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KOMPYUTER – MOSHINI UNIVERSALI

 

Imkoniyatho va khosiyathoi kompyuter. Kompyuter pesh az hama yak namud moshin ast. On bo digar moshinhoi dar ruzgori khonayu maktab, naqliyotu istehsolot va sohahoi mukhtalifi iqtisodiyotu ijtimoiyot istifodashavanda khele monand ast. Masalan, kompyuter niz chun digar moshinho bo yorii shabakai barqi yo akkumulyator kor mekunad. On niz az yakchand qismhoi ba ham aloqamand iborat ast va baroi ijroi yagon maqsadi muayyan khizmat merasonad.

Mahz dar chunin shakl tasvirkunii kompyuter onro bo avtomobil, televizor, darzmol, moshini sartaroshi yo plitai khurokpazi khele monand mesozad. Vale dar barobari monandi, kompyuter boz doroi khosiyathoi makhsuse meboshad, ki vayro az digar moshinho ba kulli farq mekunonand.

komputerHosiyati az hama asosii kompyuter in surati beandoza balandi hisobbarorii on meboshad. Hudi mafhumi kompyuter niz bo hamin khosiyatash beshtar aloqamand ast: somputer – hisobbaror. Tasavvur kuned, ki kompyuterhoi avvalin dar yak soniya metavonistand sadho hazor adadro bo ham jam sozand. Kompyuterhoi hozirazamon boshand, metavonand dar yak soniya milliard va az on ziyodtar adadhoro jam namoyand.

Aslan, vaqte ki sukhan dar borai zudkorii kompyuter meravad, hatto az kalimai soniya niz istifoda namebarand. Dar chunin mavridho az kalimahoi mikrosoniya yo nanosoniya istifoda mebarand: 1soniya = 1million mikrosoniya = 1milliard nanosoniya  Kompyuterho dar barobari khele zudkor budanashon, boz tajhizoti beandoza boetimod ba shumor meravand.

Masalan, shakhse, ki bo yorii qalamu kogaz baze hisobkunihoro anjom dodani ast, metavonad dar davomi yak soat yak yo yakchand galat sodir namoyad. Pas az yakchand soati kori boshad, u az khastagi metavonad ba miqdori ziyodtari galatho roh dihad. Farqi kompyuter az inson dar on ast, ki kompyuter hisobbarorihoro zudtar va aniqtar ijro menamoyad va yakchand soat yo hatto ruz betanaffus kor karda, az khastagi shikoyat namekunad.

Digar arzishi khele muhimi kompyuter az on iborat ast, ki vay imkoniyati qabul kardan, nigoh doshtan va istifoda burdani informatsiyavu komanda (farmon)-horo dorad. In khosiyati kompyuter onro ba moshini behamto va bemislu monand tabdil medihad. Oyo shumo yagon moshini digarro nombar karda metavoned, ki vay chunin khosiyatro doro boshad? Magar moshini muqarrarii chopkunii mekhaniki yo elektriki metavonad pagoh matni imruz chopnamudaashro ba khotir orad?

Albatta hej goh na! Ammo kompyuter ba in kor qodir ast. On bo yorii yak yo yakchand komanda metavonad chunin matnro dahho marotiba va baroi dahho shakhsi gunogun barqaror namoyad.

Hosiyati markazi va muhimtarini kompyuter in tajhizoti elektroni budani on ast. Mahz az hamin sabab va asosan baroi hisobbaroriho istifoda shudanash, onro dar ogozi paydoshaviash moshini elektronii hisobbaror (MEH) nom meburdand.

Kompyuter hamai suporishhoro bo yorii programmaho – ba tavri avtomati, yane be ishtiroki odam, ijro menamoyad. Idorakunii aksariyati moshinhoi gayri-MEH boshad, asosan ba uhdai inson guzoshta shudaast.

Boyad qayd namud, ki kompyuterhoi davroni mo na tanho oloti hisobbarorii oddi, balki moshinhoi universali (hamakora) meboshand. Universalii kompyuterho dar on zohir megardad, ki onho bo  informatsiyahoi tabiati gunogundoshta (matni, grafiki, savtu sadoi, multimediavi) va masalahoi ba sohahoi gunoguni hayot dakhldoshta saru kor dorand.

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