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QURON – KITOBI MUQADDASI MUSULMONON

Har yak din doroi qoidaho va talimoti makhsuss meboshad, ki dar kitobi muqaddasi on din darj gardidaast. Masalan, kitobi muqaddasi zardushtiyon – Avasto, yahudiyon-Tavrot va masehiyon Injil meboshad. Kitobi muqaddasi musulmononi tamomi jahon Quroni majid meboshad. In kitob mavridi etiqodu ehtiromi bepoyopi musulmononi tamomi jahon ast. Dar khona az rui etiqod Quroi boyad dar joi toza va baland nigoh doshta shavad va pesh az ba dast giriftani kitobi muqaddas boyad odobi makhsusi on rioya gardad. Quroni karim dar nimai avvali asri VII nozil shudaast.

Quroni karim kitobest doroi kalkalomi olohi. On, mutobiqi rivoyatho vahyi ba Muhammad salallohu alayhi vasallam /a/ rasidaro faro giriftaast. On «vahyi az Alloh taolo ba vositai Jabrail (a) ba Muhammad /s/ rasidaast.

quron

Holathoe, ki suraho ba Muhammad /s/ vahy meshudand, muvofiqi rivoyatho gunogun meboshand; avvalan, bevosita dar bemori dar vokhuri bo Jabrail, soniyan, ba vositai shunidani ovoze az gayb, solisan, dar khob.

Muallifoni islomi ba tarzhoi mukhtalif vahyi Muhammad /s/ giriftaro sharhu tafsir medihand. YAke vahyro khosi holati ruhi, digare onro baroi anbiyo dar hama mavrid joiz va olitarin zinai marifat medonand,  Doir ba in masala dar bayni raviyahoi gunoguni mazhabi, falsafi sharhu  bayonhoi mukhtalif vujud dorand. Az jumla ashariya, mutaziliya, moturidiya, sunni, shia, ismoiliya, maktabhoi fihhi: hanafiya, hanbaliya, molikiya, shofiiya va gayra fikrhoi mukhtalif bayon kardaand. Paydoishi kitobi “muqaddas”, abadiyatu hodisiyati /ofarinishi/ bahshoi beshtaru domanadortarero ba vujud ovardaast.

Dar asrhoi miyona bahs piromuni azaliyat /qadim budan/ va makhluqiyati /hodis budani/ Quron khele vusat paydo namud. On hatto az doirai bahsi goyavi berun rafta, dar baze mavrid zadukhurdhoi siyosi, nizovu kashmakashhoi mazhabiro dar bayni jarayonu firqahoi gunogun ba vujud ovard. Dar natija har kadome az onho, vaqte ki qudrati siyosi ba dast meovardand, mukholifoni khudro ba kufru bidat gunahkor sokhta, aqidai khudro ba onho tahmil mekardand va hatto jisman mahv menamudand. Masalan, dar davrai ziyod shudani nufuzi mutazila dar zamoni hukmronii khalifa Mamun /asri IX/ tarafdoroni aqidai qadimiyat ba azobu shikanja giriftor shudand. Mutaziliyon, yak nav mahkamaero bo nomi «mehna» (mehnat) baroi tazibi (azob dodan, yake az shaklhoi inkvizitsiya) mukholifonashon ba vujud ovarda budand va  baraks, badi ziyod shudani nufuzi ashariya, mutaziliho mavridi taqib qaror giriftand. Mutaziliho Quronro hodis shumurda, onro ofaridai khudo medonistand, vale ashariya va tamomi ahli kalom qadimu azali budani Quroni karimro takid mekardand.

Ba tahqiqi tarikhi paydoishi Quron va sharhi ilmii on dar SHarqu Garb muhaqqiqoni ziyode dast zadaand. Hususan khovarshinosoni Garb ba tahlili filologiyu tarikhii manba ziyod mashgul gashtaand.

Tahqiqi masoili islomi va manbai asosii on – Quroni karim az asrhoi miyona Sar karda, khele vusat paydo mekunad va khususan dar davrai Ehyo asare, ki dar asri XVII dar Evropa shuhratu nufuze dosht, asari muarrikhi anglis Vilyam Myur «Hilofat – paydoish, tanazzul va inqiroz» bud. Asari digari hamin muallif doir ba tarjumai holi Muhammad /s/ khele nufuzi ziyode dar doirahoi ilmi paydo kard. Dar omuzishi filologiyu tarikhii Quron hissai ziyodi Avgust Myuller,

Neldeke, Kremer, Goldsier, Genrikh Lammens, D. Erbelo, Kaetani, Bro-kelman, Masse, Mets va gayra guzoshtand. Adadi in muhaqqiqon khele ziyod ast. Asarhoi onho jihathoi gunoguni talimoti Quronro tahlil kardaast.

Quron kayho boz ba aksari zabonhoi kishvarhoi avrupoi tarjuma va nashr shudaast. Avvalin tarjumai purrai Quron dar Evropa dar asri XII az tarafi Venerable ba lotini anjom giriftaast.

Az tarjumahoi behtarini dar asri mo anjom girifta, tarjumahoi anglisii Richard Vell /1937-1954/, Artur Arberri /1953-1955/, fransavii Riji Blasher /1959/ va gayraro nombar kardan mumkin ast.

Az sharqshinosi rus, ki ba tadqiqu tarjumai Quron mashgul shudaand, G.Sablukov, V.V.Bartold, YU.A.Krachkovskiy «a gayra meboshand. Bisyor muhaqqiqoni rus dar mavridi tadqiqi islom doir ba tarikhi paydoishi Quron fikrhoi mufid bayon kardaand. Asarhoi purqimati sharqshinosoni marufi rus P.Svetkov, S’.Glagolov, Krimskiy A.CH. va gayra dar omukhtanu tadqiqi Quron kumak mekunand.

Az muarrikhoni asrimiyonagii SHarqi nazdiku Miyona Ibni Nadim, Tabari, Ibni Masud, Ibn al-Asir, Ibn al – Qifti, Ibni Hurdedbeh, Ibni Ibni Hallikon, Miskavayh va gayra doir ba Quron risolahoi makhsus talif namudaand. Adadi ulamo, peshvoyonu ideologhoi mazhabu jamoathoi dini, ki imruz dar kishvarhoi SHarqi khoriji dar borai Quron tadqiqot mebarand va asarho ejod mekunand, khele ziyod ast. Faqat haminro zikr kardaniem, ki alhol az markazhoi tadqiqotiyu

tashkilothoi islomi, Tashkilothoi konferensiyai islomi, Kongressi islomi, Jomeai islomii Pokiston, universiteti Al-Azhar, havzai ilmii Qum, Ligai jahoni islom ba tahqiqi Quron va maqomi on dar hayoti manavii khalqhoi SHarqi Nazdiku Miyona mashguland. Ahamiyati ziyodero baroi fahmidani mazmuni Quron tafsirho bozi mekunand. Az muhimtarin va barjastatarin tafsirhoe, ki dar bayni musulmonomi Osiyoi Miyona, Afgoniston, qisman Eron shuhrat dorand, tafsirhoi Tabari, Hoja Abdullohi Ansori, Tirmizi, Husayni Voizi Koshifi, Bayzovi, Jalolayn hastand. In tafsirho ba du guruh judo meshavand, tafsirhoe, ki ba zaboni arabi va tafsirhoe, ki ba forsi talif shudaand.

Ilova bar in dar bayni payravoni baze firqayu guruhhoi mazhabi, az jumla ismoiliya va sufiya tavili Quron maruf ast, ki on ham yak navi tafsir ast. Ba tahlilu tarjumai Quron imruz ham bisyor muhaqiqon, dast mezanand. Hususan dar olami SHarq, dar du dahsolai okhir miqdori chunin tadqiqotho duchand gashtaand. Aksari onho ba ravshan sokhtani qimati farhangi, ilmi va dinii, Quron ravona shudaand.

Az tarikh malum ast, ki paygambarii Muhammad (s) dar chihilsolagii on pshapsh on Hazrat shuru shuda bud. Rivoyathoi muarrikhoni islomi ogozi chunin faoliyatro ba ilhomi ilohi, ki ba Muhammad furud omada bud va vahye, ki Jabrail /a/ ba Mukhammad /s/ dar gori Hiro va sipas dar manzilash rasonida bud, aloqamand medonand.

Dar rivoyatho ovarda shudaand, ki Muhammad dar gor az mardum duri justavu gushanishini mekard va bore ba tars az khob bedor mesha-nad, ki in tars az haybati Jabrail /a/ budaast. In hodisaro ba zanash Hadicha naql mekunad sipas chunin hodisa borho takror meshavad va nihoyat muloqoti Jabrail /a/ bo Muhammad /s/ barpo megardad. Payvas- bo didanu shunidani Jabrail /a./ az vahy ogohi meyobad. In mu-loqotho goh dar bedori va dar khob, ki onro muallifoni islomi ruyoi

Muhammad /ruyoi sodiqa/ menomand, barpo meshavand. Dar davrai hayoti Muhammad /s/ Quroni karim dar shakli kitobe tartib doda nashuda bud. Hamai masalahoro Muhammad /s/ az rui maqomi khud hamchun paygambar hallu fasl menamud.

Bad az vafoti payombar Muhammad (SAV) /dar soli 632/ zarurati chunin kor ba vujud omad. Oyathoi Quronro, ki az tarafi Muhammad /s/ ba zabon ovarda shuda budand, dar vaqtash kotibon sabt karda budand. Hudi Muhammad /s/ chizero bo dasti khud nanavishtaast.

Az in jo masalai savod doshtan va nadoshtani Muhammad /s/ niz mavridi bahsi baze az ulamo gardidaast. Dar har surat hazrati Muhammad /s/ ba gufti muhaqqiqoni islomi va Kuroni karim ummi, yane besavod bud.

Avvalin tartibi az khud kardani Quron shunidani suraho va oyatho az zaboni hazrati Muhammad /s/ bud. Hudi u ba yoronu nazdikonash oyathoro meguft, onhoro shifohan talim medod va chandin nafar az onho dar in kor, yane azbar kardani surayu oyathoi Quron, shuhrati farovone doshtand.

Masalan, dar Makka Musab ibni Umar va Ibn Ummi Maktum. YOronu tarafdoroni hazrati Muhammad /s/ ba gushayu kanorhoi kishvari Arab rafta on chiro, ki az Muhammad /s/ shunida, azyod karda budand, ba digaron talim medodand.

Dar davrai zindagonii Muhammad /s/ kushish karda shud, ki surayu oyatho kitobat shavand va dar nazdi kotibonu yoroni paygambar nigahdori gardand. Dar in bora sarchashmahoi tarikhi malumoti mufassal dodaand.

Az jumla “Tafsiri Tabari”, «Al jomeu – s – saheh» – i al – Bukhori, “Al – fatkhu – l – Bori” -i Ibni Al – Hajr va gayra. Az rui in sarchashmaho shakhsoni kitobatkunandai Quron haft nafar budand va nomhoi onho niz zikr shudaand. Inchunin yoroni paygambar ham yak qismi Quronro navishta bo khud nigah medoshtapd, harchand dar navishtahoi onho tartibu paydarhamii surayu oyatho rioya karda nameshud, zero navishtahoi onho mutobiqi on chi bud, ki onho azyod karda budand va dar vaqti musoid onro mutobiqi on ki dar khotir doshtand, kitobat mekardand. Jaman 43 nafar ba tartib dodani Quron jalb shuda budand.

  1. Oyatho va suraho dar rui chiz navishta shuda budand: chub, sang, pust va gayra.

Badi vafoti Muhammad /s/ az davrai Abubakri Siddiq /r/ sar karda, jamovarii Quron ogoz meyobad.

Dar davrai Abubakr bo peshnihodii Umar ba tadvini Quron dar yak kitob shuru karda shud. Ijroi in kor ba Zayb suporida shud. U surayu oyathoro az navishtahoi gunogun jam karda ba yak Mushaf gird ovard.

  1. Mushafi mazkur dar dasti Abubakr, sipas, Umar va dukhtarash Hafsa nigoh doshta meshud.

Usuli kori Ibni Sobit chunin bud, ki agar du nafar shohid nameshudand, ki in va yo on oyat dar huzuri Muhammad /s/ navishta girifta shudaast, u onro namepaziruft. Avvalin nuskhai kitobi Quron to zamoni Usmon /r/ omada shuda bud va pas Usmon /r/ onro az Hafsadukhtari Umar/r/ zani paygambar darkhost karda, farmud, ki az on nuskhabardori namoyand va on nuskharo dubora ba Hafsa bargardond. Dar davrai Usmon /r/ hududi khilofat khele vase gasht.Ba khilofat mardumi doroi madaniyat, zabon, urfu odathoi mukhtalif hamroh shudand, ki az asli Quroni karim bekhabar budand.

Zarurati vujudi Mushafi yagona va ravishi yagona ba miyon omada bud. Binobar on bo suporishi Usmon /r/ guruhe tashkil yoft va Mushafi qablan omada kardai Zayd ibni Sobit dar ikhtiyori onho guzoshta shud, to az on runavisi kunand.

Sad ibni Ubayd,ki ovozu qiroatash ba Muhammad /s/ monand bud, oyotero mekhond va Zayd ibni Sobit menavisht. Hamin tavr, matni nuskhai okhirini Quron omoda karda shud, ki onro Quroni «Usmoni» guftand.

Vaqte ki bori avval suraho va oyatho dar davrai Abubakr /r/ ba yak jild jamovari shud, avvalin Mushaf ba manii sahifahoi yak muqova ba vujud omad. Mutobiqi malumoti sarchashmahoi dini, khususan tafsirho ziyoda az 90 nomi Quron vujud dorad, ki dar asl aksari onho az rui sifati in kitob guzoshta shudaand. Kalimai «Quron» qablan ba manii khondan va ham kitob dar arabhoi johil vujud dosht va dar khudi Quron, az in kalima 58 bor yod shudaast. Az jumla ba manii payravi kardan, dunbola kardan, khondan, hammonand va gayr. Az rui rivoyatho Quron dar mohi ramazon ba Muhammad /s/ nozil shudaast.

Badi ba vujud omadani nuskhai usmoni bo farmoni Usmon /r/ sahifaho, pustho, nuskhahoi digari oyatu suraho suzonda shudaand, to ki dar bayni musulmonon dar in mavzu ikhtilofote ba vujud naoyand. Az rui nuskhai navi omodashuda, nuskhahoi digari kitobat gardidand va ba gushayu kanorhoi mamlakati islomi firistoda shudand. Quron ba khati mamuli arabho, bo usuli usmoni navishta shuda bud, yane uslubi usmoni dar on zohir megardid, ki kalimahoi na hamesha tavre navishta shudaand, ki talaffuz meshudand, Qiroati Quron niz ba tarzi makhsus Buda, tanvinho hamesha talaffuz nameshudand. Usmon /r/ khud namunai tilovati Quronro nishon dodaast va hangomi yake az in tilovatho kushta shuda, khunash rui Mushaf rekhtaast. On nuskha az muqaddastarin va boetibortarin nuskhaho meboshad.

Qiroati Quron hamesha az masalahoi muhimi talimi islom bud, zero ba islom khalqdo va mardumone ru ovardand, ki az zaboni arabi bekhabar budand va khondani kitobi muqaddas ba zaboni ba onho nooshno dushvorihoi ziyode pesh meovard.

Ilova bar on Quroni karim dar avval ba khate navishta shuda bud, ki na nuqta dosht, na harakatho (fatha, kasra, zamma va tanvin) va in dushvoriro dar mavridi khondani matn beshtar mesokht. Binobar on erob /yane harakat va nuqtaho/ bori avval dar davrai khalifai duvvum hazrati Umar guzoshta shud va sipas payvasta in kor to asri IH-H rushdu takmil yoft.

Dar ayni zamon dar tamomi ravandi takmili erobguzori va oson sokhtani qiroati Quron mukholifoni on niz bisyor budand va nuskhahoe dar asrhoi H-HII duchor meoyand, ki nuktaguzori va harakatguzori nashudaand.

Guzoshtani unvon va taqsimi Quroni karim ba juzho badtar, dar asrhoi VSH-IH, anjom giriftaast. Holo Quroni karimro ba ci juz taqsim mekunand va vaqte ki “juzi Quron” meguyand, yak siyumi onro dar nazar dorand. Dar bayni musulmononi Osiyoi Miyona, Afgoniston, Hinduston va digar mintaqaho haftyaki Quron dar shakli kitobi alohida talim doda meshavad. Quron az 114 sura va 6236 oyat iborat ast. Az rui rivoyathoi maktabhoi vasra, Makka, Madina dar sarchashmaho adadi oyathoro gunogun nishon dodaand: 6204, 6226, 6232 va dar chophoi hozirai Quron, ki hama dar asosi chopi navi Misr anjom yoftaast, 6236 oyat hast.

  1. Surahoro az rui makon va zamoni nuzulashon ba du guruhi asosi taqsim mekunand: surahoi dar sh. Makka nozilshuda va surahoi dar sh. Madina nozilshuda. Suraho aslan bobhoi in kitob meboshand va az jihati mazmunu shakl bo ham robitai qavi nadorand. Nomi suraho niz ba mazmuni onho chandon irtibot nadorad.

Manoi lugavii kalimai “sura” maqomi baland, sharaf, joh, manzalat ast. Har yak sura dar Quron nomi khudro doshta boshad ham, dar kitobhoi digari dini, tafsirho ba onho mutobiqi mavqeashon nomhoi mukhtalifi digar ham guzoshtaand. Masalan, surai “Foteha”, ki bo on Quroni karim ogoz meshavad, inchunin bo nomhoi “Ummu – l -Quron”, “Ummu – l – kitob”, “Hamd”, “Sabu – l – masoni”, “Asos”, “Taharruz”, “Hamdi avval”, “Salot”, “Ibodat”, “Tafviz”, “Munojot”, “Vofiya”, “Hidoyat” va gayra zikr gashtaast. Hamin tavr digar suraho ham dar tafsirho nomhoi gunogun dorand.

Az rui miqdori oyatho niz suraho khele az ham farq dorand. Kutohtarin sura, surai “Kavsar” se oyat va kalontarin sura “Bakar” 286 oyat dorad. Az rui hajmu mavqeashon suraho ba chor guruh taqsimbandi shudaand: as – sabu – t- tivol /haft surai daroz/, al – miun /surahoi sad oyat doshta/, al – masoni /du dasta yo guruh shuda, yane pas az on du guruh qaror megirand/, oyatu – r – rahmat va oyatu – l – azob/, al – mufas-sal fasl tuda, judo /surahoi kutohe, ki dar okhiri Quronand/. Ilova bar in suraho az rui kalimahoyu iborahoi avvalinashon niz guruhoro tashkil dodaand. Masalan, surahoe, ki bo “qul” / “bigu/ ogoz meyoband.

Oyathoe, ki dar yak sura hastand, mazmunan bo ham metavonand irtibot nadoshta boshand. “Oyat” dar lugat manihoi ziyode dorad. Az jumlai manihoi on inho meboshand: mujiza, nishoni va alomat, ibrat, shigift, dalel, dostonu qissa va gayra. 1. Oyatho metavonand az yak kalima iborat boshand va metavonand, ki jumla va beshtar az on boshand. Avvalin oyat sadri surai “al – Alaq” /”Huni basta”/ – ro guftanaad, harchand ki dar khususi avvalin oyat niz fikrhoi gunogun vujud dorand. Dar borai okhirin oyat kham bahsho ast.

Oyatho az rui sababhoi nuzul nishon medihand, ki Muhammad ba tadrij hukmhoro dar in va yo on masala giriftaast, masalan dar borai harom budani may. Malum ast, ki oyati 219 surai «Baqara» holo mayro tamoman harom naguftaast. 1. turo az may va qimor mepursand, biguy dar in du gunohi buzurg ast va mardumonro dar on manfiatho. Ammo gunoh az manfiati onho buzurgtar /beshtar/ ast. 2. Dar oyathoi badina masala ba tarzi digar matrah megardad va ba shakhsi maykhurda namoz khondanro harom shumurda, omadani kasi maynushidaro ba mavqei namoz man mekunad.

3. nihoyat dar oyati digar mashgul shudan ba qimor va may nushidanro qatiyan man mekunad: «Ey, muminon, juz in nest, ki may va qimor va nishonahoi mabudi botil fol va tirhoi palid az korhoi shayton ast, az on parhez kuned, to rastagor shaved (Surai «Moida», oyati 90).

4. Dar kuroni karim chandin oyathoi ba hamdigar vobasta hastand, ki onhoro nosikh va mansukhmeguyand, yane bo nuzuli oyati digar hukmi oyati sobiq bekor shudaast.

Talabot ba tafsir hangomi mutoliai Quron hamesha vujud dosht. Hamin talabot az bisyor jihat tafsirhoi beshumori Quronro ba vujud ovardaast, ham tafsirhoi mukhtasar va ham tafsirhoi mufassal.

CHigunagii tafsiri Quron, mazmuni on ba mazhabu raviyahoi islom aloqamandast. Namoyandai har raviyavu mazhab ba tariqi khud, muvofiqi aqidai dinii jarayonu mazhabi khud Quronro tafsir kardaast. Hatto dar doirai yak jarayon ham tafsirho vobasta ba tahavvulote, ki dar in va yo on davru zamon ba miyon omadaand, farq dorand. Masalan, tafsirhoi hozirai jarayoni sunni yo shia az tafsirhoi qadimai in jarayonho farqi khele ziyod dorand, ki sababi in farqiyat, albatta, tagyirothoi azimi ijtimoi, inkishofi ilmu tekhnika meboshand.

Az bayni tafsirhoi ziyodi qadimaiu hozira, tanho du tafsir, ki holo dar bayni dindoroni Jumhuri shukhrati ziyod dorand, yake az onho “Tafsiri Jalolayn”, ki ba zaboni arabi ast va digare “‘Tafsiri Husayni”, ki ba forsi – tochiki ast. Baroi namuna, mukhtasari chande az suraho peshnihod meshavad.

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