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QOFIYA VA RADIF – CHist?

Qofiya kalimai arabi buda, manoi lugaviash pushti sar, okhiri har chiz, az pay ravanda meboshad. Dar zaboni tojiki bazeho kalimai pasovand (shakli mukhaffafi on pasvanD)-ro ba manoi qofiya ba kor burdaand. SHoiri asri yozdah- Labibi meguyad:

Hama yova, hama khomu hama sust,
Maoni az chakova to pasovand.

Dar ilmi zabonshinosi pasovandro ba manoi pasoyandyak hissai okhiri kalima, ki manoi onro tagyir medihad, niz kor mefarmoyad. Ba manoi istilohi kalimahoi hamshakl, hamohang yo hamvaznero qofiya menomand, ki dar beshtari mavrid dar okhiri misrahoi sher omada, vazn va ohangnokii onro muayyan mesozad. Masalan, «dod», «bod», «shod», «rod» va «dast»-u «rast»-u «hast» va gayra. Misol:

To nagiryad abr, kay khandad chaman,

To nagiryad tifl, kay nushad laban.

yo ki:

Az kaji afti ba kamu kosti, Az hama gam rasti, agar rosti.

Dar bayti avval kalimahoi «chaman» va «laban», dar bayti soni kalimahoi «kosti» va «rosti» qofiya shudaand. Sababi asosii hamqofiya shudani in kalimaho dar on ast, ki dar tarkibi kalimahoi «chaman»-u «laban» du harfi yakkhela- «an» va dar tarkibi kalimahoi «kosti»-yu «rosti» chor harfi yakkhela «osti» omadaand. Baroi donistani ilmi qofiya boyad du mafhumi asosi: k a l i m a i q o f i ya (yo k a l i m a h o i q o f i ya) va r e sh a i q o f i ya ro hamesha dar khotir nigoh dosht. Kalimahoe, ki ba vazifahoi qofiya meoyand, kalimahoi qofiya yo k a l i – m a i q o f i ya, harfhoi yakkhelai kalimahoi qofiyaro r e sh a i q o f i ya menomand. Masalan, dar in bayti Firdavsi:

YAke bandagi kardam, ay shahriyor, Ki mond zi man dar jahon yodgor.

Kalimahoi «shahriyor» va «yodgor» qofiya buda, juzvhoi «-yor»-u «-or» reshai qofiya meboshand.

Dar in bayti Hofiz:

Man bandai on kasam, ki shavqe dorad, Dar gardani khud zi ishq tavqe dorad.

«SHavqe» va «tavqe» kalimahoi qofiya buda, juzvi «-avqe»-i hardu kalimai qofiya reshai qofiya ast. Agar shumo bo in misolho diqqat karda boshed, mebined, ki qofiya az majui harfho sokhta meshavand. Baroi hamin aksari adabiyotshinoson qofiyaro az yak harf iborat donistaand va onro r a v i nom dodaand.

Ravi niz az kalimai arabii rivo (resmone, ki bo on bori ushturro bandad), girifta shudaast. Dar ilmi qofiya okhirin harfi reshagii kalimai qofiyaro r a v i nomidaand. YAne misli on ki bori ushtur bo resmon basta meshavad, to ki on naaftad, pas tamomi baythoi sher ba harfi ravi vobastagi dorad. Harchand qofiyaro yak harf donistaand, ammo dar asl hasht harfi digar tobei on meboshad, ki dar majmu nuh harfro tashkil medihad. On nuh harf inhoyand: tasis, dakhil, ridf, qayd, ravi, vasl, khuruj, mazid va noyira.

Dar bolo takid kardem, ki du mafhumi asosi – kalimai (kalimahoi) qofiya va reshai q o f i ya ro mo hamesha dar khotir nigoh doshta boshem. In gufta chunin mani dorad, ki har harfi reshai qofiya nomi makhsus dorad. Misol:

Fosh meguyamu az guftai khud dilshodam,

Bandai ishqamu az har du jahon ozodam.

(Hofiz)

Dar in bayti Hofiz «dilshodam» va «ozodam» kalimahoi qofiya va juzvi «-odam» reshai qofiya meboshad. Dar in reshai qofiya se harf (o, d, m) va yak harakat (a) omadaast va har kadomi onho nom dorand. Muvofiqi qoidai ilmi qofiya, dar in reshai qofiya harfi «o» ridfi mufrad (harfi sadonoki darozest, ki dar qofiya pesh az ravi meoyad), harfi «d» r a v i i m u t l a q (ravie, ki bo harfi v a s l chaspida boshad, yane badi harfi ravi harfi digare omada boshad), sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o (harakatest, ki badi ravi omada, onro bo harfi v a s l mepayvandad, odatan sadonoki kutohi «a» ba vazifai majro meoyad) va harfi «m»v a s l (harfest, ki badi ravi meoyad) meboshand.

Az in nuh harf chortoi on (tasis, dakhil, ridf, qayd) hamesha pesh az harfi ravi va chortoi digarash – vasl, khuruj, mazid va noyira hamesha badi ravi meoyand. Donishmandi asri 15, muallifi «Jami mukhtasar» – Vahidi Tabrezi harfhoi qofiyaro dar in qita ba nazm darovardaast, ki kori khonandaro khele oson menamoyad:

Qofiya dar asl yak harf astu hasht onro taba,

CHor peshu chor pas, on nuqta, inho doyira.

Harfi tasisu Dakhilu riDfu qayD, on gah ravi,

Pas az on vaslu khurus astu maziDu noyira.

RaDif niz kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash du yo yakchand chiz, ki dar pahlui ham yo pasi ham omada boshand, hamsaf, hamsafar. Inchunin, kasero guyand, ki dar asp, shutur yo khar badi jilavdor savor shuda boshad. Ba manii istilohi radif kalima yo iboraest, ki dar beshtari mavrid badi qofiya az avval to okhiri sher ba takror bioyad. Misol:

Ay bod, bui YUsufi dilho ba mo rason,

YAk navbar az bahori dili mo ba mo rason.

Az zulfi u chu bar sari zulfash guzar kuni,

Pinhon biduzd muevu paydo ba mo rason.

(Hoqoni)

Dar ruboii Hoqoni kalimahoi «dilho», «mo» va «paydo» qofiya buda, iborai «ba mo ravon», ki dar harse misra takror omadaast, radif ast.

Radif va qofiya latofati tab, jazolati sukhan va yagonagii zehni shoirro khubtar namuda, baroi dilkashu zebo shudani sher ahamiyati makhsus dorad. Radif metavonad, ki yak kalima boshad, misli in du bayti Parvini Etisomi:

Saru aql gar khidmati jon kunand,

Base kori dushvor oson kunand.

Bikhohand gar didayu dil zi oz,

Baso charkhhoro, ki arzon kunand.

Dar chor misrai bolo kalimahoi «jon», oson» va «arzon» qofiya buda, kalimai «kunand» radif meboshad.

Gohe radif qismi ziyodi misrai sherro tashkil medihad va hatto dar misrae yak kalima ba vazifai qofiya omada, boqii kalimaho hama radif. Misol:

Biyo, ki khonai dil be rukhi tu nur nadorad,

Daro, ki khonai dil be tu nur nadorad,

Zi khonai dili man nuri rukh dareg nadori,

CHaro, ki khonai dil be rukhi tu nur nadorad.

Dar abyoti bolo kalimahoi «biyo», «daro» va «charo» qofiya, kalimahoi boqii misraho hama radifand.

SHere, ki radif dorad, muraddaf menomand. Dar tarikhi adabiyoti klassiki fors-tojik ashori shoironi gunogunro, ki ba radifi muvofiqi hamdigar gufta shudaand, jam ovarda r a d o i f u l – a sh o r nom nihodaand.

Dar barobari qofiya va radif dar bayni ahli adab mafhumi h o – j i b va m a h j u b khele mamul ast.

Hojib niz kalimai arabist, manoyash monea, pardador, darbon buda, dar istilohi adabiyotshinosi kalimae boshad, ki pesh az qofiya dar har misra ovarda shavad, misli on ki radifro badi qofiya orand. Dar beshtari mavrid hojib dar bayni qofiyatan (du qofiya) meoyad. Misol:

Ay shoh, zamin bar osmon dori takht,

Sust ast adu, to tu kamon dori sakht.

Hamla sabuk orivu garon dori rakht,

Piri tu ba donishu savon dori bakht.

Dar in ruboii Muizzi kalimahoi «osmon»-u «takht», «kamon»-u, «sakht», «garon»-u «rakht» va «javon»-u «bakht» qofiyatayn buda, kalimai «dori» hojib meboshad. SHere, ki dar on hojib omadaast, m a h j u b menomand, az in ru, ruboii bolo ruboii mahjub ast.

SHere, ki dar on q o f i ya v u r a d i f u h o j i b omadaand, dilkashu zebo buda, ba zehni khonandayu shunavanda khele khush menamoyad.

Qofiya dar adabiyoti klassikii fors-tojik az vositahoi asosii shakli sher buda, vobasta ba tarzi qofiyabandi navhoi sherro (gazal, qasida, qita, masnavi, musammat va gayra) judo mekunand. Masalan, tarzi qofiyabandii, masnavi ba surati: aa, bb, vv, gg; tarzi qofiyabandii gazalu qasida ba surati: aa, ba, va, ga; tarzi qafiyabandii qita ba surati: ab, vb, gb, gb meboshad. Misol baroi masnavi:

Payafkandam az nazm kokhe baland, Ki az bodu boron nayobad gazand.

(Firdavsi)

Kalimahoi «baland»-u «gazand» qofiya buda, juzvi «-and» reshai qofiya ast, ki sadonoki kutohi «a» hazv (harakate, ki pesh az harfi qayd meoyad), harfi «n» q a y d (hamsadoero guyand, ki pesh az harfi ravi meoyad), harfi «r» r a v i i m u t l a q (raviero guyand, ki bo harfi v a s l chaspida boshad), harfi «i» v a s l (harfe boshad, ki badi ravi omadaast). Kalimai «nakardi», ki az avval to okhiri baythoi gazal omadaast, radif ast va az in ru, in gazalro muraddaf (radifdor) meguyand.

Misol baroi qita:

Gile khushbuy dar hammom ruze

Rasid az dasti makhdume ba dastam.

Ba-d-u guftam, ki mushki yo abiri,

Ki az bui dilovezi tu mastam.

Bigufto: «Man gile nochiz budam,

Valekin muddate bo gul nishastam.

Kamoli hamnishin bo man asar kard

Vagarna, man hamon gulam, ki hastam».

(Sadi)

Dar in qitai Sadi kalimahoi «dastam», «mastam», «nishastam» va «hastam» qofiya buda, juzvi «-astam» r e sh a i q o f i ya meboshad. Dar in reshai qofiya sadonoki kutohi «a» h a z v, harfi «s» q a y d, harfi «t» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o va harfi «m» vasl ast.

Dar baze kitobhoi adabiyotshinosi takid shudaast va baze muhaqqiqon dar hamin aqidaand, ki tarzi qofiyabandii qita misli gazalu qasida niz hast, yane guyo qitahoe vujud dorand, ki bayti avval va misrahoi jufti baythoi digari qita hamqofiyaand (misli aa, ba, va, ga). CHunin aqida dar mavridi qofiyasozii qita hej guna asosi ilmi nadorad, zero tafovuti gazalu qasida az qita faqat dar tarzi qofiyabandii onho hastu khalos. Bayti avali qita hamqofiya (musarra) nest, ammo baythoi avvali gazalu qasida khamqofiyaand, yane musarraand. Donishmandi buzurgi asri sezdahi fors-tojik-SHamsi Qaysi Rozi dar kitobi «Al-mujam» menavisad: «Har qasida, ki matlai on musarra (hamqofiya) naboshad, agarchi daroz buvad, onro qasida nakhonand va ismi qasida bar on itloq nakunand (nadihand)». Azbaski bayti avvali qita hamqofiya (musarra) nest, gohe onro gazal yo qasidai sarburida niz meguyand.

Baroi misol chand bayti qasidai «Lujjat-ul-asror»-i Jomiro meorem, ki dar javobi qasidai «Daryoi abror»-i Husravi Dehlavi guftaast:

Kunguri ayvoni shah, k-az kokhi

Kayvon bartar ast,

Rakhnakho, don, k-ash ba devori hisori din dar ast.

CHun salomat monad az toroj naqdi in hisor?

Posbon dar khobu bar har rakhna duzde digar ast.

CHist zarri nob? Rangin gashta khoke z-oftob,

Har ki kard afsar zi zarri nob khokash bar sar ast.

Gar nadorad simu zar dono, maneh nomash gada,

Dar barash dil bahri donish v-u shahi bahri bar ast…

Mar buvad panohu chun omad du mar abyoti on,

Dar safovu mahkami shoyad, ki gu marmar ast.

Hudi qasida az sad bayt (dusad misra) iborat buda, mo baroi misol panj bayti onro ovardem. Qasida dar bahri Ramali musammani maqsur (yo mahzuf) ejod shuda, kalimahoi «bartar», «dar», «digar», «sar», «bar», qofiya buda, juzvi «-ar» reshai qofiyaro tashkil medihad, ki sadonoki kutohi «a» t a v j e h va hamsadoi «r « r a v i i m u q a y d meboshand.

Misol baroi musammati musallas:

Monandi sabo khezu vazidan digar omuz,

Domoni gulu lola kashidan digar omuz,

Andar dilaki guncha khazidan digar omuz!

Muina ba bar kardivu be zavq tapidi,

On guna tapidi, ki ba joe narasidi,

Dar anjumani shavq tapidan digar omuz.

Kofir dili ovora digarbora ba u band,

Bar khesh kusho didavu az gayr furu band,

Didan digar omuzu nadidan digar omuz…

Dar in musammati musallasi Muhammad Iqbol kalimahoi «varzidan», «kashidan», «khazidan»-i bandi avval va kalimai «tapidan»- i bandi duyum va kalimai «nadidan»-i bandi seyum qofiya buda, juzvi «-idan» reshai qofiya meboshad, ki harfi «i» r i d f i m u f r a d (yo a s – l i), harfi «d» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o va harfi «n» v a s l ast. Hudi qofiya qofiyai mutlaq ast, zero harfi ravi («d») bo harfi vasl («n») chaspidaast. Dar bandi yakumi musammati musallas, dar misrahoi seyumi bandhoi duyumu seyum kalimahoi «digar omuz» takroran omadaand, ki radif meboshand. Dar bandi duyumi in musammati musallas kalimahoi «tapidi» va «narasidi» qofiya buda, juzvi «-idi» reshai qofiyaro tashkil medihand. Dar in reshai qofiya harfi «i» r i d f i m u f r a d, harfi «d» r a v i i m u t l a q va harfi «i» v a s l meboshand. Dar bandi seyum kalimahoi «u» va «furu» qofiya buda, reshai on az yak harf – «u» iborat shudaast, ki on harfi ravii muqayyad ast. Kalimai «band» dar du misrai in band takror shuda, radifi onro tashkil dodast. Hamin tariq, dar in musammati musallas ba juz misrahoi yakumu duyumi bandi duyum tamomi misrahoi digar doroi radifand, baroi hamin, mo metavonem in musammati musallasro m u s a m m a t i m u s a l l a s i m u r a d d a f nomem.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Qofiya chist?
  2. Manoi lugavi va istilohii radifro gued.
  3. Munosibati qofiya va radif dar chi zohir meshavad?
  4. Muraddaf bo radif chi munosibat dorad?
  5. Harfhoi asosii qofiyaro nombar kuned.
  6. Kalimai qofiya va reshai qofiya az kadom jihat az ham farq mekunand?
  7. Baroi chi harfi raviro az harfhoi asosii qofiya medonand.
  8. Tafovuti qofiyai muqayyad va qofiyai mutalaqro fahmoned.
  9. Bayte biored, ki dar on qofiyai muqayyad omada boshad. YU.Qofiya va radifi bayti zero yobed:

Ba yoroni kuhan yori nakardi,

CHddal kardi, vafodori nakardi.

YU.Vazifahoi badeii qofiya va radifro bayon kuned.

 

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