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KONSERV

konservKONSERV, khurokiest, ki baroi der nigoh doshtan az gusht, mohi, mevayu sabzavot va g. tayyor mekunand.
Konservhoi sabzavoti. Konservhoi sabzavotii tabii (boqilo, lubiyo, juvorimakka, gulkaram, shilkha, pyurei ispanokh, pomidor va g.)-ro az sabzavoti taru toza tahiya karda, ba gayr az ob ba onho baroi behtar namudani tam kame namak yo namaku shakar meandozand. CHunin K. tami khush, buy va vitaminhoi sabzavotro mahfuz medorand. Odatan, 60 – 65%-i vazni khosi chunin K. az sabzavot va 35 – 40%-ashon az moe iborat ast, ki onho moddahoi purqimmati gizoi – qand, namakhoi minerali va kislotaho, inchunin vitamini S dorand. Obi konservhoi sabzavotii tabiiro ba shurbo, karamshurbo va dig. taomho andokhtan mumkin ast. Miqdori vitamini S dar K.-hoi sabzavot, az jumla boqilo 10 – 20 mg%, gulkaram 25 – 30 mg%, pyurei ispanokh 20 – 25 mg% ast. K.-hoi boqilo, lubiyo, gulkaram va juvorimakkaro chi khunuk (bo obash) va chi dar ravgan garm karda (chun taomi alohida yo garniri khurokhoi duyum) khurdan mumkin ast. K.-hoi pomidorro baroi garnir va taomi yakum (khuroki ravon) istifoda mebarand. Az K.-hoi shilkha va pyurei ispanokh shi mepazand.
Konservhoi sabzavotii gazakiro az bodinjon, qalamfuri bulgori, pomidor, sabzi, piyoz, reshavoriho (jafari, karafs, pasternak) tayyor mekunand; ba in qabil K.-ho inchunin ravgani nabotot, pyurei pomidor, namak va adviyot (march, qalamfur) dokhil meshavand. K.-hoi gazaki chand khel meboshand: sabzavoti qimador (qalamfur, bodinjon, pomidor), dar sousi pomidor tayyorshuda (qimaro faqat az sabzavot tayyor mekunand; sabziro biryon karda, reshavorihoi safed va piyoz yo sabzavotu birinj meandozand); sabzavot (bodinjon va tarrak)-i halqa-halqa buridai biryon dar sousi pomidor; ikrai bodinjon, tarrak; ikrai lablabu, pomidori kabud; K.-ho az sabzavoti rezashuda (bodinjon, qalamfur, tarrak va pomidor) bo ilovai sousi pomidor va qimai sabzavot.
Konserv-taom, az taomhoi konservonidai yakum (karamshurbo, rassolnik, har guna shurbo) va duyum (solyanka, karamdulma va g.) iboratand. Pesh az istemol K.-i taomi yakumro dar degcha bo 1 banka yo yakunim banka ob omekhta chand daqiqa mejushonand. Taomhoi duyumro be ob garm mekunand. Tarzi tayyor kardani khurok, odatan, dar tamgakogazhoi bankaho navishta meshavad.
Konservhoi sabzavoti va sabzavotiyu gushti baroi kudakon. Sabzavotu gushti in K.-ho bo apparathoi makhsus reza karda shudaand va binobar in zudhazm meboshand. CHunin K.-ro ba kudakon az 6 – 7-mohagi dodan mumkin ast. Ba K.-hoi kudakon ba gayr az sabzavotu gusht ravgani maska, shakar, namak, ordi gandum ilova mekunand. Tarkibi K. va tarzi istemoli on dar tamgakogazho navishta meshavand.
Konservhoi pomidor – pyurei pomidor, pastai pomidor va sousi pomidorro az magzi pomidori taru toza (be pust va be tukhm) tayyor mekunand. Magzi pomidorro dar vakuum-apparatho (yane dar atmosferai behavo) mepazand, ki dar natija vitaminhoi S va karotin (provitamini A) boqi memonad. Sousi pomidorro az pyurei pomidor yo pastai pomidor tayyor karda, ba on shakar, namak, qalamfur, dorchin, qaranfuli gardan, sir va sirko ilova mekunand.
Konservhoi pomidorro ba aksari taomhoi yakumu duyum va soushoi gunogun ilova mekunand.
Afshurai pomidor – nushokii gizoi va guvorost, ki ba misli pyurei pomidor faqat garmogarm ba banka yo shishaho rekhta K. mekunand (nig. Afshura).
Sabzavoti ochori – bodiring, pomidor, qalamfuri bulgori, sir, piyoz, tarrak, lablabu, patisson, gulkaram va g., inchunin omekhtai sabzavoti rezakarda – assortiro asosan hamchun gazak yo garniri taomhoi duyumi gushti istifoda mebarand.
Konservhoi mevagi. Kompothoi mevagiro az mevahoi taru toza (seb, nok, olubolu, olucha, olu, shaftolu, zardolu va g.) tahiya mesozand: mevahoro shusta, dumchaashonro judo mekunand, bad onhoro ba bankahoi shishagi yo tunukagi andokhta, sharbat merezand va sarpushi zarfro mahkam pushonda, tamyiz (sterializatsiya) menamoyand.
Dar kompothoi konservonida tam, buy va namudi berunii mevaho tagyir meyobad. Dar bankaho 55 – 60% vazni khosro meva va vazni boqimondaro sharbat tashkil medihad. Kompotho to 20 – 25% shakar, kislotahoi organiki, moddahoi minerali va vitamin dorand.
Afshurahoi mevayu gujummevai konservonida tamomi moddahoi gizoii mevayu gujummevaho (qand, kislotaho, namakhoi minerali va vitaminho)-ro, ki az onho tayyor shudaand, darbar megirand. Afshurahoro az magzi meva yo gujummeva (olu, olucha, tamashk, qulfinay va g.) niz tayyor mekunand. Bar khilofi afshurahoi muqarrari in afshuraho shaffof nestand.
Afshurahoi omekhtaro az du-se yo chand obi meva yo mevayu sabzavot tayyor mekunand. Inchunin afshurahoi sergizo istehsol karda meshavand. Bo in maqsad afshurahoi tabii (obi pomidor, obi seb)-ro bo moddahoi khushki gizoi (10 – 12%) dar asbobhoi makhsus mepazand va hamin tavr, miqdori moddahoi khushkro to 72% ziyod mekunand. Ba afshurahoi galiz ba miqdori muayyan ob andokhta, meyori avvalaashonro barqaror kardan mumkin ast.
Pyure, sous va pastahoi mevagii konservonidaro az mevayu gujummevahoi gunogun (seb, olu, olucha, nok va g.) tayyor mekunand. Baroi in mevahoro az pustu donak toza karda, dar moshinhoi makhsus az elak meguzaronand va dar bankaho K. mekunand. Agar ba chunin pyure pesh az konservoni shakar ilova kunand, sousi mevagi hosil meshavad. K.-hoi mevagii pyuremonandro bevosita khurdan, az onho inchunin moqut pukhtan, ba qabati pirog guzoshtan, ba kotlethoi az birinj va kashk pukhtashuda, inchunin ba shirini ilova kardan mumkin ast. Ba K.-hoi mevagi inchunin murabbo va jem dokhil meshavand.
Pyurehoi mevagi baroi kudakon misli K.-hoi sabzavoti baroi kudakon az magzi taroshidai meva yo gujummeva iboratand. Baroi kudakon inchunin pyurei sebii konservonida bo shir va pyure az birinju gusht tayyor mekunand.
Ba K.-hoi mevagi ochorho niz dokhil meshavand, ki az angur, seb, olu tayyor karda meshavand. Onhoro hamchun gazak alohida mekhurand, inchunin ba salat, vinegret va g. ilova mekunand. Oid ba tarzi tayyor kardani K.-hoi gujummeva, meva va sabzavot nig. Konservoni.
Konservhoi gushtiro az gushti gov, gusfand, gushti parranda (murg, qoz, murgobi, murgi marjon va murgoni shikorbob), inchunin az kallapocha va mahsuloti gushti (hasibu sosiskaho) tayyor mekunand. K.-hoi gushtiro yakjoya bo mahsuloti yarmagi va makaroni niz tahiya menamoyand. K.-hoi gushti gov, gusfand va g.-ro khunuk yo garm karda khurdan, ba taomhoi yakum (shurbo, karamshurbo) ba joi gushti khom andokhtan, az onho taomhoi duyumi gunogun tayyor kardan mumkin ast. Onho 14,5 – 18,5% safedai purqimat doshta, khele sergizo meboshand.
Taomhoi tayyori konservonidai gushti va kallapocha (gushti biryon, befstroganov, gusht dar sousi safed, gushti murg va g.)-ro hatman garm kardan lozim ast; onho khushtam va sergizoyand.
K.-hoi gushtii dar jele tayyorshuda, zabon, qimahoi hasibu sosiskahoro pesh az istemol khunuk kardan (dar yakhdon yo obi khunuk) behtar ast. K.-hoi gushtiro dar bankahoi konserv garm kardan mumkin ast. Baroi in beruni bankaro toza meshuyand; bankai tunukagiro qisman kushodan lozim, sarpushi bankai shishagiro kushoda, halqai reziniashro girifta mepartoyand, sipas sarpushashro boz mepushonand. Bankai tunukagiro ba obi jushidaistoda andokhtan mumkin ast. Bankai shishagiro ba obi shirgarm andokhta, to jushidani ob nigoh medorand. K.-i tunukagii vaznash taqr. 500 g.-ro bo gushtob yo sousash 15 daq., K.-hoi beob – shavlai gushtdor, mahsuloti makaronii gushtdorro 30 daq. garm mekunand. K.-hoi bankaashon shishagi nazar ba K.-hoi bankahoyashon tunukagi dertar garm meshavand, az in ru onhoro beshtar garm kardan lozim meoyad.
Pashtethoi konservonida az gushti kufta iborat buda, ba onho ravgani zard, ravgani dunba va adviyot ilova karda shudaast; K.-hoi nombarshudaro baroi khurokhoi duyum istifoda mebarand.
Konservhoi gushtu nabotot (nakhud yo lubiyo bo gushti gov, gusfand va g.) az 15% ziyod gusht va ravganu adviyot dorand; onhoro garm karda yo khunuk khurdan mumkin ast; baroi tayyor kardani shurbo ba K. ob andokhta, 3 – 5 daq. mejushonand.
Konservhoi pihu lubiyodor az nakhud yo lubiyo bo ravgani dunba dar sousi pomidor va g. tayyor karda meshavand. Ba in K.-ho gusht nameandozand, ba gayr az lubiyogiho va pih inchunin sousi pyurei pomidor, shakar, namak va adviyot ilova mekunand.
Konservhoi mohigi tamyizi va gayritamyizi meshavand. Baroi nigoh doshtani K.-hoi mohigii tamyizi sharoiti makhsus lozim nest. Vobasta ba khelhoi moeot (yo sous) K.-hoi mohigii tamyizi ba guruhhoi zerin taqsim meshavand: tabii (dar obi khudash tayyor shudaast), dar sousi pomidor (az mohibiryon yo mohii obpaz tahiya shudaast); dar ravgan (az mohii nimkhushk, dudpaz yo biryon tayyor meshavad); dar jele (az mohii obpaz tayyor shudaast).
Ba K.-hoi mohigii tabii namak, bazan qalamfur, murch, bargi gor meandozand. Tami mohi dar chunin K.-ho digar nameshavad. Az in K.-ho taom tayyor mekunand, ba sifati taomi duyum, gazak istifoda mebarand, ba rui non molida mekhurand.
Mohibiryon dar sousi pomidor khelhoi gunogun dorand. In K.-horo asosan ba sifati gazaki khunuk, inchunin baroi tayyor kardani taomi yakum (shurbo) va duyum (bo kartoshkai obpaz yo garniri digar) istifoda mebarand.
Baroi az K.-hoi tabii yo az K.-hoi dar sousi pomidor tayyorshuda pukhtani shurbo sabzavotro peshaki (avval kartoshkaro) pukhta, 10 – 12 daq. qabl az ba kosaho kashidan, bo obash ba degcha meandozand. Baroi taomi khunuk (mas., okroshka) K.-ro bevosita pesh az istemol ba shurbo ilova mekunand.
K.-hoi mohigii dar ravgan tayyorshuda. Helhoi behtarini on shprot va sardina meboshand. In K.-horo ba sifati gazaki khunuk istifoda burdan mumkin ast. SHprotro beshtar bo piyozi halqa-halqa burida, sardinaro bo jafarii taru toza va limu mekhurand. Baroi in K.-ho asosan ravgani rastaniro istifoda mebarand. Pashtetu pastahoi mohigii khele gunogun istehsol meshavand, ki onhoro ba rui non molida istemol mekunand.
K.-hoi mohigii dar jele tayyorshudaro garm nakarda mekhurand; garniri on kohu ast.
Navhoi gunoguni konservhoi mahsuloti bahriro az karami bahri va g. tayyor mekunand.
Dar bayni K.-hoi mohigii gayritamyizi kilka khele malum ast. Kilkaro bo piyoz yo piyozi kabud, inchunin bo buterbrodi ravgani, mayonezu tukhmi pukhta mekhurand.
K.-hoi shiri – mahsuloti sergizo buda, onhoro hamchun shiri toza ham kalonsolon va ham bachaho istemol mekunand. K.-hoi shiri tamomi moddahoi gizoii shiri toza (az jumla vitaminho va namakhoi minerali)-ro doro meboshand. K.-hoi shiri az shiri alosifat tayyor karda meshavand.
Korkhonahoi sanoati shir shirqiyomi qanddor (shirqiyom, qiyomi sarshir, qahvai shirqiyomdor, qahva bo qiyomi sarshir, kakav bo shirqiyom yo kakav bo qiyomi sarshir va g.), shirqiyomi tamyizshuda, mahsuloti shirii khushk (shir, shiri kamravgan, shiri beravgan, sarshir va g.), mahsuloti shirii khushk baroi kudakon (shir baroi kudakoni shirmak, omekhtahoi shirii «Malyutka», «Malish» va g.) mebarorand.
SHirqiyomi qanddor 26,5% ob, 8% safeda, 8,5% ravgani shir, 43,5% qandi lablabu, vitaminhoi V1, V2, S va namakhoi minerali dorad.
Qiyomi sarshiri qanddor az 26% ob, 19% ravgani shir, 6% safeda va 48% angishtob iborat ast. Gayr az in, dar tarkibi on vitaminu namakhoi minerali mavjudand.
Dar mavridhoe, ki istifodai qandi lablabu (sakharoza) joiz nest (masalan, baroi gizoi kudakon), ba joi shirqiyomi qanddor shirqiyomi tamyizshudai beqandro istifoda mebarand. Onro bo rohi tamyiz namudani shirqiyom tayyor mekunand. Az 75% ob, 7,8% ravgani shir, 7% safeda, 10% angishtob iborat ast.
SHiri tamyizshuda obi nisbatan kam (72,5%) va ba miqdori ziyod moddahoi khushk va ravgan (8,6%) dorad.
Baroi hosil kardani mahsulot az shiri khushk shiri pasterizonidaro ba qiyom ovarda, sipas onro to 2 – 4% boqi mondani ob khushk mekunand. Dar shiri khushk ziyoda az 25% ravgan, 25% safeda, 38% angishtob mavjud ast.
Korkhonahoi sanoati konservbarori az shiri khushk baroi kudakon va odamoni kalonsol mahsuloti gunogun istehsol mekunand.
Dar ruzgor konservhoi shiriro baroi oshomidan (ob ilova karda), pukhtani taom (shirdog, shirbirinj, moqut, firini va g.) istifoda mebarand. Az K.-hoi shirqiyomi qanddor kremhoi gunogun, az shirqiyom va qiyomi sarshiri qanddor qahva va kakav tayyor menamoyand. Az shiri khushk dar khona jurgot, tvorog, chakka va g. tayyor kardan mumkin ast.
K.-hoi shirqiyom dar bankahoi tunukagii 400 g.-i, mahsuloti shirii khushk dar quttihoi kartoniyu filizi (250 va 500 g) furukhta meshavand. Azbaski sifati K.-hoi shiri baland buda, dar mavridi nigoh doshtan vayron nameshavand, dar ekspditsiya va sayohathoi turisti istifodai onho khele muvofiq ast.
Nigoh doshtani konservho. Dar bankahoi shishagi sanai istehsoli K.-ho dar pasi tamgakogaz ishora meshavad. Dar tagi bankahoi filizi indeks – harfhoi «K» (K.-hoi mevagiyu sabzavoti va K.-hoi sabzavoti), «R» (K.-hoi mohigi), «M» (K.-hoi gushtiyu shiri) sabt megardad. Dar surpush yo tagi banka (dar satri duyum) yak qator raqamho va dar mobayn harfe sabt yoftaand. Kushodani ramzro az harf sar mekunand, ki on mohi istehsoli K.-ro ifoda menamoyad (mas., «A» – yanvar, «B» – fevral va hamin tavr az rui alifbo ba istisnoi harfi «Z» – idoma meyobad). Raqamhoe, ki dar tarafi rosti harf joy giriftaand, raqami assortimentii in yo on namudi K., du raqami tarafi chapi harf ruzi tayyor kardani K. va raqami pesh az sana – raqami smenaro mefahmonad (agar korkhona dar yak smena kor kunad, raqami pesh az sana guzoshta nameshavad).
Zavodhoi korkardi mohi bazan faqat raqami khud (satri yakum), soli tayyor kardani K. (satri duyum) va raqami assortimentii onho (satri seyum)-ro meguzorand.
K.-hoi tamyizshudaro dar bankahoi mahkam, dar joi khushki haroratash mutadil duru daroz nigoh doshtan mumkin ast.
K.-horo dar joi garm (mas., nazdi asbobhoi garmkunanda) nigoh doshtan mumkin nest, zero dar chunin sharoit vitaminho vayron shuda, sifati K. past meshavad. Agar K.-ho dar bankahoi tunukagii gayri lokandud nigoh doshta shavand, onho bo mururi zamon tami nokhushi ohanro qabul mekunand. Agar murabbo, jem va sharbatro muddati daroz dar joi garm nigoh dorand, rangi onho baland, jigartob meshavad.
K.-hoi shiriro dar joi khushku salqin nigoh medorand. Qiyomi K.-hoi shirii qanddor dar harorati az 0° past niz vayron nameshavad. SHirqiyomi qanddor hatto dar harorati – 45°S yakh namebandad.
K.-hoi sabzavoti, kompoti meva, ochor va K.-hoi pyuremonandi mevayu sabzavotro az yakh bastan emin boyad dosht, zero badi az yakh faromadan, sabzavotu meva burma shuda, pyure ob mekushoyad. YAkh bastani digar K.-horo niz roh dodan lozim nest, zero onho sifati khudro gum mekunand. Agar murabbo va jemro dar havoi khunuk (az 10°S past) nigoh dorand, onho shakarak mebandand. Dar surati yakh kardani K.-ho hajmi mahsuloti dokhili banka (qarib 10%) afzuda, kafidani darzi bankahoi tunukagi va paridani sarpushi bankahoi shishagi az ehtimol dur nest.
Binoe, ki dar on K.-ho nigoh doshta meshavand, boyad khushk boshad; dar khonai sernam bankaho va sarpushhoi onho zang zada, K.-ho vayron meshavand.
K.-horo dar bankahoi besarpush nigoh doshtan mumkin nest. Agar banka tunukagini gayri lokandud boshad, ba on havo daromada, qalagi dar obi K. hal meshavad, mahsulot tursh megardad, vitaminho nobud meshavand. Dar natija nafaqat tami K. digar, balki odam niz zahrolud meyobad. Dar bankahoi shishagi chunin tagyirot sust meguzarad, az in ru K.-hoi istifoda nashudaro ba bankahoi shishagi yo zarfi sirdor andokhta, dar joi khunuk (mas., yakhdon) to 1 – 2 ruz nigoh doshtan mumkin ast.
Bankahoi kushoda yo quttihoi mahsuloti khushki shiriro dar joi khushku torik va hatman dar zarfi pushida nigoh medorand, vagarna badi 3 – 5 ruz tami on vayron meshavad.
Vayron shudani konservho. Agar hamai mikrobhoi zararovari K.-ho mahv nashuda boshand, onho dar bankai pushida niz afzoish yofta, boisi vayron gashtani K. megardand. Dar in surat K.-ho gaz judo mekunand, sarpushi bankaho medamad (in holatro bombaj menomand). CHunin K.-horo istemol kardan joiz nest. Bazan dar surati tasodufan yakh kardani K. sarpushi on dam mekunad. Agar badi az yakh faromadan sarpush durust shavad, pas chunin K. vayron nashudaast. Agar yak tarafi K. dam kunadu hangomi onro zer kardan, tarafi digarash barjahida sado barorad, nishonai vayron shudan ast. Agar sarpushi K. zarb khurda, obi on berun rezad va halqai rezinii sarpush bejo shavad, inro niz nishonai vayron shudani konserv hisob boyad kard.

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