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QORI RAHMATULLOHI VOZEH

YAke az shoironi tavonoi adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX tojik Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh buda, soli 1818 dar shahri Bukhoro dida ba dunyo kushodaast. Vozeh dar ibtido dar dabiristoni Qoriyon tahsil namuda, badi khatmi talimkadai mazkur ba madrasa dokhil meshavad. YAke az ustodoni bonufuzi u dar madrasa domullo Hojiboyi Hujandi buda, az in shakhs Vozeh ulumi jorii davrro omukhtaast. SHoir ilmhoi digarro az qabili ulumi adabi, tarikh va inchunin tabiiyotro niz khele khub az khud mekunad. Badi khatmi madrasa Vozeh ba khidmati hokimi Karmina- Muzaffarkhon roh meyobad. Muhiti hukmronii darbori Muzaffarkhon ba Vozeh chandon pisand nameaftad va az in ru, dere naguzashta shoir boz ba Bukhoro barmegardad. Vaqte ki Muzaffarkhon ba takhti hukumati markazi menishinad, kori Vozeh boz omad namekunad, zero munosibati hokim bo Vozeh chandon khub nabudaast.

kitobi-arabi

Vozeh az fursat istifoda namuda du korro somon medihad: avval in ki dar yak qasidai khud az amir Muzaffarkhon khele va khele bo samimiyati khossa yod namudaast, az jumla:

Hurshedfitrato, maliko, khusravo, dame

CHashmi rizo ba sui mani benavo kushoy.

Gar muflisam ba simu zar, ammo ba sinaam

Bas ganjhoi fazlu maoni namuda joy.

Ru karda omadam ba darat bo hazor umed,

Dil basta omadam ba janobat ba sad rajoy74

Duyum in ki soli 1871 vay tazkirai khudro tahti unvoni «Tuhfat-ul- ahbob fi tazkirat-ul-ashob» («Tuhfai duston va zikri yoron»)-ro ba itmom rasonida, onro ba amir Muzaffarkhon peshkash mekunad. Dar tazkirai Vozeh besh az 145 nafar quvvahoi adabii okhiri asri XVIII va ogozi sadai XIX joy doda shudaand, ki onho dar qalamravi Bukhoro, Quqand, Samarqand va digar markazhoi ilmi-farhangii Osiyoi Miyona zindagi va ejod kardaand. Dar munosibat bo chunin korhoi Vozeh amir chi guna iqdom namudaast, ravshan nest va in chiz musallam ast, ki Vozeh asosan bo peshai khattoti kasbi maosh mekardaast. Inchunin, Vozeh az ulumi tabiiyotu riyoziyot, fiqh va tib niz ba tavri boyadu shoyad bahramand budaast.

Soli 1885 dar amorat tagyirot ba vujud meoyad, ba joi Muzaffarkhon pisari u-amir Abdulahadkhon sari qudrat meoyad.

Bahori soli 1886 Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh bo niyati ba jo ovardani haj rohi Arabistonro pesh megirad. U tavassuti Turkmaniston, Qafqoz, Istambul ba Arabistoni Saudi meravad va dar bozgasht soli 1887 ba Bukhoro rohi u az Qalamravi Iroqu Eron meguzarad.

Pas az safar u khotirahoi kheshro dar shakli kitobi safari talif menamoyad, ki dar in asar oid ba rushdi mamoliki khorija va az in boyad sarvaroni hukumati Bukhoro ba yagon khulosai zaruri biyoyand va ba hamin mano tasvirho dida meshavad. Vale in asar ba amorati Bukhoro va

baleguyoni darbor pisand naomad va sukhanoni Vozehro onho hamchun noshukri paziruftand va ba u tamoman ahamiyat nadodand. Dar in bora az baze namunahoi ashori Vozeh ittiloot metavon paydo namud, ki guftaast:

Zi bas girifta dil az vazi olami piram,

Ba ruzgori javoni chu guncha dilgiram.

CHu dil shikastavu oshuftayu pareshonam,

Ki hamchu mavj naboshad qabuli tamiram.

Nasibi man ba jahon gayri talkhkomi nest,

Magar, ki rekhta ayyom zahr dar shiram.

Hadisi oyati hijron raqam zadi, Vozeh,

Ki nest hojati sharhi sahehu tafsiram.

Umuman, dar lirikai Vozeh ohanghoi yasu navmedi, shikastadilivu shikastanafsi, shikvaho az nodorivu tangdasti, benavoiyu qashshoqi khele baland sado medihand. Namunai qazovati mazkur gazali zerin ast, ki shoyad shoir dar hamin ayyomi kambagalii khesh talif namuda boshad. CHunonchi:

Man, ki az tashvishi davron khotiram zeri gam ast,

Ruzi idam dar nazar monandi shomi motam ast.

 Karda gamhoi jahon jo dar dili noshodi man,

Lojaram juz man ba olam har ki bini khurram ast.

Odamiyat dar mizoji ahli olam yoft nest,

Boshad az hayvon base kam, on ki gui odam ast.

Raft to joe kamoli nuqsu nuqsoni kamol,

Sohibi jahli murakkab boshad, on k-u alam ast.

Boshad emin az gururi in shayotinofaton,

CHun Sulaymon har ki taslimash nigini khotam ast.

Dil ba noni khonu oshi kosai dunon maband,

Filmasal gar qursi khurshed ast v-ar Jomi Jam ast.

Bad az in, Vozeh, chu Urfi az falak faryod khoh:

«Man ba joe meravam, k-on jo qadam nomahram ast».

Albatta, takhmin metavon namud, ki chunin abyoti mohiyati bisyor qavii ijtimoidoshta shoyad az nigohi ejod ba davroni pirii shoir rost omada boshand. CHunin ashori lirikii shikvoi dar osori mahfuzmondai Vozeh kam nest. U beshtar ranju kulfatho, tangdastiyu shikanjahoi zamonro zimni naqshi lirikii mahbuba khele va khele khub ba tasvir megirad. Juziyoti tasvir dar lirikai ishqii Vozeh bo in kharakternok ast, ki purra voqei, hayoti, mushakhkhas, muqarrari buda, az nojurihoi ruzgor hosil shudaand. Masalan, gazali zerini Vozeh namunai bisyor khubi chunin qazovat meboshad:

YOr temori dili khastai mo kard?-Nakard,

Guzare jonibi arbobi vafo kard?-Nakard.

CHashmash az lutf sui gamzadagon did?-Nadid,

Dilash az mehr ba mo mayli safar kard?-Nakard.

Soate munisi gamkhonai mo bud?-Nabud,

Tarki hamsuhbatii ahli duo kard?-Nakard.

Bar murodi dili ahbob dame raft?-Naraft,

Dardi ushshoqi jigarkhora davo kard?-Nakard.

Az pareshonii man zulf turo guft?-Naguft,

 YO ki taqriri gamam bodi sabo kard?-Nakard.

Bar gami bekasiam hech kase sukht?-Nasukht,

Az shikanji sitami charkh raho kard?-Nakard.

 Komi Vozeh falaki shabadaboz[1] dod?-Nadod,

Rahm bar vay nafase bahri Hudo kard?-Nakard.

Poyoni umri Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh dar Bukhoro sipari gardida, u soli 1894 dar hamin jo olami foniro padrud guftaast.

MEROSI ADABII VOZEH

Dar sukhanpardozivu inshoi nasram nest misl,

Nest kasro anDarin fazlam macholi munkiri.
Dar lugoti forsivu turkivu lafzi arab
BurDam az mayDoni mani guyi sabku bartari.

Bo vujudi hamai mushkiloti zindagi, noadolatihoi ijtimoi, tangii maishi, nooromihoi zamon Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh tavonistaast az khud osori garonarzish boqi guzorad. Vozeh se zabonro: tojiki, arabi va turkiro khele khub omukhta budaast va bo in zabonho ejod kardaast, vale bisyor afsus, ki na hamai on osori garonqadr to ba in ruzho omada rasidaast. Az merosi adabii Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh to kunun chunin asarho mahfuz mondaand: «Tuhfat-ul-ahbob fi tazkirat-ul-ashob», «Savoneh-ul-masolik va farosikh-ul-mamolik» yo «Garoib-ul-khabar fi ajoib-us-safar», «Koni lazat va khoni nemat». In asari Qorirahmatullohi Vozeh dar khususi tayyor namudani taomhoi milli, shiriniho va anvoi non, ki dar miyoni mardumoni Osiyoi Miyona va ba khusus bukhoroiyon jori budaast, malumoti sudmandu mufid medihad. Asari digari Vozeh «Aqoid-un-niso» («Etiqodi zanon») nom doshta, dar in asar urfu odat, rasmu khurofote, ki miyoni zanoni nodonu nokhondai vatani shoir-Bukhoro hukmfarmo budaast, hajvu tanqid karda meshavad.

Nihoyat, osori manzumi Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh, ki aslan bo zabonhoi tojiki, arabi va turki ejod gardida, qismi ziyodi on osor az miyon rafta budaast. Holo qisman ba zabonhoi tojikivu arabi mahfuz mondaast, ki onho na dar shakli devon, balki dar shakli pareshon, az sarchashmahoi asri shoir qisman girdovari karda shudaand.

Inchunin baze asarhoi digari u niz to kunun mahfuz mondaand va yo dastras nestand, tanho unvoni onhoro muallifoni sarchashmaho yodras kardaand. Ba silki chunin osor: «SHaqoiq-ud-daqoiq»-dar tavsifi ilmho va olimoni hamon soha, «Arois-ul-abkor va navodir-ul-afkor»-asari badei buda, az hikoyoti manzumu mansuri mukhtalifi ba zabonhoi tojikiyu arabi ejodshuda iborat meboshand va nihoyat «Tuhfai amoni», ki oid ba ilmi tib ast, dokhil meshavand.

«Savoneh-ul-masolik va farosikh-ul-mamolik»

Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh ba in asari khud du nom guzoshtaast: «Savoneh-ul-masolik va farosikh-ul-mamolik» («Voqeahoi roh va masofai bayni mamlakatho») va unvoni digari hamin asar «Garoib-ul- khabar fi ajoib-us-safar» («Hikoyoti garib az ajoiboti safar») meboshad. In asari safari buda, soli 1887 talif shudaast. Asar zohiran ba hokimi vaqt amir Abdulahad bakhshida shudaast.In asar az muqaddima, bakhshi asosi va khotima iborat ast. Muqaddimai asar sunnati buda, az tahmid, nat ogoz meshavad va muallif dar hamin bakhsh maqsadi khudro az safari Hijoz bayon menamoyad. Dar qismati asosii asar Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh tasvir menamoyad, ki u soli 1886 chi guna bo niyati ba jo ovardani marosimi haj ba safari Hijoz baromadaast. Vozeh avvalan rohi kheshro tariqi sahrohoi Turkmaniston, shimolii Eron, sohilhoi bahri Hazar (Kaspiy), qalamravi mulki Qafqoz, bahrhoi Siyoh va Miyonazamin va bahri Surkh ba Hijoz rafta rasidaast.

Pas az adoi marosimi muqaddasi haj u zimistoni soli 1887 tavassuti rohhoi Eron ba Bukhoro omadaast. Dar in asar ovarda meshavad, ki muallif hangomi musofirat bisyor shahrhoi mutaraqqii olam misli: Marv, Ashqobod, Boku, Iskandariya, Mashhad, Iroq, Eron va gayraro didaast, ba tarzi zindagi, urfu odat, ruzgor, zabon, madaniyat, munosibat, peshraft, usuli davlatdori, obodonii shahrho, mashguliyati khalqhoi in yo on shahru kishvar, boigarii onho, istehsolotu istemoloti onho, ziroatu bogdoriho, daryoho, iqlimho, rastavu bozorho, masjidu madrasaho, talimkadaho, mashguliyati dustdoshtai baze khalqu kishvarho va gayraro mushohida namudaast. Vozeh, khususan ba shahrhoi Boku, Tiflis, Batumi va dar yak qator shahrhoi Rusiya va gayra chand muddat meistad, az obodoniyu madaniyat va usuli kishvardorii onho amirro mekhohad ogoh sozad. Hatto amirro baroi behbudii mamlakat ba chorajui mekhonad, vale bisyor afsus, ki khidmati adibro dar Bukhoro ba amir choplushovu chokaroni u digarkheltar sharh medihand, ki amir Abdulahad ba Vozeh ba chashmi tahqir menigarad. Miyoni shoh va shoir nizo ba amal meoyad.

Goyahoi peshqadam va marifatparvaronavu maorifkhohonai Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh dar in asar, dar on ham zohir megardad, ki shoir madaniyat, sanat, ilm va farhangi peshqadamro targib mekunad. Boyad guft, ki avvalan asar baroi targibi makoni muqaddasi islom, Makka va Madina, ba jo ovardani haj talif shudaast va muallif aslan hamin jihatro mekhohad ba mardum shinosonad. Zero dar in muddat robitai Bukhoro ba SHarqu Garb chandon jonnok nabud va az in ru, Vozeh mekhohad mardumoni Bukhoro va atrofi onro bo muqaddasoti islomi shinos namoyad va ba khusus, nasli miyonsol va javoni qalamravi Bukhororo beshtar voqif sozad. Tanho pas az roh yoftani Rusiyai podshohi, bo vujudi bisyor janbahoi manfi, tarafhoi peshqadam niz ba mushohida merasad va in janbai peshqadam payvastan ba tamadduni Garb va tekhnikavu takhnologiyai Avrupo meboshad.

Vozeh dar in joda to ba darajae payravi Ahmadi Donish ast, zero u mutaassib nest. Vozeh beshtar ba on shahrho rafta bud, ki on joyho nisbat ba Bukhoro khele peshrafta ba shumor meraftand.

Vozeh asosan ba se jihat beshtar diqqat dodaast: a) sokhtori siyosii kishvarho, mamlakatho, b) sathi rushdi iqtisodivu siyosi, v) holati ilmu madaniyat, adabiyotu hunar, tekhnikavu tekhnologiyai to darajae peshrafta. Vozeh ba shahri Marv az on jihat tavajjuh mekunad, ki on allakay tavassuti rohi ohan ba Avrupo payvasta bud. U menavisad: «Az hangomi uburi doi (yane man, banda) to alhol, ki yozdah moh ast, Marv bisyor obod shuda va tafovuti kulli dar umronotu (obodoni) asvoq (bozorho) ba ham rasonidaast. Va ba jihati daryo pule sokhtaand mushtamil bar sezdah khona az chub…»

YO khud dar tasviri osiyobi shahri Istambul menavisad: «Moshin dosht, ki sabusro az ord judo mekard va moshini digar dosht, ki ordi aloro az avsatu (miyona) adno (pasttar) imtiyoz medod».

Vozeh in hama tekhnikavu tekhnologiyaro az muvofiqati ilmu amal va peshrafti ilmhoi tabiatshinosi medonad. Vozeh Tehronro az on jihat tasvir mekunad, ki dar barobari madrasaho maktabhoi usuli navi harbi-nizomi va tekhnikavu tekhnologiyai Avrupoiro kor giriftaast. U menavisad: «Ba imorati muallimkhonai shahri raftem, ki ba daruni hujaroti onho mardumon va kudakoni digar hastand, ki zabonhoi mukhtalifa az rusivu farangi va arabiyu yunoni va gayra ilmi nizomi sarbozi talim medihand».

Hangomi safar Vozeh ba bisyor millatho va namoyandagoni dinhoi digar vomekhurad. U ba yak tan tojiri arman dar borai khud chunin naql mekunad: «Man mardi tolibilmi faqiram va na mole kharidani va na bizoate furukhtani doram. On chi man doram, hamin moyai ilmu hunar ast, ki kase onro namepisandad.».

Az in qiyosho barmeoyad, ki asari Vozeh to ba hadde bo sabki reali insho shuda, arzishi adabi, badei, tarikhi, jugrofi, etniki, farhangi, folklori, iqtisodivu siyosi doshta, khalqi sarzamini Bukhoro va pesh az hama, hukumati in qalamravro az tamadduni SHarqu Garb to andozae ogoh mesozad. Ba tufayli asari Vozeh ba tarkibi lugavii zaboni tojiki yak qator kalimahoi nav: miqnotis (magnit), fizika, vogun (vagon), ohan, jeliz (jelez), moshin, arobahoi otashi, reyl va g. vorid shudaand va hatto ba qadri tavonoii khud murodifi tojikii onhoro paydo mekunad.

Umuman, Vozeh, baroi on ki zaboni asarash ba khonandai Bukhoro fahmo boshad, beshtar az lugoti guftugui-khalqi niz kor giriftaast. Inchunin dar baze mavridho gumon meravad, ki sabki adibi okhiri asrimiyonagi nest. Masalan, «Qolinhoi abreshimi va pashmi… pahnu farsh kardand..», yo ki: «Hidmati mekardagiashon hamin ki losavu molidan ast» va yo dar joi digar: «Va hamin ki shakhs az dar medaroyad, ba har du hujra roh dorad». YO in ki dar joi digar chunin menavisad: «.se harami darunbadarun voqe shuda.»

Boyad guft, ki yak sifati bisyor jolibi kori Qorirahmatullohi Vozeh on ast, ki u monandi Ahmadi Donish kalima, ibora va istilohoti rusiro khele ziyod ba kor mebarad. Hangomi istifoda az kalimahoyu iboraho va istilohoti judogona, u avval onro sharh medihad va bad murodifi onro zikr menamoyad. CHunonchi: «Va arobai otashi, ki ba istilohi Rusiya «jeliz» (jelezo, yane jeleznaya doroga) va «reyl» (kalimai anglisi meboshad) va moshin (mashina) khonand».

Digar in ki Vozeh kalima, iborahoro bazan be tarjuma niz zikr menamoyad. Dar in mavrid tarjuma nakardani kalimahoi ovardai u sabab dorad, zero dar in mavrid hamon kalimavu iborahoero zikr menamoyad, ki onho kayho dar zaboni khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona va ba khusus, tojikho mamuland va az in ru, u onhoro be tagyiroti tarjumavi zikr menamoyad: ustal-stul, fizik-fizika, tilgirof-telegraf va gayra.

Davrai Qori Rahmatullohi Vozeh bo nazardoshti davrahoi nasri forsi-tojiki, nasri davrai bozgashti adabi ast, ki bo maqsadi sodagardoni to andozae lugatu iborahoi arabi dar zaboni in davra, albatta, bo tasiri madrasa khele ziyod meboshad. Ajoib on ast, ki Vozeh guyo istisno boshad, zero baze jumlahoi u ba fahmi khonandai imruza khele nazdik ast. Navisanda hangomi tasviri voqeaho, hodisaho, joyhoi tarikhi, suhbatho bo mardumi digar khele oddi sukhanvari menamoyad. Vay say mekunad, ki bayonash nisbatan oddivu soda va ommafahm boshad, to khonanda be yagon dushvori az maqsadi vay ogoh shavad. CHunonchi, ba in tasviri khurdakaku mujazi u zehn moned: «Dar peshgohi in madrasa ba tarzi khonaqoh joi namoz tabiya (joy dodan) namudaand, ki be muboliga, agar kase ba boloi on nazar kunad, kulohu dastorash az sarash meaftad».

Az tarafi digar, navisanda az sanathoi badei khele mohirona kor megirad. In albatta, bo on maqsad ast, ki tavajjuh va diqqati khonandaro ba khud jalb namoyad va khonanda monda nashuda asarro to ba okhir mutolia kunad. CHunonchi, hammomi shahri Istambulro ba tasvir girifta ravshanii dokhili onro khele jolib ba qalam medihad: «Va dar ravshani to ba haddest, ki agar suzane dar yak tarafi khonae aftoda boshad, az in tarafi digar, dida meshavad» va gayra.

«Savoneh-ul-masolik»-i Vozeh ba juz ahamiyathoi dar bolo zikrgardida boz az on jihat niz muhim ast, ki navisanda, pesh az hama sunnati guzashtagonro taqviyat bakhshidaast. Mo medonem, ki dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik avvalin asari safari va yo safarnomai nakhustini nasri ba shoir, navisanda, faylasuf va mutafakkiri sadai XI Hakim Abumuinuddin Nosiri Husravi Qubodiyoni taalluq dorad va asari u «Safarnoma» nom doshta, hosili safarhoi haftsolai mutafakkirro dar bar megirad. Voqean, nakhustin safarnomai manzum boshad, kame badtar az tarafi shoiri tavonoi asri XII Afzaluddin Badil Hoqonii SHarvoni rui kor omadaast, ki on «Tuhfat-ul-Iroqayn» nom dorad. Sunnati mazkur sonitar bo shaklu namudhoi digar niz ba nazar merasad va hatto «Guliston»-u «Buston»-i SHaykh Sadii SHerozi to andozae asarhoi sarguzashti niz meboshand va gayra.

Vozeh dar in davra sunnati mazkurro az nav ehyo namuda, idoma dod va tozakorihoi khele ziyodu nazarras namud. Ba gayr az in, «Savoneh-ul- masolik» boz az on jihat purarzish ast, ki u zimni sayru sayohatho va jam namudani khotiroti safari dar borai ashori baze az muosironu shuaroi digar bo yagon sababu bahonae ruju namudaast va az ashori shuaro porahoi sheri meorad. Az jumla, dar asari Vozeh 130 bayt (260 misra) ovarda shudaast va yo in ki dar in asari safari se hikoyat niz zikr karda meshavad.

Boyad guft, ki «Savoneh-ul-masolik» namunai behtarini nasri adabi- badeii nimai duyumi asri XIX buda, baroi rushdi asarhoi safarnomavi musoidat niz namudaast.

Umuman, «Savoneh-ul-masolik» dar rushdu inkishofi kalomi bade, nasri adabi va adabiyoti nimai duyumi asri XIX maqomi arzanda dorad.

[1] SHabadaboz-nayrangboz

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