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KOLHOZ

CHun dar hikoyati mo chandin bor az kolkhoz yod shud, bad nest sayri tarikhie ba paydoishi on bikunem, bakhusus, ki in shakli molikiyat dar hayoti mardumi mo padidai nav buda, tasiri amiqe ba zindagivu farhang guzoshtaast.

Kolkhozho (khojagihoi jamiyati) okhiri solhoi bistum, avvali solhoi siyumi asri guzashta tashkil shudaand. Qarori tashkil kardani kolkhozhoro hukumati SHuravi dar payi lagvi «Siyosati navi iqtisodi» sodir karda bud.

Vaqte dar Rusiya bolshavikho inqilob karda, hokimiyatro ba dast giriftand, kishvar dar natijai jangi yakumi jahoni, az jihati iqtisodi dar holi bade qaror dosht. Ba hukumati navtasis lozim meomad, ki yakbora dar chand jabha bijangad. Jang bo Lahiston, jang bo Jopun va jangi dokhili sarfi ziyod metalabid. Az in sabab, hukumat siyosati Kommunizmi harbiro tayi solhoi 1918-1921 jori karda bud, ki tibqi muqarraroti on, dehqonon majbur budand tamomi hosili khudro ba davlat

*. Vojahoi «fahsh» va «sar» dar misrai duvum va chorum ivaz shudaand, zero ovar- dani on uzvi badan, ki dar asl az suyi Bobokalon khonda shuda bud, az rui odob nest. Muallif .

bisporand. In siyosat sohai kishovarziro ba nobudi kashid va dar natija ba ziddiyat va shurishhoi dehqonon ovard. Az hamin sabab, Lenin – raisi SHuroi Komissarhoi khalq, ki hukumati markazi ba hisob meraft, dar kungurai dahumi hizbi kommu- nist qarori Siyosati navi iqtisodiro, ki dar asl bo doktrini kommunisti mukholif bud, qabul va jori kard. In siyosat dar solhoi 1921-1927 rui kor bud va molikiyati khususi dar sohai kishovarziro ijozat medod, dar hole, ki doktrini marksizm vujudi molikiyati khususiro qatan ijozat namedihad. Tibqi in siyosat, kishovarzon metavonistand qismi mahsuloti tav- lidkardaashonro dar ikhtiyori khud nigoh dorand, ki dar natija khojagiho rushd karda, sohai kishovarzii ba nobudi rasida barqaror gardid.

kolkhoz

Vale az ruzi paydoishash, kishvari SHuravi az sui olami sarmoya dar inzivo qaror doda shuda bud. Hech sarmoyadoru bonk omoda nabud, ki dar in kishvar mablagguzori kunad va Ittihodi SHuravi toraft az kishvarhoi digar, ki bosurat sanoati me- shudand, qafo memond. Baroi Stalin – rohbari shuravi puli ziyod lozim bud, ki kishvarro sanoati kunonad. CHun iqtisodi kishvar kishovarzi bud, u qaror kard, ki in sarmoyaro hamin soha boyad bipardozad. U farmon dar borai jamiyatikunonii vositahoi istehsolot va zaminro sodir kard, ki sababgori badbakhtii beshtari tamomi khalqhoi sokini SHuravi gasht.

Az yak su, muborizai beamone ziddi zamindoru sarmoya- doron va bosavodon ba roh andokhta shud, ki dar natijai on millionho nafarro ba Sibir badarga kardandu kushtand. In mazlumon quvvai sozanda va peshbarandai jamiyat budand, tajribai mudiriyati iqtisod va tanzimi hayoti jomearo do- shtand. Tanho gunohashon in bud, ki zaminu sarmoya doshtand va savodnok budand. Siyosati durbinona va khiradmandona metavo- nist az tajribai onho baroi obodii kishvar sudi bamarotib beshtare ba dast orad. Az sui digar, khojagihoi jamiyatiero, ki bo musodirai zamin va oloti mehnat sokhta budand, vodor ba on kardand, ki tamomi mahsuloti ruyondai khudro ba dav- lat bisporand, ki in niz sababgori qahtu gushnagii besobiqa va margi millionho nafar gasht, ki ba nomi «golodomor» yo «gushnamuri» maruf ast.

Hikoyat mekunand, ki on zamon, yak pisarbachchai panjrudi, ki hanuz barhayot ast, bo dasturi modarash ba nazdi raisi kol- khoz omadu guft:

  • Modaram khohish kardand, ki yak toqi gandum dihed, ba khoharam atola pazem, ki az gushnagi varam kardaastu misli barodaram, ki diruz murd, memirad.

Rais pursid:

  • Barodari murdaatro chi kor karded?
  • Gur kardem, – hiq-hiq az girya nafasgir shuda guft kudak.
  • Rav, ba ochaat guy, ki in ham murad, qatori hamon baroda- rat gur mekuned! – bo zarda javob dod rais.

Bechora rais, guyo agar gami on dukhtari badbakhtro mekhurd, bo ahli avlodash ba Sibir badarga shudanash yaqin bud.

Solhoi shumi bistu sii asri guzashta dar sarosari shashyaki rui zamin ahvol hamin budaast. Millionho odamon bo jabr qurboni on siyosati beamoni naslkushi shudaand.

Ba hamin qimati millionho joni insoni Stalin dar mud- dati nisbatan kutoh – dah-duvozdah sol, tavonist kishvarro sanoati kunad. Baroi u va nizome, ki sozandaash u bud, hayoti inson va fojiai ijtimoi arzishe nadosht va naqli qavli u, ki gufta bud: «Qatli yak nafar jinoyat va qatli hazoron nafar omor ast», isboti in fikr ast.

In jo dar javob ba tanai baze millatgarohoi rus, ki guyo Rusiya tojikonro mekhurond, boyad guft, ki digar tashkhis dodani in, ki ba bahoi joni hazoron hazor tifli masumi tojik Rusiya sanoati shud yo bo bahoi joni hazoron hazor «kulak»-i khalqhoi digar Ittihodi shuravi sokhta shud, korest bemani va tavhin ba ruhi on hama qurbonshudagon!

Hamin kolkhozi Rudaki niz hosili on solhost, hanuz ham mardum medonand, ki zaminhoi kolkhoz moli ki budand, bar- zagovu aspu yugu omochi ki musodira va jamiyati shuda, asosi kolkhozro tashkil kardaand.

Dar zamoni bachchagii man kolkhoz muassisae bud, ki aksari mardumi dehot azoi on budand. Vale voqeiyat in bud, ki mardum rasman sahmdori in khojagiho boshand ham, dar asl molikiyati khojagiro moli khud namehisobidand, balki ba on hamchun moli- kiyati besohib munosibat mekardand. Onhoe, ki ba molikiyati kolkhoz dastrasi doshtand, dar duzdi va azkhudnamudani on ibo namekardand. Dar holati oshkor shudani duzdivu fasod az sui maqomoti nazoratkunanda, aksaran bo rishva az javobgari kha- los meshudand.

Iqtisod dar SHuravi naqshavi buda, khojagiho vazifador budand, to tamomi mahsuloti istehsolkardaashonro bo narkhi tainshuda ba davlat bisuporand, ki in dar kormandon baroi ijro kardani naqsha angeza ejod namekard. Dar holati ijro nashudani naqsha masulon jazo medidand. In amr onhoro vo- dor mekard, ki izofanavisi va omorsozi kunand. Hamin tavr, iqtisodi naqshavii shuravi dar sohai kishovarzi yak nizomi fasodzada va durug bud, ki ba kambudi mavodi gizoi ovard va davlat majbur shud, baroi voridi gandum az khorija mablaghoi kalon sarf kunad.

Odamon tibqi farhangi sunnati ba molikiyati shakhsi ehti- rom qoil budand. Vale in shakli molikiyati jamiyati farhangi mardumi moro, ki haromkhuriro gunoh medonistand, komilan tagyir doda, farqi halolu haromro az miyon burd.

Dar deha zamoni bachchagii man Kampiri Robia nom pi- razane mezist, ki to okhiri hayotash nafaqai tainkardai dav- latro nagirift va gayr az in ijozat ham nadoda bud, ki ba khonaash barqkashi kunand. U gufta bud, ki man ba davlat kor nakardaam, ki az on nafaqa giram, on baroi man harom ast. Puli barqro ham pardokhta nametavonam, fardo dar on dunyo chi javob mediham. Hamin tavr, in pirazan to okhiri umr bo qute, ki az zamini khudash ba dast meovard, bo qanoat zist.

Qanoat va halolkhuri qablan juzi afkori jomea budaast, ki bo paydoishi «molikiyati besohib» tagyir yofta, luqmai haloli mardumro harom kard.

Namedonam, sabab khotirai mardum az on zabti beinsofonai molikiyati boboyonashon bud, yo nafsi bad, vale yak iddae, ki on solho ruyi kor budand, beibo molikiyati jamiyatiro toroj mekardand. Namekhoham biguyam, ki dar jomeai qabl az kolkhoz duzdivu haromkhuri nabudaast. Vale qabl az kolkhoz molikiyat sohib dosht va duzdivu haromkhuri nametavonist in qadr gustar- da pahn shuda, juzi farhangi om bishavad. Albatta, na hama ba duzdi dast mezadand. On vaqt ham ziyod budand nafarone, ki imonu etiqod doshtand, ki haromkhuri gunoh ast.

Vale nuktai qobili tavajjuh in ast, ki onhoe ham, ki az duzdivu haromkhuri or mekardand, amali tabahkoronro nodida megiriftand, dar tuyu marakahoi onho ishtirok mekardand va dar khurdani moli haromi onho sharik meshudand. Az in meta- von khulosa barovard, ki haromu durug orom-orom dar jomeai shuravii tojik – in millati nekroyu nekpindor va ozoda roij va mamul meshud.

Ba nazar chunin menamoyad, ki kommunizm hamchun mafkura dar nazariya dilkashu jolib boshad ham, dar amal ba tabiati inson sozgor nabudaast. Hamin izofanavisi, omorsozii durugin va fasodi gustarda dar okhir yake az sababhoi suquti noguziri kishvari abarqudrati SHuravi shud.

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