro dar haqqi nohiyahoi majroi mobayni daryoi Sir ham guftan mumkin ast. Dar in bobat dar borai Horazm yagon gapi aniq zadan mumkin ne: iddaoi mavjud budani «Horazmi kushoni», ki dar adabiyot bisyor ba nazar merasad, alhol asosi mustahkam nadorad.[7]

rumDar bobati Turkistoni sharqi boshad, hatto sarchashmahoi garazomezi khitoi etirof menamoyand, ki in mamlakat muddate dar hayati davlati yujiho, yane Kushoniyon bud. Avval Kushoniyon va Hitoi khannho robitai dusti doshtaand. Vale badtar darbori khannho bo rohi khiyonat hayati saforati Kushoniyonro ba habs megirad. Dar natija janghoi bisyore meshavad. Dar nihoyati kor, dar ibtidoi asri II erai nav ba Kushoniyon muyassar shud ba takhti Sule (Qoshgar) volii khudro bardorand[8] va hokimoni in mamlakat az yujiho «metarsidand»[9].

Dar natijai mavhumii khronologiyai Kushoniyon alhol malum ne, ki in janghoi Kushonu Hitoy dar ahdi Kanishka shudaand yo dar ahdi niyogoni vay.[10] Makhazhoi hindi, ham ishgoli Tarim nom viloyati Turkistoni sharqi va ham galaba dar garb bar porthoro bo nomi Kanishka aloqamand kardaand.[11]

Hamai in dalolat ba on dorad, ki Kanishka tavonist na faqat khoki davlati khudro vusat dihad, balki, az afti kor, ba kalontarin davlathoi hamsoya zarbahoi sakht zanad.

Rivoyathoi buddoi nomi Kanishkaro bo dini buddoi sakht vobasta kardaand. Muvofiqi in rivoyat Kanishka ba dini buddoi guzashta, payravi mahkametiqodi in din shud. Vay binovu inshoothoi sershumori dini buddoi – stupaho, vihorho va gayra sokht. Rivoyat hast, ki Anjumani Sevumi buddoi mahz bo tashabbusi u jam shudaast.

Albatta, dar in rivoyathoi buddoi igroqu muhobot bisyor ast, vale baze nuktahoi on dar makhazho ham zikr shudaast. Masalan, Beruni khabar medihad, ki Kanishka dar Pishovur Kanikchaytya nom mabade sokhta budaast.[12]

Beshak, asosi hama rivoyat yagon hodisavu voqeai reali ast. Dar in bobat, chunin fakt jolibi diqqat meboshad; yake az niyogoni Kanishka shohi Kushon Vima Kadfiz dar tangahoi khud faqat yak khudoi hinduho–SHivaro tasvir mekard. Vale dar tangahoi Kanishka va vorisi vay Huvishka rasmi in khudo boshad ham, dar bayni rasmhoi si khudoi digar joi nazarnogire dorand.[13] Dar bayni in khudoho rasmi Buddo va katibai «Buddo» va «Buddo SHakyamuni» hastand.

Dar tangahoi Kanishka digar khudoho, masalan, khudohoi antiqi ham tasvir shudaand. Dar bayni in khudoho khudohoi keshi zardushtiya – khudoi galaba va bod Veretragna, Anahitoi mashhur, khudoi oftob va galaba Mitra, ramzi sarvat va hukmi podshohi Farro barin khudoho ba nazar merasand. Vale olimon ba yak aqida naomadaand, ki in serkhudoi inikosi avzoi haqiqii dini Kushoniyon ast yo sababi on maqsadi siyosi meboshad, yane bo hamin roh tabaqahoi gunoguni davlati bekanori Kushonro dilgarm kardani budand. Mahz dar ahdi Kanishka bori avval dar tangaho ba zaboni bokhtari (na yunoni) navishtajote paydo shud, ki bo namudi kushonii khatti yunoni ijro shuda bud. In navigarii Kanishka khele bamavrid baromad, ki minbad ham dar tangahoi kushoni istifoda meshud.

Hulosa, dar ahdi Kanishka dar sohai madaniyati manavi digargunihoi kalon ba vuqu omad, dar barobari khele ozod budani digar dinho dini buddoi etibori beshtare paydo karda, ba on khudi podshoh ham mutaqid meshavad, zaboni bokhtari ahamiyati beshtare paydo karda, az afti kor, ba zaboni rasmi (yo khud ba yake az zabonhoi rasmi) mubaddal megardad.

Dar ahdi Kanishka tanga bisyor barovarda meshud. hunarmandi va tijorat ravnaq meyobad. Davlati Kushon ba avji iqtidori khud merasad. Vale dar ayni hol, tasiri digar quvvahoi markazgurez zur meshavad, yane benihoyat gunogun budani mulkhoi hayati davlati Kushon, muqobilati baze hokimon va siyosati tajovuzkoronai davlati Sosoniyon, ki dar rui kharobahoi davlati Port dar Eron ba vujud omada (soli 226 erai mo), aknun quvvat megirift, amniyati davlati Kushonro khalaldor mekardand.

Tanazzuli davlati Kushon. Kushoniyon va Sosoniyon

Muvofiqi katibahoi hindi badi Kanishka ba takht Vasishka nishast, vale tangae bo nomi u nest, tangahoe hastand, ki dar onњo Hoerko (aslan Hoeshko, zero dar khatti bokhtari ovozi «sh» bo «r» ifoda meshud) zikr shudaast va uro az rui dar katiba chi guna talaffuz shudanash Huvishka[14] meguyand. Vay ziyoda az si sol hukmroni kardaast. Az jumlai digar shakhsone, ki tuloni dar sari idorai davlat nishasta budand, Vasudevaro nom burdan lozim. Dar ahdi Vasudeva az rasmhoi khudohoi bisyori rui tangaho boz faqat rasmi SHiva memonad. Zimnan, chi tavre E.V.Zeymal ham ba in ishorat kardaast, dar tangahoi Vasudeva (chunonchi, dar tangahoi Vima Kadfiz) rasmi SHiva chunon kashida shudaast, ki ba navhoi sonitari tasviroti vay khos buda, ba hamon firqai shivaizm mansub ast, ki digar khel dinhoro bo taassubi tamom mutlaqo etirof namekard.[15]

Dar bolo khotirnishon namudem, ki davlati Sosoniyoni Eron quvvat megirift. SHohi Sosoniyon SHopuri I (solhoi 242-272 e. n.) solhoi 40-umi asri III e. n. ba sharq lashkar mekashad. Dar katibai khud SHopur va vorisoni u khudro «shohoni Sakiston, Turiston va hinduston to karonai daryo» nomidaand.[16]

Ba fikri V.G.Lukonin, ba SHopuri I, darvoqe, muyassar shudaast, ki az afti kor, tanho nohiyahoi durdasti sobiq davlati Port, az jumlai Marv va Siistonro ba khud tobe namoyad.

Dar bolo katibai soli 262-umi «Kabai Zardusht»-ro roje ba Kushonshahr zikr karda budem. Dar in katiba pesh az ruykhati nohiyaho (az jumlai onho Kushonshahr) SHopuri I meguyad, ki «hukmam ravost» va badi ruykhat boshad, ilova mekunad: «hamai onho boj medodand va itoat doshtand». Aqidae hast, ki ehtimol Kushonshahr khudash dar hayati davlati Sosoniyon naboshadu faqat bojdehi on boshad[17], vale odatan, chunin meshumorand, ki Kushonshahr dar hayati davlati Sosoniyon bud[18]. Kushonshahr chi qadar dar hayati davlati Sosoniyon bud?

In alhol muammoi halnoshudani meboshad (shoyad, ki in ba shohoni sosoni itoat doshtani hokimoni Kushon boshad). Habari sarchashmaho ba yakdigar muvofiqat nadorand va hatto khilofi hamdigarand. Az yak taraf, muarrikhi arab Tabari menavisad, ki nakhust az Sosoniyon Ardasheri I Marv, Balkh, Horazmro «to hududi aqsoi Huroson»[19] zabt kardaast. Odatan in khabarro durust meshumorand va tanho baze olimon ba on shak dorand[20]. Agar farz kunem, ki khabari Tabari durust ast va asli manoi navishtajoti «Kabai Zardusht» hamon meboshad, pas ba in nuktaho yak shahodate, ki az makhazhoi monaviya barmeoyad, khilof meshavad.

Asosguzori mazhabi monaviya Moni dar miyonahoi solhoi 70-umi asri III ba sharq Maar Ummo nom voizero firistoda bud. In voiz az Huroson guzashta, ba hududi Kushon rasid, badtar rivoyat hast, ki ba Zamba (Zamm–shahr va uburgohest dar Amudaryo dar qaribii Karkii hozira) omadaast. Az afti kor, okhirin mahalli sayohati Maar Ummo–shahri Varuchan (dar qaribii Balkh) dar zeri hokimiyati shohoni Kushon yo khud shoyad dar zeri hokimiyati olii davlati Sosoniyon bud yo ba on itoat dosht.[21]

Hulosa, ba Sosoniyon ba har hol muyassar shudaast, ki ba Kushoniyon zarbai sakht zanand va qismi bisyori mulkhoi onhoro kashida girand. Vale kay?

Masalai sanai az davlati Sosoniyon shikast khurdani davlati Kushon be halli masalai muayyan namudani sanai sosonukushoni va kushonusosoni nom tangaho hal karda nameshavad. Ba tadqiqi in masala A.Kanningem, E.hersfeld, A.Bivar, V.G.Lukonin, R.Gyobl barin muarrikhon va numizmatho mashgul shudaand. YAk qismi in tangaho misli tangahoi sosoni sikka zada meshudand. Dar in tangaho bo zaboni forsii miyona khat hast. In tangahoro zarrobkhonahoi Marv va hirot mebarovardand. Digar khel tangaho misli tangahoi davrahoi okhiri davlatii Kushon barovarda meshudu dar onho nomi Vasudeva bud. Hati in tangaho ham ba zaboni forsii miyona, vale on bo hurufoti kushoni navishta shudaast va zimnan, dar bazei onho kalimai «Bakhlo» (yane Balkh) hast. Ba takhmini E.hersfeld, hamai tangahoe, ki ba tangahoi Kushoniyon shabohat dorand, dar Balkh[22] sikka zada meshudand, hatto hamon tangaho, ki dar onho nomi shahr nest, niz az Balkh mebaromadand. Vale Bivar in iddaoro haqqoni zeri shak monda, aqidae izhor namud, ki zarrobkhonai asosi dar qaribihoi Kobul voqe bud[23].

Dar yake az tangaho chunin katibae hast: «Mumini Mazdak, podshohi hurmuzd, shahanshohi azam» va ilova bar in nomi zarrobkhonai Marv zikr shudaast. Dar digar tangaho nomhoi Ardasher, Piruz, Varohran ba nazar merasad. Peshtar baze olimon, az jumla, E.hersfeld takhmin doshtand, ki farz kardem hurmuzdi tangahoi kushonusosoni in hamon shahanshohi Eron hurmuzdi II (solhoi 302–309) ast va gayravu va hokazo. Dar natijai tahlili mufassali tarikhi V.G.Lukonin ba chunin khulosa omad, ki in tavr bevosita ayniyat dodan galat ast. Vay isbot mekunad, ki tangahoi kushonusosoni (va ham sosonukushoni)-ro shohzodagoni Eron (ki baze az onho umuman shahanshohi Eron nashudaand) az miyonahoi asri IV to miyonai asri U-umi milodi mebarovardand.[24]

Qabuli in nukta ba andozae taqviyati aqidai sanahoi sonitari ahdi shohoni Kushon va zavoli davlati Kushon ast, yane in sana na asri III, balki asri IV meshavad. Vale dalelhoe hastand, ki farziyai V.G.Lukoninro rad mekunand. Alhol khulosai qati barovardan mumkin nest. Zavoli davlati Kushon kori yakbora nabud, balki amale bud, ki dar muddati tuloni, bo tasiri sababhoi beruni va dokhili ba vuqu mepayvast.

Mo munosibati Kushoniyon va davlati Sosoniyonro dida baromadem. Vale davlati Kushon majbur bud, ki ziddi chandin samt muboriza barad va dar dokhili khudi Kushoniyon ham kim-chi khel joyivazkunii quvvaho ba amal meomadaast. Az jumla, dar in bora solnomai khitoi dalolat mekunad: «…SHohi dilovari yujiho Sidolo bo lashkari khud az kuhhoi baland guzashta, ba hindustoni shimoli hamla kard va panj davlatro, ki shimoltari Gantolo (yane Qandahor) voqe budand, zabt namud».[25] «SHoh Sidolo» nomi khitoii Kidara nom hokimi Kushoniyon ast, ki dar nimai duvum yo aniqtarash dar okhiri asri IV dar qismi ziyodi davlati peshtarai Kushon hukmi khudro jori karda bud. Dar ayni hol, yak qismi Osiyoi Miyonaro qabilahoi navomadai khiyoniho zabt kardand. Nihoyat hokimiyat ba dasti haytoliyon guzasht. Janghoi doimii asrhoi IV–V ahvoli Osiyoi Miyonaro nihoyat taboh kardand.

[1] Iailuy N. W.,1968.

[2] Hunning W. V., 1965, s. 83–84.

[3]Ivanov V. V., 1965.

[4] Sinkha N.K., Banorji A.J., 1954, s.81; Sircar D.S., 1953, r.141. Baze olimon dar asosi tahlili katibai Kanishka baze marhalahoi taskhiri {induston va vusati khoki davlati uro muayyan kardaniand (Puri V. N.. 1965, r. 37 va kharita).

[5] Si-Yu-Ki, p. 173.

[6] Sprungling M., 1953, R. 7, 14; Lukonin V. G., 1967, s. 16, 1964 a, s. 30-31.

[7] Dar borai muboњisa oid ba in masala nig.: Tolstov S. P.,1948 b, s. 151; Staviskiy B.YA., 1961, s. 111-112; Masson V. M., 1966 v va digaron.

[8] Tafsiloti in masalaro nig.: Vasilev L.S., 1955.

[9] Bichurin II, s. 232; Chavannus E., 1907, r. 205.

[10] Pulluyilank E., 1906-1968, r. 117-121.

[11] Ghirshman R., 1946, r. 145-146.

[12] Beruni, 1963, s.360.

[13] Zeymal E. V., s. 40-41.

[14] Dar borai davrai hukmronii Huvishka malumot kam ast, binobar in davoi B.N.Puri – «ahdi Huvishka, ehtimol, davrai az hama mutararrii tarikhi Kushon meboshad» (Puri V. N., 1965, r. 16), yagon asosi reali nadorad.

[15] Zeymal E.V., 1965, s. 14. Dar borai avzoi shivaizm dar davrai Kushoniyon nig.: Puri V. N., 1965, r. 138–139.

[16] Lukonin V. G., 1969, s. 34–37.

[17] Dar hamon jo, s. 31.

[18] ITN, I, s. 367; Livshis V. A., 1969, s. 56.

[19] Nölduku Th., 1879, s. 17–18.

[20] Lukonin V. G., 1969 a, saњ. 22–27.

[21] Matnhoi Moni roje ba in sayohat az tarafi V.V.{enning (1944, r. 85–90, 1950, r.94) tadrir shudaand.

[22] Nurzfuld E., 1931, r. 11.

[23] Iivar A. D. N, 1956, r. 17.

[24] Lukonin V. G., 1967.

[25] Bichurin, II, saњ.264.

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