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KULHO dar Tojikiston va Obanborho

Kulho. CHuqurii tabiiero, ki dar on miqdori ziyodi ob jam shudaast, kul menomand. Kulho dar khushki joygir shudaand. Onho bevosita bo bahru uqyonusho aloqa nadorand. Binobar in nabotot va hayvonoti kulho (gayr az kulhoi boqimondai bahr) az nabotot va hayvoioti uqyonusho farq dorand. Masohati kulho ham az yakdigar nihoyat fark mekukad. Onho az dakhho kilometri murabba to sadkho kilometri murabba masokhat dorand. Kulhoi kalontarin Kaspiy. Boloy (dar Amerikai SHimoly). Aral meboshand.

kulkhoi tochikiston
Paydoishi khavzai kulho. Har yak kul khavzai khos dorad. CHuqury, andoza, shakl va digar khususiyati kulho ba paydoishy khavzai onho vobasta meboshad. Paydoishi khavzaho boshand. ba tavri mukhtalif surat giriftaand. Onho dar natijai khodisakhoi dokhili (vulqon. zilzila. bardoshtashavy yo fururavi) va berunii Zamin (lagjipq kafidani qabatkhoy jinshon kukhy va shustashavin onkho) ba vujud omadaand* Paydoishi khavzakhoi kalon va chuqur ba khodisakhoi dokhilii Zamin vobasga meboshad. Az jumla kulhoi Kaspiy va Aral dar ; natijai okhista-okhista khamidani qishri Za.min paydo shudaand» Havzai kulhoi chukurtarini dunyo Baykal va Tanganika dar tarkishi knshri Zamin, ki on dar natijai harakatkhoI tektoniky hosil shudaast, voqe gardidaand.

Kulhoe khastand, ki havzan onho dar tanurai vulqonho voqe gardidaast. Munin kulho dar nimchazirai Kamchatka vomekhurand. Masalan, kupi Kronotskiy. Dar mintaqai kuhhoi baland kulhoe mavchudand, ki khavzai onho dar natijai faolnyati piryakh paydo shudaast. CHunin kulho dar Pomiri SHimoli va SHarqy mavjudand. Kuli CHapdara. Qarokul va Zorkul az jumlai chunin kulho meboshand. Dar vodikhoi darskhoi balandkukh kulhoe vujud dorand, ki khavzai onho dar natijai majroi darsro band kardani anbukhi chinskhoi kukhy paydo shudaast. Masalan. khavzai kuli Sarez dar natijai aftida peish majroi darei Murgobro giriftani kukh ba vuchud omadaasg (rasmi 60).

Kulhoi obashon ravon va sarbasta. Kulho ba monandi daryoho az bornshoti agmosfera. obkhoi sathi khushki va zerizamini gizo megirand. Dar on choykhoe, ki borishot. piryakhkho va obhoi zerizaminy ziyodand, kulho serob meshavand. Kulsro, ki az on daryo jori meshavad, kuli ravon. kulsro, ki az on daryo jori nameshavad. kuli sarbasta yo ki noravon menomand. Kulhoi ravon dar Tojikiston bisyorand. Ba chunin kulho Zorkul. YAshilkul. Sarez va Iskandarkul misol shuda metavonand. Ba khar yaki in kulho yakchand daryo rekhga, az onho yakto daryo ibtido megirad.

Qarokul az jumlai kulhoi sarbasta ast. Ba on yakchand daryo merezad. ammo yagon daryo jory nameshavad. Darehoe, ki ba kulhoi sarbasta merezand, ba miqdori muayyan namak dorand. Dar kulhoi sarbasta solhoi duru daroz ob az sathi onho bukhor meshavad, namak boshad, dar kul boqi monda. obi onro shur mekunad. Az khamin sabab obi kulhoi Qarokul, Kaspiy va Aral shur meboshad. Kuli az hama shurtarnni dunyo dar nimchazirai Arabiston voqe gardidaast. Onro bakhri Murda menomand. Kulho akhamiyati kalon dorand. Dar onho mohy, paranda meparvarand. Baze az onkhoro hamchun nakliyoti obi istifoda mebarand. Az kulhoi obashon shur namak hosil mekunand.
Obanborho. Obanbor ham kul ast. Ammo obanborho bo rohi tabii ba vujud naomadaand. Onho bo dasti inson baroi obyori va sokhtani istgohhoi barqy bunyod meyoband. Agar obanbor dar vodii daryohoi kuhi sokhta shavad, zaminhoi koram bo miqdori kam zeri ob memonand. Dar vodii daryohoi hamvori sokhtani on boisi zeri ob mondani masohati kaloni zaminho va baland shudani sathi obhoi zerizaminy dar zaminhoi hamshafat megardad. In baroi inkishofi sohai kishovarzi zarar dorad. Ammo manfiati obanbor az zararash beshtar ast.

Dar vodii daryo sokhtani sarband va GES baroi elektrikonii korkhonaho, khonahoi istiqomati ahamiyati kalon dorad. Gayr az in, az obi on baroi obyorii zaminho istifoda mebarand. Obanbor inchunin korkhonahoi sanoati, shahr va dehahoro az ob tamin menamoyad. Dar baze obanborho mohy meparvarand va kishtiho shino mekunand. Obi obanbor havoi muhitro mutadil megardonad. Dar Tojikiston ham obanborho sokhta shudaand. Kalontarini onho obanbori Qayrokkum, Norak va Kattasoy meboshand. Dar bisyor mavzeho havzho sokhtaand. Dar yak qismi obanborho ba monandi kulho mohi, naranda, hayvonoti muinador parvarish mekunand. Obi onhoro istemol menamoyand. Binobar in muhofizati obi onho zarur ast.

Savol va suporish

  1.  Kul chist?
  2. Havzai kulho chy tavr paydo shudaand?
  3. Kulhoi ravon az sarbasta chi farq dorand?
  4. Baroi chi obanbor mesozand?
  5. Kulhoi kalontarinro az kharita nishon dihed.
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