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QOFIYAI MUTLAQ VA HARFHOI ON

Dar ilmi badei klassiki qofiyaero mutlaq menomand, ki agar harfi ravi bo harfi vasl  chaspida boshad, yane badi harfi ravi harfi digare omada boshad. Misol:

Raiyat ba zulmi tu chun olimand,

Zi zulmi tu bar yakdigar zolimand.

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Mutaqoribi musammani maqsur) kalimahoi «olimand» va «zolimand» qofiya, juzvi «-olimand» reshai onro tashkil medihad. Dar in reshai qofiya sadonoki «o» tasis, hamsadoi «l» da -kh i l, sadonoki kutohi «i» i sh b o , hamsadoi «m» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki «a» m a j r o, hamsadoi «n» v a s l va hamsadoi «d» kh u r u j ast. CHun dar in qofiya harfi okhirini reshagi, yane ravi (harfi «m») bo harfhoi badi on omada chaspidaast, onro qofiyai mutlaq menomand.

Qofiyai mutlaq nisbat ba q o f i ya i m u q a y ya d navhoi ziyod dorad va harfhoi asosii on vasl, khuruj, mazid, noyira meboshand. Dar qofiyai mutlaq ilova bar harfhoi khosi on vasl, khuruj, mazid, noyira harfhoe, ki dar qofiyai muqayyad ishtirok mekunand – misli tasis, dakhil, ridf (ridfi mufrad va ridfi murakkab) niz meoyand. Misol baroi qofiyai mutlaq bo hazv, qayd, ravii mutlaq, majro, vasl va khuruj:

Mardoni qabila rakht bastand

V-az arsa hama berun nishastand.

Vazni in bayt Hazaji musaddasi akhrabi maqbuzi maqsur buda, kalimahoi «bastand»-u «nishastand» qofiyai onro tashkil medihand. Juzvhoi «-astand»-i hardu kalimai qofiya reshai onand, ki sadonoki kutohi «a» h a z v, hamsadoi «s» q a y d, hamsadoi «t» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki «a» m a j r o, hamsadoi «n» v a s l va hamsadoi «d» kh u r u j meboshad.

Hamin tariq, harfhoe, ki badi ravi dar reshai qofiya meoyand, ba guruhi harfhoi qofiyai mutlaq dokhil meshvand va onho chortoyand: vaslu khuruju mazidu noyira. Holo har kadomi onro ba tavri mukhtasar sharh medihem.

  1. Vasl kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash payvastani chize ba chizi digar, chaspondan buda, dar ilmi qofiya nomi yake az harfhoi reshagist, ki badi harfi r a v i omada, bo on payvast shuda boshad.

Hamin tariq, hamsadoho, sadonokhoi daroz va harfhoi yotbarsar (y, e, yu, ya) ba vazifai vasl omada metavonand. Misol:

Agar on turki sherozi ba dast orad dili moro,

Ba kholi hinduyash bakhsham Samarqandu Bukhororo.

Dar in bayti Hofiz (vaznash – Hazaji musammani solim) kalimai «moro» va «Bukhororo» qofiya buda, juzvi «-oro» reshai qofiya ast. Dar in reshai qofiya har «o» ravii mutlaq, kharfi «r» v a s l va harfi «o»-i okhir khuruj ast.

Misoli digar:

Joni shirin, in qadar jangam makun,

In qadar behuda diltangam makun.

Dar in bayti Mirzo Tursunzoda (vaznash – Ramali musaddasi mahzuf) kalimahoi «jangam» va «diltangam» qofiya, juzvi «-angam»-i hardu kalima reshai qofiya meboshad, ki sadonoki kutohi «o» h a z v, hamsadoi «n» q a y d, hamsadoi «g» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o va hamsadoi «m» vasl meboshad.

Sadonokhoi kutohi «a», «i» va «u» badi harfi ravi oyand ham, vasl shuda nametavonand, zero onho dar alifboi arabi harf ne, balki harakatand. Agar v a s l az hamsado iborat boshadu pesh az vay sadonoki kutoh omada boshad, dar on surat sadonoki kutohi badi ravi omadaro majro menomand. Misol:

Hayoli rui tu dar korgohi dida kashidam,

Ba surati tu nigore nadidamu nashunidam. (Hofiz)

Dar in bayti Hofiz (vaznash – Mujtassi musammani makhbun) kalimahoi «kashidam» va «nashunidam» qofiya, juzvi «-idam» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «i» ridfi mufrad (asli), hamsadoi «d» ravii mutlaq, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o va hamsadoi «m» vasl meboshad.

Agar sher bo qofiyae tamom shuda boshad, ki harfi okhiri onro sadonoki «a» tashkil dodaast, dar on surat in sadonok vazifai vaslro ijro kardaast. Masalan, dar in bayt:

Ashke chu lal rezad on lab maro zi dida,

Dar shisha harchi boshad, az vay hamon chakida. (Kamol)

Vazni in bayt Muzorei musammani akhrab buda, kalimahoi «dida» va «chakida» ba vazifai qofiya omadaand. Dar in qofiya juzvi «-ida» reshai qofiya meboshad, ki harfi «i» r i d f i m u f r a d, harfi «d» r a -v i i m u t l a q va harfi «a» vasl ast.

Huruj kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash berun shudan, berun raftan buda, dar ilmi qofiya nomi yake az harfhoi reshagist. Huruj harfi hamsadoest, ki dar reshai qofiya badi harf v a s l omada boshad. Misol:

Ba davlat kasone, ki afrokhtand,

Ki toji takabbur biandokhtand. (Sadi)

Dar in bayti Sadi (vaznash – Mutaqribi musammani maqsur) kalimahoi «afrokhtand» va «biandokhtand» qofiya, juzvi «-okhtand» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «o» ridfi mufrad, harfi «kh» ridfi murakkab, harfi «t» ravii m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o, harfi «n» v a s l va harfi «d» kh u r u j ast.

Takrori khuruj dar qofiya hatmi buda, tamomi shoironi guzashta va imruzai fors – tojik az in qoida berun naraftaand. Misol:

Padarro mujdai davlat rasoned,

Dilashro z-otashi mehnat rahoned. (Jomi)

Dar in bayti Jomi (vaznash – Hazaji musaddasi maqsur) kalimahoi «rasoned»-u «rahoned» qofiya, juzvi «-oned» reshai qofiya buda, harfi «o» r i d f i m u f r a d, harfi «n» r a v i i m u t l a q, harfi «e» v a s l va harfi «d» khuruj ast.

Mazid niz kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash ziyodshuda, afzunshuda, afzuni dar chize meboshad. Dar ilmi qofiya yake az harfhoi reshagii qofiyaro guyand, ki badi khuruj omada boshad. Misol:

In dil, ki ba sui dilbare bastemash,

Harchand gusast, boz payvastemash.

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi maqbuzi abtar) kalimahoi «bastemash»-u «payvastemash» qofiya, juzvi «-astemash» reshai qofiya meboshad. Dar in reshai qofiya sadonoki kutohi «a» h a z v, hamsadoi «s» q a y d, hamsadoi «t» r a v i i m u t l a q, yotbarsari «e» v a s l, hamsadoi «m» kh u r u j, sadonoki kutohi «a» n a f o z va hamsadoi «sh» mazid ast.

Takrori mazid dar qofiya hatmi buda, ivaz namudani on bo harfi digar joiz nest.

Noyira (noyir) kalimai arabist, manoi lugaviash shula, otash; ramanda, gurezanda meboshad. Asli kalimai noyira az n i v o r ast ba manoi ramidan va dur shudan. Misol:

Gar dil zi gami yor napardokhtanistesh,

Bo u ba hama vuquh darsokhtanistesh.

Dar in bayt (vaznash – Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi maqsur, hashvi duyumi misrai duyum – akhrab) kalimahoi «napardokhtanistesh» va «darsokhtanistesh» qofiya, juzvi «-okhtanistesh» reshai qofiya meboshad, ki harfi «o» r i d f i m u f r a d, harfi «kh» r i d f i m u r a k k a b, harfi «t» r a v i i m u t l a q, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o, harfi «n» v a s l, sadonoki kutohi «a» m a j r o, harfi «n» v a s l, sadonoki kutohi «i» n a- f o z, harfi «s» kh u r u j, harfi «t» m a z i d va kharfhoi «e»-yu «sh» noyira meboshad.

Agar dar qofiya badi mazid du yo se harf omada boshand ham, har kadomi on vazifai noyiraro ijro menamoyand.

Noyira az jumlai harfhoi kamistemoli qofiya buda, dar ashori

Namunaho baroi harfhoi qofiyai mutlaq:

  1. Misol baroi harfi v a s l:

Muarraf ba dildori omad barash,

Ki dastori qozi nihad bar sarash. (Sadi)

  1. Misol baroi harfi kh u r u j:

Darde, ki dilam did zi hajri tu, ki didast?

V-onho, ki zi zulfi tu kashidam, ki kashidast?

(Bisotii Samarqandi)

  1. Misol baroi m a z i d:

Dilam az nesti chi tarsonest,

Tanam az ofiyat harosonest. (Masudi Sad)

  1. Misol baroi n o y i r a:

On mah, ki ba chashmai mehr didastemash,

Az jumlai nekuvon guzidestemash.

(az «Risolai qofiya»-i Jomi)

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Qofiya chand nav ast?
  2. Kadom navi qofiyaro qofiyai mutlaq menomand?
  3. Kalimahoi qofiyai bayti poyoniro yofta muayyan kuned, ki onho ba kadom navi qofiya taalluq dorand?

Binohoi obod gardad kharob,
Zi boronu az tobishi oftob.

  1. Harfi ravi bo navhoi qofiya chi irtibot dorad?
  2. Manihoi lugavi va istilohii vaslro gued.
  3. Huruj badi kadom harfi qofiya meoyad?
  4. Oyo takrori harfi khuruj dar reshai qofiya hatmist?
  1. Dar bayni harfhoi kh u r u j va m a z i d chi guna irtibot ast?
  2. Manihoi lugavi va istilohii noyiraro gued.
  3. Agar badi harfi mazid dar reshai qofiya du-se harfi digar omada boshad, onhoro chi menomand?
  4. Dar bayti zer kadom harfhoi qofiya omadaand?

Savdoi tu az sina furu raftaniyast

V-on gah sukhani tu niz noguftaniyast.

  1. Harfhoe, ki dar sokhtani qofiyai mutlaq ishtirok mekunand, kadomhoyand?
  2. Bayte gued, ki dar on harfi vasl omada boshad.

 

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