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KOMPYUTERHOI IBM PC

Dar okhirhoi solhoi 70-um ba tavri khele vase pahnshavii kompyuterhoi fardi sababi kohishyobii talabot ba kompyuterhoi kalon va mini-MEH gasht. Firmai IBM (International Business Machines Corporation), ki kompaniyai peshbari istehsolkunandai

kompyuterhoi kalon ba shumor meraft, az in hodisa ba tashvish aftod. In firma soli 1979 qaror dod, ki ba istehsoli kompyuterhoi fardi shuru namoyad.

 Vale rohbaroni firma ba ahamiyati beandoza buzurg doshtani bozori in soha bahoi sazovor nadoda, istehsoli kompyuterhoi fardiro hamchun yak tajribai khurd, az qabili sokhtani yagon detali nav, ba naqsha giriftand. Baroi on ki ba tajribai mablagi ziyod sarf nashavad, firma ba guruhi masuli loiha ozodii gushnoshunidro faroham ovard.

ibmIjozat dod, ki kompyuter az «nul» sokhta nashuda, balki dastovardhoi firmahoi digar dar on tadbiq karda shavand. Va guruhi kori az in fursati khele muvofiq va musoid ba purragi istifoda burda tavonist.

Pesh az hama, ba sifati mikroprotsessori asosii kompyuter mikroprotsessori navtarini 16-razryadai Intel-8088 intikhob karda shud. Istifoda burdani in mikroprotsessor imkoniyat dod, ki bo khotirai 1 megabayt (220 bayt) kor karda shavad. Hamai kompyuterhoi fardii peshtara boshand, tanho to 64 kilobayt (1 kilobayt = 210 bayt) hajmi khotira kor karda metavonistandu khalos. Dar kompyuter qismhoi ilovagii az tarafi firmahoi digar istehsol kardashuda istifoda burda shud. Taminoti programmavii kompyuter ba dushi firmai on vaqt nachandon kaloni Micqosoft (Maykro-soft) guzoshta shud.

Mohi avgusti soli 1981 kompyuteri nav bo nomi IBM PC (Ay-Bi-EM Pi-Si) ba jahoniyon muarrifi karda shud va on dar bayni istifodabarandagon ba zudi mahbub gasht. PC

abviaturai kalimahoi anglisii Peqsonal Computeq meboshad, ki tarjumaash kompyuteri personali yo fardi ast. Pas az yak-du soli paydoishash IBM PC dar bozori jahonii kompyuterhoi fardi joi avvalro ishgol namuda, joi kompyuterhoi 8-bitaro tang namud. Dar asl IBM PC imruz dar jahon standarti kompyuterhoi fardi ba hisob meravad.

Holo kompyuterhoi ba IBM PC monand, ki dar tamomi dunyo istehsol karda meshavand, ziyoda az 90% hamai kompyuterhoi fardiro tashkil medihand.

Kompyuterhoi IBM PC az qismhoi asosii zerin iborat meboshand:

  • – bloki sistemavi
  • – ekran
  • – klaviatura
  • – printer
  • – mush

Vobastagi va aloqamandii in qismhoro mukhtasar dar shakli skhema (Rasmi 1) ovardan mumkin ast.

Agar IBM PC niz ba misli digar kompyuterhoi onvaqta dar muhiti makhfi sokhta meshud, pas az 2-3 sol kuhna shuda, holo dar yodi yagon kas namemond. Tavre ki az rasm dida meshavad, IBM PC hamchun tajhizoti yagona sokhta nashuda, balki az qismhoi alohidai mustaqil iborat ast. In usuli sokhtani kompyuter imkoniyat medihad, ki qismhoi alohidai on dilkhoh vaqt takmil doda shavad va hatto tajhizoti nav ba kompyuter payvast karda shavand. Usuli payvastani qismhoi kompyuterro firmai IBM na tanho makhfi nigoh nadosht, balki baraks, dast-rasi hamai istifodabarandagon gardonid. In prinsip, ki prinsipi arkhitekturai kushoda nom dosht, dar barobari arzishhoi ziyodi IBM PC, ki burdborii onro khele ziyod namuda budand, firmai IBM-ro az yakkahukumroni ba in kompyuter mahrum sokht.

Holo nomi IBM PC tanho manoi onro nadorad, ki in kompyuterro firmai IBM sokhtaast. Imruz qismi ziyodi chunin kompyuterho dar mamlakathoi Osiyoi Janubi va digar mamolik istehsol karda meshavand.

Az prinsipi arkhitekturai kushoda besh az hama istifodabarandagon burd hosil namudand, ki in burd pesh az hama dar narkhi onho tajassum yoftaast. Holo boshad IBM PC dar du namud – rui mizi va portativi (Notebook – Boloknot – Daftarcha) istehsol karda meshavad. Namudi zohirii kompyuterhoi IBM PC chi gunae, ki naboshad ham, onho hamesha az komponenthoi yakkhela iboratand.

Dar kompyuter chun anana bloki sistemavi, klaviatura va monitor doimo mavjud ast. Vaqthoi okhir manipulyatori mush nomidashavanda va printer (tajhizot baroi chop) niz

ba komplekti asosi dokhil karda shudaand. Vazifai mush az ba tavri favri va qulay dokhil namudani komandaho va rasmkashi dar ekran iborat ast. Ba vositai printer boshad, matni hujjatho va rasmho dar kogaz chop karda meshavand.

Hamchunin imruzho ba hayati IBM PC modemro niz dokhil Ekran Klaviatura Mush Printer Bloki sistemavi

Rasmi 1. Qismhoi asosii IBM PC va aloqamandii bayni onho namudaand, ki vay baroi kompyuterhoro ba vositai khati telefoni ba hamdigar payvast namudan, khizmat merasonad. Modemho dokhili va beruni meshavand. Modemhoi dokhili dar dokhili bloki sistemavi joygir buda, beruni boshand, dar shakli tajhizoti alohida istifoda burda meshavand.

Savolho:

  1. Kadom omilho sabab gashtand, ki firmai IBM ba istehsoli kompyuterhoi fardi shuru namud?
  2. Avvalin kompyuteri fardii firmai IBM chi nom dosht?
  3. Dar kompyuterhoi IBM PC kadom mikroprotsessorho istifoda burda shudaand?
  4. Firmai asosii taminkunandai programmahoi IBM PC chi nom dorad?
  5. Qismhoi asosii IBM PC kadomhoyand?
  6. Mohiyati prinsipi arkhitekturai kushoda dar chist?
  7. Kompyuterhoi IBM PC-ro kadom mamlakatho istehsol menamoyand?
  8. Kompyuterhoi IBM PC dar chand namud istehsol karda meshavand?
  9. Ba kompyuterhoi IBM PC kadom tajhizoti berunaro payvast kardan mumkin ast?
  10. Modemhoi dokhili az modemhoi beruna chi farq dorand?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Skhemahoi aloqamandii qismhoi IBM PC-ro dar daftaraton kashed va onro manidod namoed.
  3. Dar sinfkhonai kompyuteri oid ba har yak qismi IBM PC ba muallim va hamsabaqonaton fikratonro bayon namoed.

 

 

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