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KOMANDAHOI KORKARDI MS DOS

Komandahoi sistemai MS DOS-ro ba du namud taqsim kardan mumkin ast: dokhili va beruni. Hangomi az klaviatura dokhil kardani komanda va pakhshi tugmai Enter , onro programmai Command.com qabul va tahlil menamoyad. Agar komanda az namudi komandahoi dokhili boshad, on goh onro bevosita khudi programmai Command.com ijro menamoyad.

Dar aksi hol baroi ijro kardani komanda programmai makhsus davat karda meshavad, ki nomi on bo nomi komanda yakkhela ast. In guna programmai makhsusro utiliti sistemai MS DOS menomand. Utilithoi sistema dar yak katalogi makhsusi diski vinchester (odatan DOS) nigoh doshta meshavand.

ms-dos-commands

Komandahoi korkardai katalogho. Faylho dar kataloghoi disk nigoh doshta meshavand. Dar mundarijai har yak katalog, oidi faylhoi dar on ba qayd giriftashuda, informatsiyai zerin nigoh doshta meshavad:

  •  nomi asosi va ilovagii faylho;
  •  hajmi faylho, ki bo miqdori baytho chen karda shudaand;
  •  tarikh va vaqti sokhta shudani faylho yo tahriri okhirini onho;
  •  baqaydgirii nom, tarikh va vaqti sokhta shudani zerkataloghoi katalog (dar mavridi mavjud budani onho). Baroi ba ekran barovardani mundarijai katalog komandai zerin istifoda burda meshavad:

Dir <Roh ba katalog>

MISOL:

  1. Dir\ – ba ekran mundarijai katalogi asosii diski jori barovarda meshavad.
  2. Dir\Alfa – ba ekran mundarijai katalogi Alfa, ki zerkatalogi katalogi asosii diski jori ba hisob meravad, barovarda meshavad.
  3. Dir A:\ – ba ekran mundarijai katalogi asosii disketi dar diskdoni yakumbuda, barovarda meshavad.
  4. Dir C:\Toirov\Excel – mundarijai katalogi Excel ba ekran barovarda meshavad. Katalogi Excel zerkatalogi Toiqov buda, katalogi Toiqov boshad, dar katalogi asosii diski vinchester joygir shudaast.

EZOH:

  1. Agar katalog faylhoi ziyodro dar bar girifta boshad, on goh mundarijai on dar yak ekran joygir shuda nametavonad.

Dar in holat mundarijai katalogro sahifa ba sahifa barovardan lozim meoyad. Baroi ijroi in kor kifoya ast, ki dar komanda parametri /p nishon doda shavad (p – harfi avali kalimai Page – sahifa), yane komandai mazkur namudi Dir <Roh ba katalog>/p -ro megirad.

  1. Agar ba ekran tanho nomi asosi va ilovagii faylhoro barovardan lozim boshad, pas komandaro dar namudi Dir <Roh ba katalog>/w dokhil namudan zarur ast, ki /w niz parametr meboshad.

Ivazkunii diskdoni jori. Baroi ivaz namudani diskdoni jori, nomi diskdonro az klaviatura dokhil namuda tugmai -ro pakhsh namudan lozim ast.

MISOL:

  1. Az klaviatura A: – ro dokhil va tugmai Enter -ro pakhsh menamoem. Diskdoni yakum diskdoni jori megardad.
  2. Az klaviatura V: – ro dokhil va tugmai Enter -ro pakhsh menamoem. Diskdoni duyum (agar on mavjud boshad) diskdoni jori megardad.
  3. Az klaviatura C: – ro dokhil karda, pas tugmai Enter –ro pakhsh mekunem. Diskdoni vinchester – jori megardad.
  4. Az klaviatura D: – ro dokhil karda, tugmai Enter -ro pakhsh menamoem. Diskdon baroi kompakt-diskho (agar onho mavjud boshand) diskdoni jori megardad.

Guzarish ba katalogi digar. In komanda komandai dokhili buda, shakli purrai on chunin ast:

Cd <Roh ba katalog>

Cd – harfhoi avvali kalimahoi Change Directory (ivazkunii katalog) meboshand.

MISOL:

  1. Cd \Alfa – dar katalogi asosii diskdoni jori, zerkatalogi Alfa ba katalogi jori tabdil doda meshavad.
  2. Cd C:\Windows\Winword – dar diski vinchester katalogi Winwoqd, ki zerkatalogi katalogi Windows ast, ba katalogi jori tabdil doda meshavad.
  3. Cd A:\ – katalogi asosii disketi dar diskdoni yakumbuda, katalogi jori megardad.

Sokhtani katalogi nav. In komanda niz komandai dokhili buda, shakli purrai on chunin ast:

Md <Roh ba katalog>

MISOL:

  1. Md \Komilov – dar katalogi asosii diski jori zerkatalogi navi Komilov sokhta meshavad.
  2. Md \Komilov\Anis – dar katalogi Komilov zerkatalogi navi Anis sokhta meshavad.
  3. Md A:\Lexicon – dar katalogi asosii disketi dar disk-doni yakum joygirshuda, zerkatalogi Lexicon sokhta meshavad.
  4. Md C:\Windows95 – dar katalogi asosii diski vinchester zerkatalogi Windows95 sokhta meshavad.

Nobudkunii katalogho. Baroi nobud kardani kataloghoi kholi komandai Qd (Qemove Directoqy – nobud kardani katalog) istifoda burda meshavad. Namudi komanda chunin ast:

Rd <Roh ba katalog>

MISOL:

  1. Rd A:\Alfa – katalogi Alfa az diskete, ki dar diskdoni yakum joygir shudaast, nobud karda meshavad.
  2. Qd C:\Lotus\Sc4 – katalogi Sc4, ki zerkatalogi katalogi Lotus meboshad, az diski vinchester nobud karda meshavad.

EZOH:

Kataloge, ki nobud karda meshavad, boyad hatman az faylho va zerkatalogho kholi boshad. Dar holati dar katalog mahfuz budani faylu zerkatalogho, avval onho va bad khudi katalogro nobud kardan mumkin ast.

Ivazkunii nomi katalog. Baroi ivaz namudani nomi katalogho komandai Move khizmat merasonad. In komanda komandai beruni buda, baroi ijro shudani on boyad dar katalogi DOS utiliti Move.exe joy doshta boshad. SHakli umumii on chunin ast:

Move <Rohi kuhnai katalog> <Rohi navi katalog>

MISOL:

  1. Move A:\Anis A:\Komqon – dar diskete, ki dar diskdoni yakum joygir shudaast, ba katalogi Anis nomi navi Komron doda meshavad.
  2. Move Nozanin A:\Tamanno – katalogi Nozanin az diski vinchester ba disket guzaronida meshavad va ba on nomi navi Tamanno doda meshavad.
  3. Move Student Pilot – nomi katalogi Student ba Pilot ivaz karda meshavad
  4. Move A:\Komilova\MahRAM C:\Faizali – katalogi MahRAM az disket ba diski vinchester guzaronida meshavad va ba on nomi navi Faizali doda meshavad.

Savolho:

  1. Komandahoi dokhilii MS DOS az komandahoi berunai on chi farq dorand?
  2. Funksiyai asosii katalogho dar chist?
  3. Kadom komanda baroi ba ekran barovardani mundarijai katalog khizmat merasonad?
  4. Komandai guzashtan ba diskdoni nav kadom ast? Ba katalogi nav chi?
  5. Bo yorii kadom komanda katalogi nav sokhtan mumkin ast?
  6. Funksiyai komandai Rd dar chist?
  7. Nomi katalogro chi khel tagyir dodan mumkin ast?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va komandahoi onro az khud kuned.
  2. Komandahoi zerinro avval mustaqilona dar daftaraton navised va pas az ba muallim nishon dodan ba kompyuter dokhil namoed:
  •  Diski S:-ro jori namoed.
  •  Mundarijai katalogi joriro ba ekran barored (in amaliyotro bo parametrhoi /p va /w takror namoed).
  •  Dar diski jori baroi khud katalogi nav kushoed va ba on nasabi khudro nomguzori kuned.
  •  Dar dokhili katalogaton du zerkatalog sozed va ba yake nomi barodar va ba digare khoharatonro nomguzori kuned.
  •  Bonavbat zerkataloghoro jori gardoned.
  •  Zerkatalogi dar avval sokhtaatonro nest kuned.
  1. KOMANDAHOI KORKARDI FAYLHO

Sokhtani faylhoi matni. Baroi sokhtani faylhoi matni az komandai Copy istifoda mebarand, ki namudi on chunin ast:

COPY CON <NOMI FAYL>

MISOL:

COPY CON C:\NOZANIN.TXT

Pas az dokhil namudani in komanda va pakhsh kardani tugmai Enter , kompyuter intizor meshavad, ki matni hujjat az klaviatura dokhil karda shavad. Dokhilkunii har yak satri matn, hatman bo pakhsh namudani tugmai Enter ba itmom merasad. Vaqte ki satri okhirini matn dokhil karda meshavad yo tugmahoi Ctrl va Z -ro dar yakjoyagi, yo tugmai F6 –ro dar alohidagi pakhsh namudan lozim ast. Dar intihoi matn alomathoi ^Z paydo megardand. In alomatho ba itmom rasidani matnro nishon medihand. Bad az in tugmai Enter -ro pakhsh namudan zarur ast. Matni dokhil kardashuda dar diski vinchester bo nomi Nozanin.txt sabt karda meshavad.

Ba ekran barovardani matni faylho. Baroi ba ekran barovardani informatsiyai dokhili fayli matni, komandai zerin istifoda burda meshavad: Type <Roh ba fayl>

MISOL:

  1. Type A:\Lola.txt – matni fayli Lola.txt az disket ba ekran barovarda meshavad.
  2. Type C:\Sobir\Student.txt – matni fayli Student.txt, ki dar katalogi Soiiq joygir ast, ba ekran barovarda meshavad.
  3. Type Qeadme.txt – matni fayli Qeadme.txt, ki dar katalogi jori joygir shudaast, ba ekran barovarda meshavad.

Nobud kardani faylho. Baroi az disk nobud kardani faylho komandai Del (Delete – nest kardan) istifoda burda meshavad. SHakli umumii komanda chunin ast:

Del <Roh ba fayl>

MISOL:

  1. Del A:\Shodi\Toirov.txt – fayli Toirov.txt, ki dar zerkatalogi Shodi joygir shudaast, az disket nobud karda meshavad.
  2. Del C:\sc4\sc4.com – fayli sc4.com, ki dar zerkatalogi sc4 joygir shudaast, az diski vinchester nobud karda meshavad.

EZOH:

Dar komandai Del dar qismi asosi va ilovagii nomi faylho alomathoi makhsusi “?” (alomati savol) va “*” (sitoracha)-ro istifoda burdan mumkin ast. In du alomatro alomathoi shabloni menomand. Onho baroi nishon dodani guruhi faylhoi yak katalog khizmat merasonand. Agar dar yagon qismi nomi fayl alomati savol nishon shuda boshad, on goh sukhan oid ba guruhi faylhoe meravad, ki nomi onho az yakdigar bo yak alomat farq

mekunand. Masalan, navishti St?dent.txt ba guruhi faylhoe dakhl dorad, ki dar mavqi seyumi nomi onho yak alomati digar omadaast: Student.txt, Stadent.txt, Stident.txt, Stydent.txt, St7dent.txt va hokazo.

Agar dar nomi fayl alomati “*” navishta shuda boshad, on goh sukhan oidi guruhi faylhoe meravad, ki dar nomi onho az in mavqe sar karda miqdori dilkhohi alomathoi gunogun joy doda shudaand. Masalan, navishti st*.com ba faylhoe dakhl dorad, ki dar nomi onho az mavqei seyum sar karda alomathoi dilkhohi digar navishta shudaand: Student.com, st1.com, stal.com, stimo.com va hokazo.

Hamin tariq, alomathoi shabloni imkoniyat medihand, ki bo yak komanda guruhi faylho nobud karda shavand. Maslan, bo komandai Del\st*.com – az katalogi jori hamai faylhoe, ki nomi asosiashon bo st sar meshavad va nomi ilovagiashon .com meboshad, nobud karda meshavand. Az alomathoi shabloni dar digar komandahoi korkardi faylho niz istifoda mebarand.

Ivazkunii nomi faylho. Baroi ivaz namudani nomi faylho az komandai Qen (qename – nomivazkuni) istifoda mebarand:

Qen <Rohi nomi kuhnai fayl> <Rohi nomi navi fayl>

MISOL:

  1. Qen Student.txt St.txt – dar katalogi jori nomi fayli Student.txt ba St.txt ivaz karda meshavad.
  2. Qen A:\Sharapov\Dilshod.txt Dil.txt – dar disket nomi fayli Dilshod.txt ba Dil.txt ivaz karda meshavad.

EZOH:

Dar qismhoi asosi va ilovagii nomi faylho alomathoi shabloniro istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Masalan, Ren

C:\Alfa\*.doc *.txt – nomi ilovagii hamai faylhoi katalogi Alfa, ki qismi ilovagii nomashon .doc meboshad, ba .txt ivaz karda meshavand.

Nuskhabardorii faylho. Baroi nuskhabardori kardani faylho komandai Copy (nuskha bardoshtan) istifoda burda meshavad. SHakli umumii komanda chunin ast:

Copy <Roh ba fayl> <Roh ba nuskhai fayl> 

MISOL:

  1. Copy A:\Ismatov.txt C:\Nabijon – nuskhai fayli Ismatov.txt az disket ba katalogi Nabijoni diski vinchester bardoshta meshavad.
  2. Copy A:\Toiqov.txt c:\Alfa\Komilov.txt – fayli Toirov.txt az disket ba katalogi Alfa-i diski vinchester bo nomi Komilov.txt nuskhabardori karda meshavad.
  3. Copy S:\Sc4\Sc4.com a:\ – fayli Sc4.com az katalogi Sc4-i diski vinchester bo hamin nom ba katalogi asosii disket nuskhabardori karda meshavad.

 EZOH:

  1. Dar nomi faylho alomathoi shabloniro istifoda burdan mumkin ast: Copy A:\*.txt C:\*.txt – nuskhai hamai faylhoi qismi ilovagii nomashon .txt buda, az disket ba diski vinchester bardoshta meshavand.
  2. Dar komandai Copy nomi qismhoi kompyuterro istifoda burdan mumkin ast:

Copy con C:\Aliev.txt – matne, ki az klaviatura dokhil karda meshavad, hamchun fayl bo nomi Aliev.txt dar diski vinchester sabt megardad.

Copy C:\Junusi.txt Con – matni fayli Junusi.txt ba ekrani monitor barovarda meshavad.

Copy C:\Ismati.txt Pqn – matni fayli Ismati ba printer nuskhabardori karda meshavad, yane dar kogaz chop megardad.

Copy Con Prn – matne, ki az klaviatura dokhil karda meshavad, bevosita dar kogaz chop megardad.

YAkjoyakunii faylho. Komandai nuskhabardorii faylho (Copy) hamchunin imkoniyat medihad, ki matni yakchand fayl dar yak fayl yakjoya karda shavand. SHakli komanda dar in

mavrid chunin ast:

COPY <FAYL 1>+<FAYL 2>+…+<FAYL N> <FAYL>

MISOL:

  1. Copy Faqida.txt+DiloROM.txt Gulandom.txt – matni faylhoi Faqida.txt va DiloROM.txt yakjoya karda shuda, ba fayli natijavi nomi Gulandom.txt doda meshavad.
  2. Copy Murod.txt+Miqzo.txt Summ.txt – matni faylhoi Muqod.txt va Miqzo.txt yakjoya karda shuda, az onho yak fayli Summ.txt sokhta meshavad.
  3. Copy All.doc+Sigma.doc+Link.doc Komil.doc – matni faylhoi All.doc, Sigma.doc, Link.doc yakjoya karda shuda, az onho yak fayli Komil.doc sokhta meshavad.
  4. Copy *.txt+*.doc *.prn – dar katalogi jori ba har yak fayli qismi ilovagii nomash .txt buda, fayli hamnomash, ki qismi ilovagiash .txt ast, hamroh karda meshavad.

Faylhoi natijavi bo hamon nomho, vale qismi ilovagii .pqn-doshta hosil meshavand.

Ba katalogi digar kuchonidani faylho. Baroi az yak katalog ba katalogi digar kuchonidani faylho niz az komandai Move istifoda mebarand. Az in komanda hangomi ivazkunii nomi katolgho istifoda burda shuda bud. Baroi ijroi in komanda, boyad dar katalogi DOS utiliti Move.exe mavjud boshad. SHakli umumii komanda dar in mavrid chunin ast:

Move <Roh ba fayl> <Roh ba katalog>

MISOL:

  1. Move Link.txt A:\Alfa – az katalogi jori fayli Link.txt ba katalogi Alfa, ki dar disket joygir shudaast, kuchonida meshavad.
  2. Move A:\Nu\Nu.exe c:\Nu – fayli Nu.exe az katalogi Nui disket ba katalogi Nu-i diski vinchester kuchonida meshavad.

Koftukovi faylho dar disk. Baroi bo tezi az diskho kofta yoftani faylhoi lozimi komandai Find khizmat merasonad. Baroi ijro shudani in komanda, boyad dar katalogi Dos utiliti Find.exe joy doshta boshad. SHakli umumii komanda chunin ast:

Find <Roh ba fayl>

MISOL:

  1. Find Nu.exe – dar katalogi jori fayli Nu.exe kofta meshavad. Dar holati dar katalog mavjud nabudani in fayl, ba ekran informatsiya oidi nabudani chunin fayl barovarda meshavad.
  2. Find A:\Alfa\Sc4.com – dar katalogi Alfa, ki dar disket joygir shudaast, fayli sc4.com kofta meshavad.
  3. Find C:\Woqd\*.doc – dar katalogi Woqd–i diski vinchester, faylhoi qismi ilovagii nomashon .doc-buda kofta meshavand.

Savolho:

  1. Komandai sokhtani fayli nav va dokhilkunii matni on kadom ast?
  2. Bo yorii kadom komandaho matni faylro ba ekran barovardan mumkin ast?
  3. Vazifai komandai Del az chi iborat ast?
  4. Nomi faylro chi guna ivaz kardan mumkin ast?
  5. Baroi hosilkunii nuskhai fayl az kadom komanda istifoda mebarand?
  6. YAkchand faylro chi tavr yakjoya mekunand?
  7. Bo yorii kadom komanda faylro az yak katalog ba katalogi digar mekuchonand?
  8. CHi tavr faylhoro az disk meyoband?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va komandahoi onro az khud kuned.
  2. Dar daftaraton fayli matnie sozed, ki on az 10-15 jumla iborat boshad va dar borai «Kompyuter» bahs namoyad. Bad az komandahoi korkardi faylho istifoda burda, ba on nomi khudro guzored va pay dar pay satrhoi onro dar katalogi dar mavzui guzashta sokhtagiaton, ba kompyuter dokhil namoed. Pas az sabti fayl dar vinchester, matni onro ba ekran barored. Nuskhai faylatonro ba nomi dustaton guzored va onro dar yagon katalogi ikhtiyorii digar joygir namoed. Fayli asliatonro nest kuned.

EZOH:

Bandi duyumi suporishro boyad har yak talaba avval dar daftar ijro namoyad va bad bo yorii muallim dar kompyuter guzaronad.

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