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KONSERVONi

konservoniKONSERVONi, yake az rohhoi tahiyai gizo. Hurokvori dar natijai faoliyati mikroorganizmhoi gunogun – zanburug (magor), bakteriyaho va g., ki dar tabiat khele bisyorand, vayron meshavad. Baroi muddati daroz vayron nokarda nigoh doshtani on usulhoi gunoguni K.-ro istifoda mebarand, mas., tamyiz (to hararati muayyan garm kardan), sardoni, khushkonidan, ba namak khobonidan, ochoroni va g. Dar sharoiti khona usuli oddi va boetimodi K. tamyiz kardan meboshad. Baroi tamyiz kardan mahsulotro khom yo pukhta ba bankaho megirand, sarpusharo mahkam karda, to haror. 100 – 120°S mejushonand. Dar sharoiti khona hamai mevayu gujummevaho va sabzavotro konservonidan mumkin ast; mohi va gushtro dar sharoiti khona konserv namekunand.
Zarf va asbobu anjom. Konservhoro dar sharoiti khona, odatan, dar bankahoi shishagii gunjoishashon 0,2; 0,35; 0,5 va 1 l., inchunin dar shishaho tayyor mekunand. Dahoni bankahoro bo asbobi makhsus va sarpushi tunukagi yo alyumini, ki halqai rezini dorad, mahkam mekunand. Aksaran konservhoro az meva, sabzavot va zanburug dar bankaho tayyor kardan mumkin ast.
Baroi K. 2 zarfi sirdori 3 – 5-litra (baroi obi jush rekhtan va pukhtan), 1 – 2 zarfi chuqur (baroi 5 – 10 l) baroi tamyiz kardan, kord, changcha, qoshuq, chavli, turbtarosh, afshuragirak, donakgirak, soat, haroratsanj, tagmonaki banka, bankagirak (baroi giriftani banka az zarfi obdor) lozim ast.
Tamyiz kardani konservho. Bankahoi shishaginro shusta bo obi jush megardonand va khushk mekunand. Meva, gujummeva yo sabzavotro ba bankaho (to 1 – 2 sm pasttar az labi banka) mechinand, az boloyash namakob yo sharbat merezand. Bankahoro be sarpush ba zarfi obash garm (50 – 60°S) meandozand; sathi obi zarf boyad ba sathi meva (yo sabzavot)-i banka barobar boshad. Baroi on ki banka nakafad, ba tagi zarf latta yo faner meguzorand. Obi zarfro bo bankaho to ba jush omadan, garm mekunand. Az lahzai jushidani ob vaqti tamyizro ba hisob megirand. Muddati tamyiz baroi har yak namudi konserv dar jadval nishon doda shudaast. Dar asnoi tamyiz ob naboyad sakht jushad, zero ba banka aftodani qatrahoi obi jushidaistoda mumkin ast. Badi anjomi vaqti tamyiz dahoni bankahoro mahkam mekunand. Bankai sarpushdorro to khunuk shudanash sarnisheb meguzorand.
Baroi K. shishahoi shirro shusta va obi jush davonda khushk mekunand. Bad az in onhoro bo meva, gujummeva yo sabzavot pur karda to gardani shisha namakob yo sharbat meandozand va be sarpush dar ob tamyiz menamoyand. SHishahoro dar obi jush aynan ba muddati bankahoi konserv nigoh medorand. Badi tamyiz ba gardani shisha (qutrash 32 – 33 mm) du sarpush meguzorand; yakumash tunukagi, ki az quttii banka burida shudaast, duyumash az pergament yo kogazi gafsi naqshakashi, ki ba tagi sarpushi tunukagi meguzorand. Har du sarpushro shusta khushk mekunand. Ba rui sarpush surguch yo mumi garm merezand, to ki sarpush mahkam pushida shavad va mum ba shisha chaspad (agar tar boshad, mum namechaspad).
Kompot az meva va gujummeva. SHarbat kompotro khushtam mekunad, ammo onro be shakar, ba meva ob yo afshurai mevayu gujummeva rekhta konservonidan mumkin ast. Baroi kompot mevayu gujummevai pukhta rasida va sakhtro megirand (mevai pukhta guzashtagi vaqti tamyiz rangi sharbatro khira megardonad). Baroi kompot hamai meva va gujummevahoro istifoda burdan mumkin. Dar jadval oid ba K.-i meva va gujummeva malumot doda shudaast.
Pyurei mevagi. Pyurero az meva va gujummevahoi gunogun tayyor kardan mumkin ast. Mevahoi sakht, mas., nok va seb (yo boqimondai pusti seb va dilaki onro badi pukhtani murabbo va kompot)-ro dar ob to muloim shudan mepazand. YO in ki onhoro dar zarfi sirdor andokhta dar tafdon pukhtan mumkin. Meva va gujummevai muloimro avval to haror. 70 – 80°S garm mekunand. Dar natija fermenthoi turshkunandai mevaho vayron gashta, onho minbad siyoh nameshavand. Mevahoi pukhtashudaro az elak meguzaronand. Pyurei hosilshudaro dar zarfi sirdor to jushidan garm karda, zud ba bankahoi garm meandozand. Dar obi sust jushidaistoda 15 – 20 daq. tamyiz mekunand. Pyurei olubolu va oluro garmogarm (tamyiz nakarda) ba bankaho andokhta, mahkam kardan mumkin ast.
Afshura dar natijai fishurdani meva va gujummevahoi taru toza hosil karda meshavad. Mevahoro shusta mayda mekunand va bo kubak lat mezanand. Afshuraro bo yorii press-pyure yo afshurakashak judo mekunand. Afshurai hosilshudaro to 85 – 90°S tasfonda, ba bankaho yo shishaho merezand. Bo in maqsad shishahoi gardanborikro niz istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Dahoni onhoro bo puk (peshaki jushonda) mahkam karda, az boloyash mum merezand. Banka va shishahoi afshuradorro 15 – 20 daq. dar haror. 85°S nigoh doshta, badi mahkam kardani sarpushashon digar garm namekunand. Azbaski afshurahoi tibii, odatan, bisyor turshand, ba onho to 10 – 15% shakar ilova namuda, bad garm kardan mumkin ast.
Pomidorhoi konservonida. Baroi K. pomidorhoi mayda (girda yo nokmonand), rasida, vale pula nashudaro intikhob mekunand. Pomidorro shusta ba turkhaltai simin meandozand va 1 – 2 daq. dar obi garm nigoh medorand (haror. 95 – 98°S), sipas zud az ob girifta, 1 – 2 daq. ba obi khunuk meandozand. Dar natija pusti pomidor mekafad va onro bo dast yo kord toza kardan mumkin ast. Pomidorhoi tozashudaro ba bankaho guzoshta, az boloyash afshurai garm, ki hangomi toza kardani pomidor judo meshavad yo namakobi garm (1 qoshuq namak ba 1 l ob) merezand. Bankahoi nimlitraro dar obi jushidaistoda 35 daq., yaklitraro 40 daq. tamyiz karda, baz az in dahonashonro mahkam mekunand.
Pomidorro bo pustash niz konservonidan mumkin ast. Baroi in pomidorhoi khomro shusta, ba banka meguzorand va az boloyash namakobi garm rekhta, dar ob bankahoi nimlitraro 35 daqiqa, yaklitraro 40 daq. jushonda tamyiz mekunand.

Nomi meva va gujummeva

Tayyori Galizii
sharbat, % Davomoti tamyiz kardan az ogozi jushishi ob, daq.
harorat, °S vaqt, daqiqa bankahoi gunjoishashon 0,5l bankahoi gunjoishashon 1 l

Angur SHustan – – 40 10 – 12 15 – 18

Bihi SHustan, toza va pora kardan (1,5 – 2 sm) 85 60 40 20 – 25 30 – 35

Gelos SHustan va dumchahoro giriftan – – 30 15 – 20 20 – 25

Zardolu SHustan, donakashro barovardan – – 40 10 – 12 15 – 18

Nok SHustan, toza va du his kardan 95 – 97 3 – 5 30 20 – 25 30 – 35

Olu SHustan, chubchai nugtez zadan 80 – 85 3 – 5 30 – 50 10 – 12 15 – 18
(yo du his karda donakashro giriftan)

Olubolu SHustan, dumchahoyashro toza kardan – – 30 10 – 12 15 – 18

Seb SHustan, pustashro toza kardan 85 6 – 7 35 15 – 20 20 – 25
(pustashro nagiriftan ham mumkin),
dilakashro toza va du his kardan

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