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KOMPYUTERHOI FARDI

Kompyuterhoi nasli yakum (solhoi 40-50) tajhizoti khele kalon budand. Baroi jo ba jo guzoshtani qismhoi onho tolorhoi vase lozim bud. Masalan, yake az avvalin MEH, ki ENIAC (Eniak) nom dosht va soli 1946 sokhta shuda, 30 tonna vazn, ziyoda az 30 metr darozi va 1,5 million dollar narkh dosht. Baroi khizmatrasonii in kompyuter dahho nafar muhandisonu tekhnikho zahmat mekashidand. Albatta chunin mujiza tanho dastrasi korkhonahoi kalon va boy bud.

Firmahoe, ki ba istehsoli kompyuterho va digar tajhizoti elektroni saru kor doshtand, baroi ba dast ovardani bozori kharidoron hamesha kushish ba kharj medodand, ki mahsulotashonro zudtar istehsol namoyand va arzontar furushand. Baroi amali gashtani in maqsadi nihoii onho dastovardhoi tekhnologii zamonavi musoidat menamudand.

komputerQadami avvalin dar khurdgardonii hajmi kompyuterho ba ikhtiroi tranzistorho (1948) vobastagi dorad.

Tranzistorho dar kompyuterho lampahoi elektroniro ivaz namuda, hajm va narkhi onhoro tagyir dodand. Masalan, soli 1965 firmai Digital Equipment (Dijital ekyupment) mini-kompyuteri PDP-8 (Pi-di-pi 8)-ro istehsol namud, ki hajmi on barobari yakhdon buda, narkhash 20 hazor dollarro tashkil menamud.

Soli 1958 Jek Kilbi usuli dar yak plastinai nimnoqili hosil namudani yakchand tranzistrhoro kor karda baromad.

Soli 1959 boshad, Robert Noys – asosguzori firmai Intel (Intel), usuli mukammaltarero fikr kard, ki muvofiqi on dar yak plastina ham tranzistorho va ham payvastagihoi bayni onhoro sokhtan mumkin bud. Skhemahoi elektronii hosilshudaro skhemahoi integrali yo chipho meguftand.

Soli 1970 kormandi firmai Intel Marshian Edvard Hoff skhemai integraliero hosil namud, ki on az rui funksiyahoyash ba protsessori markazii kompyuterhoi kalon monand bud. Hamin tariq, avvalin mikroprotsessori Intel-4004 paydo shud, ki on yakbora 4 bit informatsiyaro kor karda baromada metavonist. Vale badtar, soli 1973 firmai Intel mikroprotsessori 8-bitai Intel-8008 va soli 1974 varianti mukammaltari on Intel-8080-ro istehsol namud. YAk sol bad, soli 1975 az tarafi firmai MITS dar asosi mikroprotsessori Intel-8080 avvalin mikro-kompyuteri Alta-ir-88000 sokhta shud, ki narkhi on 500 dollar bud. Kompyute- ri Altair-8800-ro avvalin kompyuteri fardi nomidan mumkin ast, ki hajmi on ba televizor barobar bud.

EZOH:

  1.  Bit (iit – iinaqy digit – raqami dui) vohidi khurdtarini bahisobgirii informatsiya buda qimati on ba 0 yo 1 barobarast.
  2.  Paydarpayii 8 bitro bayt (byte) meguyand. Dar yak bayt metavon yake az 256 simvoli gunogunro kodguzori kard.

Albatta imkoniyathoi Altair-8800 khele kam budand.

Hajmi khotirai favrii on hamagi 256 baytro tashkil mena mud. In kompyuter klaviatura va ekran nadosht. Lekin paydoishi onro dar tamomi jahon bo qanoatmandi peshvoz giriftand. Tanho dar zarfi yakchand mohi avval daho hazor moshin furukhta shud. Haridoron kompyuterro khudashon bo qismhoi ilovagi – klaviatura, monitor, bloki khotirai vasekardashuda va gayraho purra megardonidand. Hudi hamon sol (1975) asosguzoroni firmai Micqosoft (Maykrosoft) Pol Allen va Bill Geyts baroi Altair-8800 interpretatori zaboni BASIC (Beysik)-ro sokhtand, ki dialogi bayni istifodabaranda va kompyuterro khele oson gardonid.

EZOH:

Interpretator – programmai sistemavi buda, baroi sanjishi sintaksisii programmai dar zaboni algoritmi navishtashuda va pay dar pay ijro namudani komandahoi (operatorho) vaykhizmat merasonad.

Muvaffaqiyathoi firmai MITS-ro dida bisyor firmahoi digar niz ba istehsoli kompyuterhoi fardi shuru namudand. YAkchand majallahoi ilmie nashr meshu-

dand, ki onho ba tarzi kori kompyuterhoi fardi bakhshida shuda budand. Aknun kompyuterhoi fardi dar komplekti purra (bloki sistemavi, klaviatura, monitor) furukhta meshudand. Talabot ba onho khele ziyod bud. Dar yak sol sadho hazor kompyuterho furukhta meshudand. Baroi in kompyuterho programmahoi tijorati (sohavii shartnomavi) niz paydo shudand. Masalan, soli 1978 baroi tahrirkunii matnho programmai WoqdStaq (Vordstar) va soli 1979 protsessori tablitsavii VisiCalc (Vizikalk) sokhta shudand, ki onho az qabili chunin programmahoyand. Aknun aksariyati korkhonaho va tashkilotho hisobbarorihoi khudro na dar moshinahoi kalon yo miyona (makro-MEH), balki mahz dar kompyuterhoi fardi (mikro-MEH) ijro menamudand.

Savolho:

  1. Kadom omilho sabab gashtand, ki hajmi kompyuterho khurd va narkha- shon past gardid?
  2. Tranzistorho kay ikhtiro karda shudand?
  3. Skhemai integrali chist?
  4. Mikro-kompyuteri avvalin chi nom dosht?
  5. CHaro mikro-kompyuterro kompyuteri fardi meguyand?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Az matni mavzu istifoda burda, hodisahoi tarikhiro ba tavri khronologi dar shakli tablitsa biyored.
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