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KODEKSI GRAJDANII JUMHURII TOJIKISTON (QISMI YaKUM)

(Akhbori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, s. 1999, №6, mod. 153, mod. 154; s. 2001, №7, mod. 508; s. 2002, №4, q. 1, mod. 170; s. 2005, №3, mod. 125; s. 2006, №4, mod. 193; s. 2007, №5, mod. 356; s. 2010, №3, mod. 156; №12, q. 1, mod. 802; s. 2012, №7, mod. 700, №12, q. 1, mod. 1021; s. 2013, №7, mod. 504; s. 2015, №3, mod. 200; Qonuni JT az 23.07.2016 s., № 1334)

FASLI  I. MUQARRAROTI  UMUMI.. 12

ZERFASLI  1. MUQARRAROTI ASOSI.. 12

BOBI   1. QONUNHOI  GRAJDANI.. 12

Moddai 1. Munosibathoe, ki qonunhoi grajdani tanzim menamoyand. 12

Moddai 2. Sanadi qonunguzorii grajdani. 13

Moddai 3. Prinsiphoi asosii qonunhoi grajdani. 13

Moddai 4. Amali qonunhoi grajdani vobasta ba vaqt. 13

Moddai 5. Ananahoi muomiloti kori. 13

Moddai 6. Istifodai qonunhoi grajdani az rui shabohat. 13

Moddai 7. Qonunhoi grajdani va sanadhoi huquqi  baynalmilali. 13

BOBI 2. ASOSHOI BA VUJUD OMADANI HUQUQ VA UHDADORIHOI  GRAJDANI, AMALI NAMUDAN VA HIFZI  HUQUQHOI  GRAJDANI.. 14

Moddai 8. Asoshoi ba miyon omadani huququ uhdadorihoi grajdani. 14

Moddai 9. Amali namudani huquqi grajdani. 14

Moddai 10. Haddi amali huquqhoi grajdani. 14

Moddai 11. Hifzi huquqi grajdani. 15

Moddai 12. Tarzhoi hifzi huquqi grajdani. 15

Moddai 13. Beetibor donistani sanadi maqomi davlati yo maqomi hokimiyati mahalli. 15

Moddai 14. Khudmuhofizati huquqi grajdani. 15

Moddai 15. Ruyonidani ziyon. 15

Moddai 16. Ruyonidani ziyoni rasonidai  maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli. 15

ZERFASLI  2. SUBEKTHOI  HUQUQI  GRAJDANI.. 16

BOBI 3. ShAHRVANDONI JUMHURII TOJIKISTON VA ShAKhSI VOQEII DIGAR. 16

Moddai 17. Mafhumi shahrvand (shakhsi voqei) 16

Moddai 18. Qobiliyati  huquqdorii   shahrvand. 16

Moddai 19. Mazmuni  qobiliyati huquqdorii  shahrvand. 16

Moddai 20. Nomi shahrvand. 16

Moddai 21. Istiqomatgohi shahrvand. 17

Moddai 22. Qobiliyati amali shahrvand. 17

Moddai 23. Nomumkin budani mahrum sokhtan yo mahdud kardani qobiliyati huquqdori yo qobiliyati amali shahrvand. 17

Moddai 24. Faoliyati sohibkorii shahrvandon. 17

Moddai 25. Masuliyati molu mulkii  shahrvandon. 17

Moddai 26. Muflisshavii sohibkori  infirodi. 18

Moddai 27. Qobiliyati amali noboligoni az chordah to hajdahsola. 18

Moddai 28.  Emansipatsiya. 19

Moddai 29. Qobiliyati amali noboligoni ba sinni chordah narasida. 19

Moddai 30. Gayri qobili amal donistani shahrvand. 19

Moddai 31. Mahdud sokhtani qobiliyati amali shahrvand. 19

Moddai 32. Vasoyat va parastori. 20

Moddai  33. Vasoyat. 20

Moddai 34.  Parastori. 20

Moddai 35. Maqomoti vasoyatu parastori. 20

Moddai 36.  Vasiyon va parastoron. 20

Moddai 37. Vazifai khudro ijro kardani vasiyon va parastoron. 21

Moddai 38. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) 21

Moddai 39. Idorakunii vakolatii molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) 21

Moddai 40. Az ijroi vazifa ozod  va dur kardani vasiyonu parastoron. 22

Moddai 41. Qat gardidani vasoyatu parastori. 22

Moddai 42. Himoya (patronaji)–i shahrvandoni qobili amal. 22

Moddai 43. Bedarak goib etirof namudani  shahrvand. 22

Moddai 44. Oqibati bedarak goib etirof namudani shahrvand. 23

Moddai 45. Bekor kardani qarori bedarak goib etirof namudani shahrvand. 23

Moddai 46. Favtida elon namudani shahrvand. 23

Moddai 47. Oqibati hozir shudani shahrvande, ki favtida elon shuda bud. 23

BOBI 4. ShAKhSI  HUQUQI.. 24

Moddai 48. Mafhumi shakhsi huquqi. 24

Moddai 49. Qobiliyati huquqdorii shakhsi  khuquqi. 24

Moddai 50. Tashkilothoi tijorati va gayritijorati. 24

Moddai 51. Baqaydgirii davlatii shakhsi huquqi. 25

Moddai 52. Muassisoni shakhsi huquqi. 25

Moddai 53. Hujjathoi tasisi shakhsi huquqi. 25

Moddai 54. Maqomoti shakhsi huquqi. 25

Moddai 55. Nom va mahalli joygirshavii  shakhsi huquqi. 26

Moddai 56. Namoyandagi va filialho. 26

Moddai 57. Masuliyati shakhsi huquqi. 26

Moddai 58. Aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi. 27

Moddai 59. Vorisii huquqi hangomi aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi. 27

Moddai 60. Sanadi supurdan yo balansi taqsimot. 27

Moddai 61. Kafolati huquqii kreditoroni shakhsi huquqi hangomi aznavtashkildihii on. 28

Moddai 62. Barham dodani shakhsi huquqi. 28

Moddai 63. Vazifai shakhse, ki dar borai barham dodani shakhsi huquqi qaror qabul kardaast  28

Moddai 64. Tartibi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi. 29

Moddai 65. Qone gardonidani talaboti  kreditoron. 29

Moddai 66. Muflisshavii shakhsi huquqi. 30

Moddai 67. Oqibati muflis donistani shakhsi huquqi. 30

Moddai 68. Ruyonidani mablag az molu mulki shakhsi huquqi pas az barham dodani on. 30

Moddai 69. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori. 31

Moddai 70. Huququ uhdadorihoi ishtirokchiyoni shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori. 31

Moddai 71. Tabdil dodani shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori. 32

Moddai 72. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai shirkati komil. 32

Moddai 73. Shartnomai tasisi shirkati komil. 32

Moddai 74. Idorakuni dar shirkati komil. 32

Moddai 75. Idorai kori shirkati komil. 32

Moddai 76. Uhdadorihoi ishtirokchii shirkati komil. 33

Moddai 77. Taqsimi foida va ziyoni shirkati  komil. 33

Moddai 78. Masuliyati ishtirokchiyoni shirkati komil az rui uhdadoriho. 33

Moddai 79. Supurdani sahmi ishtirokchi dar molu mulki shirkati komil. 33

Moddai 80. Ruyonidani mablag az hissai ishtirokchii molu mulki shirkati komil. 34

Moddai 81. Az hayati shirkati komil baromadani ishtirokchi. 34

Moddai 82. Az hayati shirkati komil khorij kardani ishtirokchi. 34

Moddai 83. Oqibati az hayati shirkati komil baromadani ishtirokchi. 34

Moddai 84. Vorisii huquqi dar  shirkati  komil. 34

Moddai 85. Barham dodani shirkati komil. 35

Moddai 86. Hisobbarobarkuni hangomi az shirkati komil  baromadani ishtirokchi. 35

Moddai 87. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai shirkati ba bovari asosyofta. 35

Moddai 88. Shartnomai tasisi shirkati ba bovari asosyofta. 36

Moddai 89. Idorai shirkati ba bovari asosyofta va peshburdi korhoi on. 36

Moddai 90. Huququ uhdadorihoi sahmguzori  shirkati ba bovari asosyofta. 36

Moddai 91. Barham dodani shirkati ba bovari asosyofta. 36

Moddai 92 bo QJT az 12.05.07 s., № 247 khorij karda shud. 37

Moddai 93 bo QJT az 12.05.07 s., № 247 khorij karda shud. 37

Moddai 94. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud. 37

Moddai 95. Ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi  masuliyati mahdud. 37

Moddai 96. Hujjathoi tasisi jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud. 37

Moddai 97. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi  masuliyati mahdud. 37

Moddai 98. Idorai jamiyati doroi  masuliyati mahdud. 38

Moddai 99.  Aznavtashkildihi yo barhamdihii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud. 38

Moddai 100. Ba shakhsi digar guzaronidani hissai sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud. 39

Moddai 101. Az hayati jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud baromadani ishtirokchi. 39

Moddai 102. Ruyonidani mablag az hisobi hissai  ishtirokchii  molu mulki  jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud. 39

Moddai 103. Az jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud khorij kardani ishtirokchi. 40

Moddai 104. Hisobbarobarkuni hangomi az jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud khorij gardidani ishtirokchi. 40

Moddai 105. Muqarraroti umumi dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati ilovagi. 40

Moddai 106. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai jamiyati sahhomi. 40

Moddai 107. Jamiyati sahhomii kushoda. 41

Moddai  108.  Jamiyati sahhomii pushida. 41

Moddai 109. Tasisi jamiyati sahhomi. 41

Moddai 110. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi. 42

Moddai 111. Ziyod kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii  jamiyati sahhomi. 42

Moddai 112 Kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi. 42

Moddai 113. Mahdudiyatho dar mavridi barovardani kogazhoi qimatnok va pardokhti dividendhoi jamiyati sahhomi. 42

Moddai 114. Idorakuni dar jamiyati sahhomi. 43

Moddai 115. Aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii jamiyati sahhomi. 43

Moddai 116. Jamiyati khojagidorii fari. 44

Moddai 117. Jamiyati khojagidorii vobasta. 44

Moddai 118. Mafhumi  kooperativi  tijorati. 44

Moddai 119. Tasisi  kooperativhoi  tijorati. 44

Moddai 120.  Molu mulki kooperativi tijorati. 45

Moddai 121. Idorakuni  dar  kooperativi  tijorati. 45

Moddai 122. Qat gardidani uzviyat dar kooperativi tijorati va guzoshtani azohaqqi. 45

Moddai 123. Aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii kooperativhoi tijorati. 46

Moddai 124. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai korkhonahoi davlati. 46

Moddai 125. Korkhonai vohidi davlatii ba huquqi  peshburdi khojagidori asosyofta. 46

Moddai 126. Korkhonai farii korkhonai vohidi davlati. 47

Moddai 127. Korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlatie, ki ba huquqi idorai operativi asos yoftaast  47

Moddai 128. Kooperativi gayritijorati. 47

Moddai 1281. Kooperatsiyai matlubot. 48

Moddai 129. Ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini. 48

Moddai 130. Fondhoi jamiyati. 48

Moddai 131. Tagyir dodani oinnoma va barham dodani fondi jamiyati. 48

Moddai 132. Muassisaho. 49

Moddai 133. Ittihodiyahoi shakhsoni huquqi (assotsiatsiyaho va ittifoqho) 49

Moddai 134. Hujjathoi tasisi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) 49

Moddai 135. Huququ uhdadorihoi azoi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) 50

BOBI  5. IShTIROKI  JUMHURII  TOJIKISTON  VA VOHIDI MARZIYu MAMURI DAR MUNOSIBATHOI TANZIMShAVANDAI GRAJDANI.. 50

Moddai 136. Ishtiroki Jumhurii Tojikiston dar munosibathoi huquqii grajdani. 50

Moddai 137. Ishtiroki vohidi marziyu mamuri dar munosibathoi shahrvandiyu huquqi. 50

Moddai 138. Masuliyat az rui uhdadorihoi davlat, vohidi marziyu mamuri. 51

Moddai 139. Khususiyathoi masuliyati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar  munosibathoi  bo qonuhhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda bo ishtiroki shakhsi huquqi,  shahrvandon va davlathoi khoriji. 51

BOBI 6. OBEKTHOI HUQUQI  GRAJDANI.. 51

Moddai 140. Namudhoi obekthoi huquqi grajdani. 51

Moddai 141. Qobiliyati gardishi obekthoi huquqi grajdani. 51

Moddai 142. Ashyoi  gayrimanqul va manqula. 52

Moddai 143. Ba qaydgirii davlatii ashyoi gayrimanqul. 52

Moddai 144. Korkhona. 52

Moddai 145. Ashyoi taqsimshavanda. 52

Moddai 146. Ashyoi taqsimnashavanda. 52

Moddai 147. Ashyoi murakkab. 53

Moddai 148. Ashyoi asosi va mansubiyat. 53

Moddai 149. Samara, mahsulot va daromad. 53

Moddai 150. Hayvonot. 53

Moddai 151. Ashyoi khosa va ashyoi  bo nishonai nav muayyanshavanda. 53

Moddai 152.  Natijahoi faoliyati zehnii  hifzshavanda. 53

Moddai 153. Sirri khizmati va tijorati. 53

Moddai 154. Amal (beamali) 53

  1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI DAR BORAI KOGAZHOI QIMATNOK.. 54

Moddai 155.  Pul  (asor) 54

Moddai 156. Arzishhoi asori. 54

Moddai 157. Kogazi qimatnok. 54

Moddai 158. Namudhoi kogazhoi qimatnok. 54

Moddai 159. Talabot nisbati kogazhoi qimatnok. 54

Moddai 160. Guzasht kardani huquq az rui kogazi qimatnok. 54

Moddai 161. Ijroi uhdadori az kogazi qimatnok. 55

Moddai 162. Barqaror namudani kogazi qimatnok. 55

Moddai 163. Kogazhoi qimatnoki behujjat. 55

Moddai  164. Vombarg (khorij karda shud bo Qonuni ChT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247). 55

Moddai 165. Chek  (khorij karda shud bo Qonuni ChT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247). 56

Moddai 166. Veksel (khorij karda shud bo Qonuni ChT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247). 56

Moddai 167.  Sahmiya. 56

Moddai 168. Konosament. 56

Moddai 169. Sertifikati bonki. 56

Moddai 170. Nemathoi gayrimoddi. 56

Moddai 171.  Jubroni ziyoni manavi. 56

Moddai 172. Hifzi huquqi shakhsii  gayrimolu mulki. 57

Moddai 173. Huquqhoi shakhsii gayri molu mulkie, ki ba huquqi molu mulki aloqamandand  57

Moddai 174. Hifzi shanu sharaf va etibori kori. 57

Moddai 1741. Hifzi shanu sharaf hangomi tuhmat yo tahqir. 57

Moddai 175. Huquqi hifzi sirri hayoti shakhsi. 58

Moddai 176. Huquq ba tasviri shakhsi. 58

Moddai 177. Huquqi dakhlnopazirii manzil. 58

ZERFASLI 3. AHDHO. NAMOYaNDAGI.. 58

BOBI 7. AHDHO.. 58

Moddai 178. Mafhumi ahd. 58

Moddai 179. Navhoi ahd. 58

Moddai 180. Uhdadori az rui ahdi yaktarafa. 58

Moddai 181. Tanzimi huquqii ahdi yaktarafa. 58

Moddai 182. Ahdi bo shartu sharoit bastashuda. 59

Moddai 183. Shakli ahd. 59

Moddai 184. Ahdi shifohi. 59

Moddai 185. Shakli khattii ahd. 59

Moddai 186. Ahde, ki dar shakli khattii oddi anjom doda meshavand. 60

Moddai 187. Oqibati rioya nakardani shakli oddii ahdi khatti. 60

Moddai 188. Ahdi dar notarius tasdiqshuda. 60

Moddai 189. Baqaydgirii davlatii ahdho. 60

Moddai 190. Oqibati rioya nakardani shakli notarialii ahd va talaboti baqaydgirii on. 60

Moddai 191. Ahdhoi bahsnok va beetibor. 61

Moddai 192. Muqarraroti umumi dar borai oqibati beetiborii ahd. 61

Moddai 193. Beetiborii ahdi khilofi qonun. 61

Moddai 194. Beetiborii ahdi bar khilofi asoshoi tartiboti huquqi va akhloq bastashuda. 61

Moddai 195. Beetiborii ahdhoi ruyaki va qalbaki bastashuda. 61

Moddai 196. Beetiborii ahde, ki shahrvandi gayri qobili amal etirofgardida  bastaast  61

Moddai 197. Beetiborii ahde, ki  noboligi to chordahsola bastaast. 62

Moddai 198. Beetiborii ahdi shakhsi huquqi, ki berun az qobiliyati huquqdoriash basta ast  62

Moddai 199. Oqibati mahdud kardani vakolat baroi bastani ahd. 62

Moddai 200. Beetiborii ahde, ki noboligi az chordah to hajdahsola  bastaast. 62

Moddai 201. Beetiborii ahde, ki shahrvandi qobiliyati amalash az jonibi sud mahdudgardida bastaast. 62

Moddai 202. Beetiborii  ahde,  ki  shahrvand  baroi  darki ahamiyati amali khud yo  idora kardani on qobiliat nadoshta bastaast. 62

Moddai 203. Beetiborii ahde, ki dar natijai gumrohi  basta shudaast. 63

Moddai 204. Beetiborii ahde, ki bo fireb, zurovari, tahdid, sozishi badqasdonai namoyandai yak taraf bo tarafi digar yo sharoiti vaznin basta shudaast. 63

Moddai 205. Oqibati beetiborii yak qismi ahd. 63

Moddai 206. Muhlati davo az rui ahdhoi beetibor. 63

BOBI 8. NAMOYaNDAGI. VAKOLATNOMA.. 63

Moddai 207. Namoyandagi. 63

Moddai 208.  Ahd bastani shakhsi vakolat nadoshta. 64

Moddai 209. Namoyandagii tijorati. 64

Moddai 210. Vakolatnoma. 64

Moddai 211. Muhlati vakolatnoma. 65

Moddai 212. Ba shakhsi digar voguzoshtani vakolat. 65

Moddai 213. Qati vakolatnoma. 65

Moddai 214. Oqibati qati vakolatnoma. 66

ZERFASLI  4. MUHLAT. HISOB KARDANI MUHLAT. MUHLATI DAVO.. 66

BOBI 9. MAFHUM, NAVHO VA HISOB KARDANI MUHLAT. 66

Moddai 215. Muayyan namudani muhlat. 66

Moddai 216. Ogozi muhlati bo davrai vaqt muayyangardida. 66

Moddai 217. Khatmi muhlati bo davrai vaqt muayyangardida. 66

Moddai 218. Khatmi muhlat dar ruzi gayrikori. 66

Moddai 219. Tartibi ijroi amal dar ruzi okhirini muhlat. 67

BOBI  10. MUHLATI  DAVO.. 67

Moddai 220. Mafhumi muhlati davo. 67

Moddai 221. Muhlati umumii davo. 67

Moddai 222. Muhlati makhsusi davo. 67

Moddai 223. Tatbiqi muhlati davo. 67

Moddai 224. Bahisobgiri va ogozi jarayoni muhlati davo. 67

Moddai 225. Muhlati davo hangomi ivaz shudani shakhs dar uhdadori. 68

Moddai 226. Bozdoshti jarayoni muhlati davo. 68

Moddai 227.  Kanda shudani jarayoni muhlati davo. 68

Moddai 228. Jarayoni muhlati davo dar mavridi barrasi qaror nadodani davo. 68

Moddai 229. Barqaror namudani muhlati davo. 68

Moddai 230. Ijroi uhdadori pas az guzashti muhlati davo. 68

Moddai 231. Talabote, ki ba onho muhlati davo tatbiq namegardad. 68

FASLI  II. HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT. DIGAR HUQUQHOI MOLU MULKI.. 69

BOBI 11. MUQARRAROTI  UMUMI.. 69

Moddai 232. Mafhum va  mazmuni huquqi molikiyat. 69

Moddai 233. Masuliyati nigohdoshti molu mulk. 69

Moddai 234. Tavakkali tasodufan nobud yo vayron shudani molu mulk. 70

Moddai 235. Subekthoi huquqi molikiyat. 70

Moddai 236. Shaklhoi molikiyat. 70

Moddai 237. Mafhum va shaklhoi molikiyati khususi. 70

Moddai 238. Huquqi molikiyati davlati. 70

Moddai 239. Molikiyati istisnoi davlati. 70

Moddai 240. Huquqi molikiyat va digar huquqhoi molu mulki ba manzil. 71

Moddai 241. Huquqi molu mulkii ashkhose, ki molik nameboshand. 71

BOBI  12. BA DAST OVARDANI HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT. 71

Moddai 242.  Asoshoi ba dast ovardani huquqi molikiyat. 71

Moddai 243. Ba miyon omadani huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulki gayrimanquli az nav tasisdodashavanda. 71

Moddai 244. Korkard. 71

Moddai 245. Sohibi kardani mole, ki jamovarii on dastrasi umum meboshad. 72

Moddai 246. Sokhtmoni khudsarona. 72

Moddai 247. Lahzai bavujudoii huquqi sohibmulkii badastovaranda tibqi shartnoma. 72

Moddai 248. Suporidani ashyoho. 72

Moddai 249. Ashyoi besohib. 72

Moddai 250. Ashyoi manqule, ki molik az onho dast kashidaast. 73

Moddai 251. Bozyoft. 73

Moddai 252. Paydo kardani huquqi moliki ba ashyoi yoftashuda. 73

Moddai 253. Jubroni kharojoti bozyoft va podoshi yobandai ashyo. 73

Moddai 254. Hayvonoti benazorat. 74

Moddai 255. Ba dast ovardani huquqi moliki ba hayvonoti benazorat. 74

Moddai 256. Jubroni kharojoti nigohbonii hayvonoti benazorat va podosh  baroi onho. 74

Moddai 257. Ganjina. 74

Moddai 258. Davomnokii muhlati ba dast ovardan. 75

BOBI  13. QATI HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT. 75

Moddai 259. Asosho baroi qati huquqi molikiyat. 75

Moddai 260. Dast kashidan az huquqi molikiyat. 75

Moddai 261. Az hisobi molu mulk sitonidani qarzi molik. 76

Moddai 262. Qati huquqi molikii shakhs ba molu mulke, ki az oni u buda nametavonad. 76

Moddai 263. Qati huquqi moliki ba molu mulki gayrimanqul binobar giriftani zamin va  digar zakhirahoi tabii. 76

Moddai 264. Kharidorii sarvathoi farhangii benizom nigohbonishuda. 76

Moddai 265. Narkhguzorii molu mulk hangomi qati huquqi moliki. 76

Moddai 266. Rekvizitsiya. 76

Moddai 267. Musodira. 77

Moddai 268. Millikunoni. 77

Moddai 269. Qati huquqi molu mulk, ki ba molik taalluq nadorad. 77

BOBI 14. MOLIKIYaTI ShAHRVANDON (khorij karda shud bo QJT az 12. 05. 2007s,  № 247). 77

Moddai 270. Muqarraroti umumi oid ba molikiyati shahrvandon. 77

Moddai 271. Obekthoi huquqi molikiyat. 77

Moddai 272. Molikiyati khojagii  mehnati. 77

Moddai 273. Molikiyati dehqoni va khojagii yorirason. 77

BOBI  15. MOLIKIYaTI  KOLLEKTIVI  (khorij karda shud bo QJT az 12. 05. 2007s,  № 247). 77

(molikiyati shakhsi huquqi) 77

Moddai 274. Muqarraroti umumi oid ba molikiyati kollektivi (shakhsi huquqi) 77

Moddai 275. Molikiyati korkhonahoi  kollektivi. 77

Moddai 276. Molikiyati korkhonai ijoravi. 77

Moddai 277. Molikiyati kooperativ. 77

Moddai 278. Molikiyati jamiyat va shirkati khojagidori. 77

Moddai 279.  Molikiyati jamiyati sahhomi. 77

Moddai 280.  Molikiyati assotsiatsiya va khojagidori (ittihodiyaho) 77

Moddai 281. Molikiyati tashkilothoi jamiyati va fondho. 77

Moddai 282. Molikiyati mahalla. 77

Moddai 283. Molikiyati tashkilothoi dini. 77

BOBI 16. MOLIKIYaTI DAVLAT VA VOHIDHOI MARZIYu MAMURI (khorij karda shud bo  QJT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247). 78

Moddai 284.  Muqarraroti umumi oid ba molikiyati davlati. 78

Moddai 285. Obekthoi molikiyati Jumhurii Tojikiston. 78

Moddai 286. Molikiyati korkhonai davlati. 78

Moddai 287. Molikiyati azoi kollektivi mehnatii korkhonai davlati. 78

Moddai 288. Molu mulki muassisahoi  davlati. 78

Moddai 289. Molikiyat ba zamin va digar zakhirahoi tabii. 78

Moddai 290. Molikiyati Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon. 78

Moddai 291. Molikiyati vohidhoi marziyu mamuri. 78

BOBI 17. MOLIKIYaTI UMUMI VA NAVHOI  ON.. 78

Moddai 292. Mafhum va asoshoi  paydoishi molikiyati umumi. 78

Moddai 293. Muayyan namudani hissa dar  huquqi molikiyati hissagi. 78

Moddai 294. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati hissagi qaror dorad. 78

Moddai 295. Sohibi va istifoda kardani molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati hissagi qaror dorad  79

Moddai 296. Samara, mahsulot va daromadi istifodai molu mulki  molikiyati hissagii badastomada. 79

Moddai 297. Kharojoti nigahdoshti molu mulki tahti molikiyati hissagi qarordoshta. 79

Moddai 298. Huquqi afzaliyatnoki kharidi hissa dar  doirai huquqi molikiyati umumi. 79

Moddai 299. Lahzai guzashtani hissai huquqi molikiyati umumi ba shakhse, ki onro tibqi shartnoma kharidaast. 79

Moddai 300. Taqsimi molu mulki molikiyati hissagi va az on judo namudani hissa. 80

Moddai 301. Sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordorii molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati yakjoya qaror  dorad. 80

Moddai 302. Taqsimi molu mulki  molikiyati yakjoya va az on judo  namudani hissa. 80

Moddai 303. Az hissai sahm dar molu mulki umumi nigaronidani ruyonish.. 81

Moddai 304. Molikiyati umumii yakjoyai zanu shavhar (hamsaron) 81

Moddai 305. Molikiyati khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) 81

Moddai  306. Taqsimi molu mulki khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) 81

Moddai 307. Nizomi huquqii molu mulk hangomi aznavtashkilkunii khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) va shirkati khojagidori yo kooperativi. 82

BOBI 18. HUQUQI  MAHDUDI  MOLU  MULK.. 82

Moddai 308. Huquqi peshburdi khojagidori. 82

Moddai 309. Obekti huquqi peshburdi khojagidori. 82

Moddai 310. Ba  dast ovardan  va qati huquqi peshburdi khojagidori. 82

Moddai 311. Huquqi molik nisbati molu mulki tahti peshburdi khojagidori qaror doshta  82

Moddai 312. Sharthoi amali gardonidani huquqhoi molu mulki korkhonai  vohidi davlati  82

Moddai 313. Huquqi idorai operativi. 83

Moddai 314. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki korkhonai makhsusi davlati. 83

Moddai 315. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki muassisa. 83

Moddai 316. Ba dast ovardan va qat namudani huquqi idorai operativii molu mulk. 83

Moddai 317. Huquqi  molik  ba pas giriftan va aznavtaqsimkunii molu mulke, ki ba idorai operativi doda shudaast. 83

Moddai 318. Ba molu mulki ba idorai operativi dodashuda nigaronidani ruyonish.. 84

Moddai 319. Nigoh doshtani huquq ba molu mulk hangomi ba digar molik guzashtani korkhona yo muassisa. 84

Moddai 320. Huquqhoi mahdudi ashyoi ba sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori  kardani ashyo. 84

BOBI 19. HIFZI HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT VA DIGAR HUQUQHOI AShYOI.. 84

Moddai 321. Etirofi huquqi molikiyat. 84

Moddai 322. Talab karda giriftani molu mulk az ba dastovarandai gayriqonuni. 84

Moddai 323. Talab karda giriftani molu mulk az badastovarandai bovijdon. 84

Moddai 324. Hisobbarobarkuni hangomi bargardonidani molu mulk az badastdarovarandai gayriqonuni. 84

Moddai 325. Hifzi huquqi molik az vayronkunihoe, ki ba mahrum kardan az sohibi aloqamand nameboshand. 85

Moddai 326. Hifzi huquqi sohibe, ki molik  nameboshad. 85

Moddai 327. Beetiborii sanadi maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli va shakhsoni mansabdore, ki huquqi sohibmulk va digar huquqhoi ashyoiro vayron mekunand. 85

FASLI  III. HUQUQI UHDADORI.. 85

ZERFASLI 1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI OID BA UHDADORIHO.. 85

BOBI 20. MAFHUM, ASOSHOI BA MIYON OMADANI UHDADORI VA TARAFHOI UHDADORI   85

Moddai 328. Mafhumi uhdadori va asoshoi ba miyon omadani on. 85

Moddai 329. Tarafhoi uhdadori. 85

BOBI 21. IJROI  UHDADORIHO.. 86

Moddai 330. Muqarraroti umumi. 86

Moddai 331. Nomumkin budani raddi yaktarafai ijroi uhdadori. 86

Moddai 332. Ijroi qism ba qismi uhdadori. 86

Moddai 333. Ijroi uhdadori ba shakhsi matlub. 86

Moddai 334. Ijroi uhdadori az jonibi  shakhsi seyum.. 86

Moddai 335. Muhlati ijroi uhdadori. 86

Moddai 336. Talabi ijroi muntazam.. 87

Moddai 337. Ijroi uhdadori pesh az muhlat. 87

Moddai 338. Ittiloot oid ba jarayoni ijroi uhdadori. 87

Moddai 339.  Joi ijroi uhdadori. 87

Moddai 340. Ijroi uhdadorihoi puli. 87

Moddai 341. Ziyod kardani mablage, ki baroi taminoti shahrvand pardokhta meshavad. 88

Moddai 342. Navbati pardokhti talab az rui uhdadorii puli. 88

Moddai 343. Ijroi uhdadorii alternativi. 88

Moddai 344. Ijroi uhdadorie, ki dar on yakchand kreditor yo yakchand qarzdor ishtirok  dorand  88

Moddai 345. Uhdadorihoi mushtarak. 88

Moddai 346. Huquqi kreditor hangomi uhdadorii mushtarak. 88

Moddai 347. Etiroz muqobili talaboti kreditor hangomi uhdadorii  mushtarak. 88

Moddai 348. Ijroi uhdadorii mushtarak az jonibi yake az qarzdoron. 88

Moddai 349. Talaboti mushtarak. 89

Moddai 350. Ijroi uhdadorihoi ilovagi. 89

Moddai 351. Tasdiqi ijroi uhdadori. 89

Moddai 352. Ijroi uhdadori bo usuli ba depozit guzaronidani qarz. 89

Moddai 353. Ijroi mutaqobilai uhdadori. 90

BOBI 22. TAMINI IJROI UHDADORI.. 90

Moddai 354. Usulhoi tamini ijroi uhdadori. 90

Moddai 355. Mafhumi noustuvorona. 90

Moddai 356. Shakli sozishnoma oid ba noustuvorona. 90

Moddai 357. Noustuvoronai qonuni. 90

Moddai 358. Kam kardani noustuvorona. 90

Moddai 359. Mafhum va asoshoi ba miyon omadani garav. 91

Moddai 360. Predmeti garav. 91

Moddai 361. Talabote, ki bo garav tamin  karda meshavad. 91

Moddai 362. Navhoi garav. 91

Moddai 363. Garavi molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati umumi qaror dorad. 92

Moddai 364. Garavdeh. 92

Moddai 365. Garavgir. 92

Moddai 366. Sugurtai molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda. 92

Moddai 367. Garavi nasuporidan va suporidani molu mulk ba garavgir. 93

Moddai 368. Shartnomai garav, shakl va baqaydgirii on. 93

Moddai 369. Molu mulke, ki ba on huquqi garavgir  pahn megardad. 93

Moddai 370. Ba miyon omadani huquqi garav. 93

Moddai 371. Garavi minbada va muayyan kardani navbati garavgiron. 94

Moddai 372. Nigohubin va ehtiyoti molu mulki  ba garav guzoshtashuda. 94

Moddai 373. Oqibathoi gum kardan yo oseb didani molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda. 94

Moddai 374. Ivaz va barqaror namudani predmeti garav. 95

Moddai 375. Istifoda va ikhtiyordorii predmeti garav. 95

Moddai 376. Az jonibi garavgir hifz namudani huquqhoi khud oidi predmeti  garav. 95

Moddai 377. Asosi ruyonish az molu mulki  ba garav guzoshtashuda. 95

Moddai 378. Tartib va sharthoi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda. 95

Moddai 379. Furushi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda. 96

Moddai 380. Pesh az muhlati ijro namudani uhdadorie, ki bo garav tamin shudaast va ruyonish az molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda. 97

Moddai 381. Qati garav. 97

Moddai 382. Nigoh doshtani garav hangomi ba shakhsi  digar guzashtani huquqi ba garav guzoshtashuda. 97

Moddai 383. Oqibati majburan giriftani molu mulki ba garav  guzoshtashuda. 98

Moddai 384. Guzasht kardani huquq oid ba shartnomai garav. 98

Moddai 385. Guzaronidani qarzi uhdadorie, ki bo garav tamin shudaast. 98

Moddai 386. Ba garav guzoshtani moli dar  muomilot buda. 98

Moddai 387. Ba garav guzoshtani mol dar garavkhona (lombard) 99

Moddai 388. Asosho baroi nigoh doshtan. 99

Moddai 389. Qone namudani talabot az hisobi molu mulki nigohdoshtashuda. 99

Moddai 390. Shartnomai zamonat. 99

Moddai 391. Shakli shartnomai zamonat. 100

Moddai 392. Masuliyati zomin. 100

Moddai 393. Huquqi zomin jihati etirozi talaboti kreditor. 100

Moddai 394. Huquqi zomine, ki uhdadoriashro ijro kardaast. 100

Moddai 395. Ogohonidani zomin dar mavridi az jonibi qarzdor ijro shudani uhdadori. 100

Moddai 396. Qati zominat. 100

Moddai 397. Mafhumi kafolat. 101

Moddai 398. Bo kafolat tamin namudani uhdadorii prinsipal. 101

Moddai 399. Mustaqiliyati kafolat az uhdadorii asosi. 101

Moddai 400. Bebozkhost budani kafolat. 101

Moddai 401. Guzaranda nabudani huquqi kafolat. 101

Moddai 402. Etibor paydo kardani kafolat. 101

Moddai 403. Peshnihodi talabnomai  kafolat. 101

Moddai 404. Uhdadorii kafil hangomi barrasii talabnomai benefitsiar. 102

Moddai 405. Ijroi talabnomai benefitsiarro rad namudani kafil. 102

Moddai 406. Haddi uhdadorihoi kafil. 102

Moddai 407. Qati kafolat. 102

Moddai 408. Talaboti aksi kafil ba prinsipal. 102

Moddai 409. Mafhumi bayona. Shakli shartnomai bayona. 102

Moddai 410. Oqibati qat yoftan va ijro nakardani uhdadorii bo bayona taminshuda. 103

BOBI 23. IVAZ ShUDANI ShAKhS DAR UHDADORI.. 103

Moddai 411. Asos va tartibi guzashtani huquqi kreditor ba shakhsi digar. 103

Moddai 412. Huquqhoe, ki ba digar shakhs guzashta nametavonand. 103

Moddai 413. Andozai huquqi kreditor, ki ba shakhsi digar meguzarad. 103

Moddai 414. Dalelhoi huquqi kreditori nav. 103

Moddai 415. Etirozi qarzdor nisbati talaboti kreditori nav. 103

Moddai 416. Dar asosi qonun ba shakhsi digar guzashtani huquqi kreditor. 104

Moddai 417. Sharti guzasht kardani talabot. 104

Moddai 418. Shakli guzasht kardani talabot. 104

Moddai 419.  Masuliyati kreditore, ki talabashro guzasht kardaast. 104

Moddai 420. Shart va shakli guzaronidani qarz. 104

Moddai 421. Etirozi qarzdori nav ba muqobili talabi kreditor. 104

BOBI 24. MASULIYaTI VAYRON KARDANI UHDADORI.. 104

Moddai 422. Mafhumi vayron kardani uhdadori. 104

Moddai 423. Tovoni ziyone, ki dar natijai vayron kardani uhdadori rasonida shudaast. 105

Moddai 424. Ziyon va  noustuvorona. 105

Moddai 425. Jubroni ziyoni manavi, ki dar natijai vayron kardani uhdadori rasonida shudaast  105

Moddai 426. Masuliyat baroi gayriqonuni istifoda burdani mablagi gayr. 105

Moddai 427. Masuliyat va ijroi uhdadori dar shakli asl (natura) 106

Moddai 428. Ijroi uhdadori az hisobi qarzdor. 106

Moddai 429. Oqibati ijro nakardani uhdadori oid ba dodani moli muayyani infirodi. 106

Moddai 430. Masuliyati  ilovagi. 106

Moddai 431. Mahdud sokhtani andozai masuliyat oid ba uhdadori. 107

Moddai 432. Asoshoi masuliyat baroi vayron kardani uhdadori. 107

Moddai 433. Masuliyati qarzdor baroi kormandoni khud. 107

Moddai 434. Masuliyati qarzdor oid ba amali shakhsi seyum.. 107

Moddai 435. Oqibathoi vayron kardani uhdadori bo gunohi har du taraf.. 107

Moddai 436. Az jonibi qarzdor guzaronidani muhlat. 108

Moddai 437. Az jonibi kreditor guzaronidani muhlat. 108

Moddai 438. Tavakkali sohibkori dar uhdadori. 108

BOBI 25. QATI  UHDADORI.. 108

Moddai 439. Asosho baroi qati uhdadori. 108

Moddai 440. Qati uhdadori bo ijroi on. 108

Moddai 441. Haqqi dastkashi. 109

Moddai 442. Qati uhdadori bo bahisobgiri. 109

Moddai 443. Holathoi nomumkin budani bahisobgiri. 109

Moddai 444. Bahisobgiri hangomi guzasht kardani talabot. 109

Moddai 445. Qati uhdadori hangomi chun yak shakhs muvofiq omadani qarzdor va kreditor. 109

Moddai 446. Qati uhdadori bo sababi nav shudani on (novatsiya) 109

Moddai 447. Bakhshidani qarz. 109

Moddai 448. Qati uhdadori hangomi imkonnopazirii ijro. 110

Moddai 449. Qati uhdadori dar asosi sanadi maqomoti davlati. 110

Moddai 450. Qati uhdadori az sababi favti shahrvand. 110

Moddai 451. Qati uhdadori bo barham khurdanishakhsi huquqi. 110

ZERFASLI 2. MUQARRAROTI UMUMB  OID BA ShARTNOMA.. 110

B O B I 26. MAFHUM VA MAZMUNI ShARTNOMA.. 110

Moddai 452. Mafhumi shartnoma. 110

Moddai 453. Mustaqiliyati shartnoma. 110

Moddai 454. Shartnoma va qonun. 111

Moddai 455. Shartnomahoi muzdnok va bemuzd. 111

Moddai 456. Narkh. 111

Moddai 457. Amali shartnoma. 111

Moddai 458. Shartnomai ommavi. 112

Moddai 459. Sharthoi namunavii shartnoma. 112

Moddai 460. Shartnomai hamrohshavi. 112

Moddai 461. Shartnomai peshaki. 112

Moddai 462. Shartnoma ba manfiati shakhsi seyum.. 113

Moddai 463. Tafsiri shartnoma. 113

BOBI 27. BASTANI  ShARTNOMA.. 113

Moddai 464. Muqarraroti umumi oidi bastani shartnoma. 113

Moddai 465. Lahzai bastani shartnoma. 113

Moddai 466. Shakli shartnoma. 114

Moddai 467. O f e r t a (peshnihod) 114

Moddai 468. Bebozkhostii oferta. 114

Moddai 469. Davat baroi peshnihodi oferta. Ofertai ommavi. 114

Moddai 470. Aksept. 114

Moddai 471. Bozkhosti aksept. 114

Moddai 472. Bastani shartnoma dar asosi ofertae, ki baroi aksept muhlat muayyan kardaast  114

Moddai 473. Bastani shartnoma dar asosi ofertae, ki dar on  muhlati aksept muayyan nashudaast  115

Moddai 474. Aksepte, ki der girifta shudaast. 115

Moddai 475. Aksept mutobiqi sharthoi digar. 115

Moddai 476. Mahalli imzoi shartnoma. 115

Moddai 477. Bo  tartibi hatmi bastani shartnoma. 115

Moddai 478. Bahshoi pesh az shartnoma. 116

Moddai 479. Bastani shartnoma hangomi guzaronidani savdo. 116

Moddai 480. Tashkil va tartibi guzaronidani savdo. 116

Moddai 481. Oqibati rioya nakardani qoidahoi guzaronidani savdo. 117

BOBI 28. TAGYIR DODAN VA BEKOR KARDANI  ShARTNOMA.. 117

Moddai 482. Asosho baroi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma. 117

Moddai 483. Tagyir dodan va bekor kardani shartnoma hangomi ba tavri nazarras tagyir yoftani holat. 117

Moddai 484. Tartibi tagyir dodan va bekor  kardani shartnoma. 118

Moddai 485. Oqibati tagyir dodan yo bekor  kardani shartnoma. 118

Moddai 486. Holathoi tagyir dodan va bekor kardani shartnoma mutobiqi arizai yake az tarafho  118

Moddai 487. Daroz kardani muhlati amali shartnoma. 118

 

 

 

FASLI  I. MUQARRAROTI  UMUMI

 

ZERFASLI  1. MUQARRAROTI ASOSI

 

BOBI   1. QONUNHOI  GRAJDANI

 

Moddai 1. Munosibathoe, ki qonunhoi grajdani tanzim menamoyand

 

  1. Qonunhoi grajdani vazi huquqii ishtirokchiyoni ahdhoi grajdani, asoshoi ba miyon omadan va tartibi tatbiqi huquqi molikiyat va huquqi digari ashyoi, huquq ba natijahoi faoliyati zehniro muayyan namuda, uhdadorihoi shartnomavi va uhdadorihoi digar, inchunin munosibathoi digari molu mulki va munosibathoi shakhsii gayri molu mulki  marbut ba onhoro, ki ba barobari, mukhtoriyati khohishu iroda va mustaqiliyati  molu mulkii ishtirokchiyonashon asos yoftaast, tanzim menamoyand.

Munosibathoi oilavi, mehnati, munosibathoi marbut ba istifodai zakhirahoi tabii va hifzi muhiti zistro, ki doroi nishonahoi dar sarsatri avvali hamin modda zikrgardida meboshand, agar dar qonunhoi oila, mehnat, zamin va qonunhoi  digar makhsus tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, qonunhoi grajdani tanzim menamoyand.

  1. Ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi bo qonunhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda shahrvandon, davlat, shakhsi huquqi va vohidhoi marziyu mamuri meboshand.

Qoidahoi muqarrarnamudai hamin Kodeks, agar dar qonun tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, inchunin dar mavridi munosibatho bo ishtiroki shahrvandoni khoriji, shakhsi beshahrvandi va shakhsi huquqii khoriji niz istifoda meshavand.

  1. Qonunhoi grajdani munosibathoi bayni shakhsoni faoliyati sohibkoriro ba amal barovarda yo ishtiroki onhoro tanzim menamoyand.

Sohibkori faoliyati mustaqili ba tavakkali khud amalishavandai shakhsoni ba chunin sifat bo tartibi muqarrar kardai qonun ba qayd girifta shudae meboshad, ki baroi muntazam ba dast darovardani foida az istifodai molu mulk, furushi mol, ijroi kor yo rasonidani khizmat ravona karda shudaast.

  1. Qonunhoi grajdani, agar dar qonunho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, nisbati munosibathoi molu mulkie, ki ba tobeiyati mamuri yo bo tobeiyati digari omironai yak taraf ba tarafi digar asos yoftaast, istifoda nameshavand.
  2. Munosibathoi marbut ba tatbiq va hifzi huququ ozodihoi begonanashavandai inson va digar nemathoi gayri moddi (munosibathoi shakhsii gayri molu mulkie, ki bo munosibathoi molu mulki aloqamand nestand) bo qonunhoi grajdani tanzim karda meshavand, zero az mohiyati in munosibatho tartibi digare barnameoyad.

 

Moddai 2. Sanadi qonunguzorii grajdani

 

  1. 1. Qonunhoi grajdani ba Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston asos yofta, az hamin Kodeks, digar qonunho va az sanadi digari qonunie iboratand, ki munosibathoi dar qismhoi 1, 5 moddai 1 hamin Kodeks zikrgardidaro tanzim menamoyand.

Meyorhoi qonunhoi grajdanie, ki digar qonunho va sanadi digari qonuni dar bar giriftaand, boyad bo hamin Kodeks mutobiq boshand.

  1. Vazoratu idoraho va maqomoti digari davlati tibqi holatho va dar doirai peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks, digar qonunho va sanadi digari qonunguzori metavonand sanadi tanzimkunandai munosibathoi grajdaniro nashr namoyand.

 

Moddai 3. Prinsiphoi asosii qonunhoi grajdani

 

  1. Qonunhoi grajdani ba prinsiphoi dakhlnopazirii molikiyat, ozodii shartnoma, nomumkin budani dakholati khudsaronai har kase ba korhoi khususi, zarurati tatbiqi bemoneai huquqi grajdani, tamini barqaror namudani huquqi vayrongardidai grajdani va hifzi sudii onho asos meyoband.
  2. Shahrvandon (shakhsi voqei) va shakhsi huquqi huquqi grajdaniro bo azmu khohish va ba manfiati khud ba dast darovarda va amali menamoyand. Onho dar muqarrar namudani huququ uhdadorihoi khud dar asosi shartnoma va muayyan namudani har guna sharthoi khilofi qonunho nabudai shartnoma ozodand.
  3. Huquqhoi grajdani metavonad bo maqsadi hifzi manaviyot, tandurusti, huquq va manfiathoi qonunii shakhsi digar, tamini amniyati jomea va davlat, hifzi muhiti zist dar asosi qonun mahdud karda shavad.

 

Moddai 4. Amali qonunhoi grajdani vobasta ba vaqt

 

  1. Sanadi qonunhoi grajdani quvvai bozgasht nadorand va nisbati munosibathoe istifoda meshavand, ki pas az jori namudani onho ba miyon omadaand.

Amali qonun tanho dar surate nisbati munosibathoi to jori namudani on tatbiq megardad, ki  agar in bevosita dar qonun peshbini shuda boshad.

  1. Nisbati munosibathoe, ki to jori namudani sanadi qonunhoi grajdani ba miyon omadaand, in sanad, ba istisnoi munosiboti tarafhoi shartnomai to jori namudani sanadi qonunguzorii grajdani bastashuda, nisbati huququ uhdadorihoe tatbiq megardad, ki pas az jori namudani on ba miyon omadaand.

 

Moddai 5. Ananahoi muomiloti kori

 

  1. 1. Ananai muomiloti kori, sarfi nazar az sabt yoftani on dar yagon hujjat, qoidai raftori dar qonunho peshbininashudae etirof megardad, ki dar yagon sohai faoliyati sohibkori ba miyon omada, vase istifoda burda meshavad.
  2. Ananai muomiloti korie, ki khilofi muqarraroti qonun yo shartnomai baroi ishtirokchiyoni munosibati dakhldor hatmi meboshad, istifoda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 6. Istifodai qonunhoi grajdani az rui shabohat

 

  1. Dar holate ki munosibathoi peshbininamudai qismhoi 1 va 5 moddai 1 hamin Kodeks bevosita bo qonunho yo sozishnomai tarafayn tanzim nashudaandu ananai dar in mavrid istifodashavanda vujud nadorad, nisbati chunin munosibot meyori qonunhoi grajdanii tanzimkunandai munosiboti shabeh (shabohati qonun) istifoda meshavad, zero in khilofi mohiyati onho nameboshad.
  2. Dar surati nomumkin budani istifodai shabohati qonun dar holathoi zikrgardida huququ uhdadorihoi tarafho bo nazardoshti asoshoi umumiyu mohiyati qonunhoi grajdani (shabohati huquq) va talaboti bovijdoni, durandeshi va adolat muayyan karda meshavand.
  3. Az rui shabohat istifoda namudani meyorhoe, ki huquqi grajdaniro mahdud sokhta, masuliyatro muqarrar menamoyand, man ast.

 

Moddai 7. Qonunhoi grajdani va sanadhoi huquqi  baynalmilali
  1. Sanadhoi huquqii baynalmilalii etirofnamudai Tojikiston mutobiqi Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston qismi tarkibii nizomi huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston meboshand.
  2. Nisbati munosiboti dar qismhoi 1 va 5 moddai 1 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, ba gayr az holathoe, ki dar asosi baroi istifodai on qabuli sanadi dokhilidavlati zarur ast,  sanadhoi huquqii baynalmilalii etirofnamudai Tojikiston bevosita istifoda karda meshavand.

Agar dar shartnomahoi baynalkhalqii Jumhurii Tojikiston nisbat ba qoidahoi peshbininamudai qonunhoi grajdani qoidahoi digare  peshbini  shuda  boshand,  qoidahoi  shartnomai baynalkhalqi mavridi istifoda qaror doda meshavand.

 

BOBI 2. ASOSHOI BA VUJUD OMADANI HUQUQ VA UHDADORIHOI  GRAJDANI, AMALI NAMUDAN VA HIFZI  HUQUQHOI  GRAJDANI

 

Moddai 8. Asoshoi ba miyon omadani huququ uhdadorihoi grajdani
  1. Huququ uhdadorihoi grajdani az asoshoi peshbininamudai qonun va sanadi digari huquqi, inchunin az amali shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi ba miyon meoyand, harchand dar qonun yo chunin asnod peshbini nashudand, vale tibqi asoshoi umumi va mohiyati qonunhoi grajdani huququ uhdadorihoi grajdaniro ba miyon meorand.

Mutobiqi in huququ uhdadorihoi grajdani:

a) az shartnomaho va ahdhoi digari peshbininamudai qonun, inchunin shartnomaho va ahdhoi digare, ki garchand dar qonun peshbini nashuda boshand ham, khilofi on nestand;

b) az sanadhoi maqomoti davlati, maqomoti  mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli, ki dar qonun ba sifati asosi ba miyon omadani huququ uhdadorihoi  grajdani peshbini shudaand;

v) az qarori sud, ki huququ uhdadorihoi grajdaniro muqarrar namudaast;

g) dar natijai bunyod va ba dast ovardani  molu mulk dar asosi peshbininamudai qonun;

d) dar natijai ejodi asari ilmi, adabi, farhangi, ikhtiroot va natijahoi digari faoliyati zehni;

e) dar natijai rasonidani ziyon ba shakhsi digar;

j) dar natijai doroshavii beasos;

z) dar natijai  amalhoi digari shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi;

i) dar natijai hodisahoe, ki qonun yo sanadi digari huquqi faro rasidani oqibathoi huquqii grajdaniro vobasta medonad, ba miyon meoyand.

  1. Agar dar qonun tartibi digar peshbini nashuda boshad, huquq ba molu mulke, ki boyad ba qaydi davlati girifta shavad, az lahzai baqaydgirii in molu mulk yo huquqi dakhldor ba on ba vujud meoyad.

 

Moddai 9. Amali namudani huquqi grajdani
  1. Shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi huquqi grajdanii kheshro bo salohdidi khud amali menamoyand, az jumla ikhtiyordori mekunand.
  2. Dast kashidani shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi az amali huquqi ba onho taalluqdoshta, ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, boisi qati in huquqho namegardad.

 

Moddai 10. Haddi amali huquqhoi grajdani
  1. 1. Ba amali shahrvandon va shakhsoni huquqi, ki bo niyati rasonidani zarar ba shakhsi digar ijro karda meshavad, inchunin dar mavridhoi peshbininamudai qonun suiistifoda az huquq dar shakli digar roh doda nameshavad.
  2. Ba istifodai huquqhoi grajdani bo maqsadi mahdud sokhtani raqobat, inchunin suiistifoda az mavqei afzaliyatnoki khud dar bozor roh doda nameshavad.
  3. Amali namudani huquqhoi grajdani naboyad huquq va manfiathoi qonunan hifzshavandai subekthoi digari huquqro vayron namoyad va ba muhiti zist ziyoni voqei rasonad.
  4. Shahrvandon va shakhsoni huquqi hangomi amali namudani huquqhoi ba onho taalluqdoshta boyad oqilona va odilona va boinsofona talaboti dar qonunguzori darjyoftaro, prinsiphoi akhloqi jomearo, sohibkoron boshand, qoidahoi odobi kasbiro rioya namoyand. In uhdadori naboyad ba vositai shartnoma khorij yo mahdud karda shavad.

Amali oqilona, odilona va boinsofonai ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi huquqi grajdani dar nazar doshta meshavad.

  1. Dar holati rioya nakardani talaboti moddai mazkur sud metavonad az hifzi huquqi ba shakhs taaluqdoshta dast kashad.

 

Moddai 11. Hifzi huquqi grajdani
  1. Hifzi huquqhoi grajdanii vayrongardida yo mavridi bahs qaror doshtaro tibqi mansubiyati bo qonunhoi murofiavi muqarrarshudai parvandaho az jonibi sud, sudi iqtisodi yo sudi hakami (minbad sud) ba amal barovarda meshavad.
  2. Hifzi huquqi grajdani az tariqi mamuri tanho dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun ba amal barovarda meshavad. Nisbati qarore, ki ba tariqi mamuri qabul shudaast, metavon ba sud shikoyat kard.

 

Moddai 12. Tarzhoi hifzi huquqi grajdani

Huquqi grajdani bo tarzhoi zayl hifz meshavad:

– etirofi huquq;

– barqaror namudani vaze, ki to vayron gardidani huquq joy dosht va peshgiri namudani amalhoe, ki huquqro vayron mekunand yo baroi vayron  kardani on tahdid menamoyand;

– beetibor donistani ahdhoi mavridi bahs va istifodai oqibathoi beetibor donistani on, istifodai oqibathoi beetibor donistani ahdhoi beetibor;

– beetibor donistani sanadi maqomi davlati yo maqomi hokimiyati mahalli;

– khudmuhofizatkunii huquq;

– vodor namudan ba ijroi uhdadoriho dar shakli  asl (natura);

– ruyonidani tovoni  ziyon;

– sitonidani noustuvorona;

– jubroni zarari  manavi;

– qat kardan yo tagyir dodani munosiboti huquqi;

– az jonibi sud tatbiq nagardidani sanadi mukholifi qonun qabul namudai maqomoti hokimiyati davlati yo maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati;

– bo rohhoi digari peshbininamudai qonun.

 

Moddai 13. Beetibor donistani sanadi maqomi davlati yo maqomi hokimiyati mahalli

Sanadi gayrimeyorii maqomoti hokimiyati davlati yo maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, inchunin sanadi meyoriero, ki khilofi qonun yo sanadi digari huquqi buda, huquqi grajdani va manfiathoi qonunan hifzshavandai shahrvand yo shakhsi huquqiro khalaldor mesozand, sud metavonad beetibor etirof namoyad.

Dar surati sanadro beetibor donistani sud, huquqi vayrongardida boyad barqaror shavad yo ba tariqi digari dar moddai 12 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida hifz gardad.

 

Moddai 14. Khudmuhofizati huquqi grajdani

Khudmuhofizati huquqi grajdani roh doda meshavad. Rohhoi khudmuhofizat boyad bo huquqvayronkuni muvofiq buda, az haddi amalhoe, ki baroi peshgirii on zarurand, naguzarad.

 

Moddai 15. Ruyonidani ziyon
  1. Shakhse, ki huquqash vayron gardidaast, agar dar qonun yo shartnoma ruyonidani ziyon ba andozai kamtar peshbini nashuda boshad, metavonad jubroni purrai ziyoni ba u rasonidashudaro talab namoyad.
  2. Ziyon kharojote fahmida meshavad, ki shakhsi huquqash vayrongardida masraf namudaast yo boyad baroi barqaror namudani huquqi vayrongardida masraf namoyad, az dast raftan yo kharob gardidani molu mulki u (ziyoni voqei), inchunin daromadi ba dast naomadae, ki in shakhs, agar huquqash vayron namegardid, dar sharoiti muqarrarii ahdhoi grajdani metavonist ba dast ovarad (foidai az dastrafta).

Agar shakhsi vayronkardai huquq  dar natijai in daromad ba dast ovarda boshad,  shakhse, ki huquqash vayron gardidaast, haq dorad dar barobari ziyoni digar jubroni foidai azdastraftaro ba andozai na kamtar az chunin daromad talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 16. Ruyonidani ziyoni rasonidai  maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli

Ziyone, ki dar natijai amali (beamalii) gayriqonunii maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli yo mansabdoroni in maqomot, inchunin dar natijai qabuli sanadi khilofi qonun yo sanadi digari huquqii maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli ba shahrvand yo shakhsi huquqi rasonida shudaast, boyad az jonibi Jumhurii Tojikiston yo maqomoti dakhldori Jumhurii Tojikiston jubron karda shavad.

 

ZERFASLI  2. SUBEKTHOI  HUQUQI  GRAJDANI

 

BOBI 3. ShAHRVANDONI JUMHURII TOJIKISTON VA ShAKhSI VOQEII DIGAR

 

Moddai 17. Mafhumi shahrvand (shakhsi voqei)

Tahti mafhumi shahrvandon (shakhsi voqei) shahrvandoni Jumhurii Tojikiston, shahrvandoni davlathoi digar, inchunin shakhsi beshahrvandi fahmida meshavad. Muqarraroti hamin Kodeks, agar dar qonun yo sanadhoi huquqii  baynalmilalii etirofnamudai Tojikiston tartibi digar muqarrar nashuda boshad, nisbati hamai shahrvandon tatbiq megardand.

 

Moddai 18. Qobiliyati  huquqdorii   shahrvand
  1. Qobiliyati doshtani huququ uhdadorii grajdani (qobiliyati huquqdorii grajdani) nisbati hamai shahrvandon ba andozai barobar etirof karda meshavad.
  2. Qobiliyati huquqdorii shahrvand az lahzai tavallud yoftanash ba miyon omada, pas az vafotash qat megardad.

 

Moddai 19. Mazmuni  qobiliyati huquqdorii  shahrvand

Shahrvand metavonad ham dar hududi Jumhurii Tojikiston va ham berun az on doroi huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulk, az jumla asori khoriji boshad; molu mulkro meros girad va vasiyat kunad; dar qalamravi jumhuri ozodona harakat karda, joi zist intikhob namoyad; hududi jumhuriro ozodona tark karda, ba qalamravi on bargardad; bo har guna faoliyati mannakardai sanadi qonuni mashgul shavad; mustaqilona yo yakjoya bo  shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqii digar shakhsi huquqi tasis dihad; har guna ahdhoi bo sanadi qonuni mannashudaro anjom doda, dar uhdadoriho ishtirok namoyad; doroi huquqi molikiyati zehni ba ikhtiroot, asari ilmi, adabi, sanat va natijahoi digari faoliyati zehni boshad; jubroni ziyoni moddi va manaviro talab namoyad; huquqi digari molu mulki va shakhsi doshta boshad.

 

Moddai 20. Nomi shahrvand
  1. Shahrvand huququ uhdadorihoro, agar az qonun yo ananahoi milli tartibi digare barnaoyad, bo nomi khud, ki familiya va khudi nom, inchunin nomi padarro dar bar megirad, ba dast meorad va tatbiq menamoyad.

Tibqi holat va muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonun shahrvand metavonad az takhallus (nomi sokhta) istifoda namoyad.

  1. Shahrvand muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun haq dorad nomi khudro ivaz kunad. Nomi khudro digar kardani shahrvand baroi qat yo tagyiri huququ uhdadorihoi bo nomi qabli badastovardai u asos nameboshad.

Shahrvand vazifador ast, ki baroi ogoh namudani qarzdoronu kreditoroni khud dar khususi digar kardani nomash chorahoi zaruri andeshad va khavfi oqibathoero ba zimma dorad, ki bo sababi ogohi nadoshtani in ashkhos dar khususi digar kardani nom ba miyon meoyand.

Shahrvande, ki nomashro digar kardaast, metavonad az hisobi khud ba hujjathoe, ki bo nomi qablii u ba rasmiyat darovarda shuda bud, vorid namudani tagyiroti dakhldorro talab namoyad.

  1. Nome, ki ba shahrvand pas az tavalludash guzoshta shudaast, inchunin digar kardani nom boyad muvofiqi tartibi baroi baqaydgirii sanadi holati shahrvandi peshbinigardida ba qayd girifta shavand.
  2. Ba dast ovardani huququ uhdadoriho ba nomi shakhsi digar roh doda nameshavad.
  3. Ziyone, ki ba shahrvand dar natijai istifodai gayriqonunii nomi u rasidaast, boyad mutobiqi hamin Kodeks jubron karda shavad.

Dar surati tahrif yo istifodai nomi shahrvand bo tariq yo dar shakle, ki shanu  sharaf yo obrui korii uro khalaldor mesozad, qoidahoi peshbininamudai moddai 174 hamin Kodeks istifoda meshavand.

 

Moddai 21. Istiqomatgohi shahrvand
  1. Istiqomatgoh mahalle etirof megardad, ki shahrvand doimi yo beshtar dar on istiqomat mekunad.
  2. Istiqomatgohi noboligoni to chordahsola yo shahrvandone, ki tahti vasoyat qaror dorand, istiqomatgohi namoyandagoni qonuni yo vasiyoni onho etirof megardad.

 

Moddai 22. Qobiliyati amali shahrvand
  1. Qobiliyati shahrvand baroi bo amali khesh ba dast ovardan va tatbiq namudani huquqi grajdani, baroi khud muqarrar namudani uhdadori va ijro namudani on (mukallafiyati grajdani) dar hajmi purra bo faro rasidani balogat, yane pas az rasidan ba sinni hajdah, ba miyon meoyad.
  2. Agar tibqi qonun izdivoj to ba sinni hajdahsolagi rasidan ijozat boshad, shahrvandi ba sinni hajdahsolagi narasida az vaqti izdivoj kardanash purra qobiliyati amalro ba dast meorad.

Qobiliyati amali dar natijai izdivoj badastomada dar surati bekor kardani nikoh niz purra boqi memonad.

Dar surati beetibor donistani nikoh sud metavonad dar khususi az lahzai muayyannamudai sud qobiliyati purrai amalro az dast dodani hamsari nobolig qaror qabul namoyad.

Moddai 23. Nomumkin budani mahrum sokhtan yo mahdud kardani qobiliyati huquqdori yo qobiliyati amali shahrvand
  1. Ba istisnoi holatho va muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun, qobiliyati huquqdori va qobiliyati amali hej kasro mahdud sokhtan mumkin nest.
  2. Rioya nakardani shartu tartibi dar qonun muqarrargardidai mahdud sokhtani qobiliyati amali shahrvandon yo huquqi mashgul shudani onho ba faoliyati sohibkori yo faoliyati digar boisi beetibor donistani sanadi maqomi davlati yo maqomi digare megardad, ki mahdudiyathoi dakhldorro muqarrar namudaast.
  3. Purra yo qisman dast kashidani shahrvand az qobiliyati huquqdori yo qobiliyati amal va ahdhoi digar, ki ba mahdud sokhtani qobiliyati huquqdori yo qobiliyati amal ravona gardidaand, ba istisnoi holathoe, ki chunin ahdhoro qonun ijozat dodaast, etibor nadorand.

 

Moddai 24. Faoliyati sohibkorii shahrvandon
  1. Shahrvandon metavonand az lahzai baqaydgirpi davlati ba sifati sokhibkoroni infirody be tasisi shakhsi huquqi ba faoliyati sohibkori mashgul shavand. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)
  2. Nisbati faoliyati sohibkorii shahrvandon, ki biduni tasisi shakhsi huquqi ba amal barovarda meshavad, agar az qonunho yo mohiyati munosibati huquqi tartibi digare barnaoyad, mutobiqan qoidahoi hamin Kodeks istifoda meshavand, ki faoliyati shakhsi huquqii tashkilothoi tijorati budaro tanzim menamoyand.
  3. Shahrvandoni ki dar hayati khojagii dehqoni faoliyati sohibkoriro anjom medihand, az baqaydgirii davlati ozod meboshand.
  4. Shahrvandone, ki faoliyati sohibkoriro be tasisi shakhsi huquqi bo vayron namudani qismi 1 moddai mazkur amali menamoyand, haq nadorand nisbat ba ahdhoi bastaashon ba on istinod namoyand, ki onho sohibkor nameboshand. Sud metavonad ba chunin ahdho qoidahoi Kodeksi mazkurro oid ba uhdadorihoe, ki ba amali namudani faoliyati sohibkori aloqamand meboshand, tatbiq namoyad.
  5. Shahrvandone, ki biduni tasisi shakhsi huquqi ba faoliyati sohibkori tartibi baqaydgiri va andozbandii onho tibqi qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba tanzim darovarda meshavand. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)

 

Moddai 25. Masuliyati molu mulkii  shahrvandon
  1. 1. Shahrvand az rui uhdadorihoi khud bo tamomi molu mulki ba u taalluqdoshta, ba istisnoi molu mulke, ki mutobiqi sanadi qonunguzori az on mablag ruyondan man ast, masuliyat dorad.
  2. Nomgui molu mulki shahrvandonro, ki az on mablag ruyondan man meboshad, Kodeksi murofiai grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar menamoyad.

 

Moddai 26. Muflisshavii sohibkori  infirodi
  1. Sohibkori infirodie, ki baroi qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoron oidi faoliyati sohibkori qodir nest, bo qarori sud mumkin ast muflis etirof gardad. Az lahzai etibor paydo kardani chunin qaror qaydi u ba sifati sohibkori infirodi beetibor megardad.
  2. Hangomi ijroi rasmu qoidahoi muflis donistani sohibkori infirodi kreditoroni u az rui uhdadorihoe, ki bo faoliyati sohibkori vobasta nestand, hamchunin metavonand talaboti khudro peshkash namoyand. Talaboti chunin kreditoron, ki bo hamin tartib arz nakardaand, badi ba itmom rasidani rasmu qoidahoi muflisshavii sohibkori infirodi etibori khudro nigoh medorand.
  3. Talaboti kreditoroni sohibkori infirodi dar surati muflis etirof gardidanash az hisobi molu mulki ba u taalluqdoshtae, ki az on mablag ruyonidan mumkin ast, ba navbati zayl qone gardonida meshavad:

– dar navbati avval – talaboti shahrvandone, ki sohibkor dar nazdi onho baroi rasonidani ziyon ba hayot yo salomatiashon bo rohi ba sarmoya tabdil dodani pardokhthoi dakhldori muvaqqati masul meboshad, inchunin talabot dar mavridi ruyonidani aliment qone gardonida meshavand;

– dar navbati duyum – az rui pardokhti kumakpulii az kor raftan va muzdi mehnati shakhsi tibqi shartnoma (qarordod)-i mehnati korkunanda, vale ba muhlati na beshtar az se moh inchunin pardokhti haq az rui shartnomai muallifi hisob karda meshavad;

– dar navbati seyum – talaboti kreditorone qone gardonida meshavand, ki bo garavi molu mulki ba sohibkori infirodi taalluqdoshta tamin gardidaand;

– dar navbati chorum – qarz az rui  pardokhthoi hatmi ba bujet va fondhoi gayribujeti pardokhta meshavad;

– dar navbati panjum – tibqi qonun bo kreditoroni digar hisobu kitob karda meshavad.

Talaboti kreditoroni har navbat pas az qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoroni navbati peshina qone gardonida meshavad.

  1. Pas az ba okhir rasidani hisobbarobarkuni bo kreditoron sohibkori infirodii muflis etirofgardida az ijroi uhdadorihoi boqimondai marbut ba faoliyati sohibkoriash va talaboti digare, ki jihati ijro peshnihod gardida, zimni muflis etirof kardani sohibkor ba nazar girifta shudaand, ozod karda meshavad.
  2. Asos va tartibi muflis etirof kardani sohibkori infirodiro sud yo dar khususi muflis elon kardani uro qonun dar borai muflisshavi muqarrar menamoyad.

 

Moddai 27. Qobiliyati amali noboligoni az chordah to hajdahsola
  1. Noboligoni az chordah to hajdahsola bo rizoyati khattii namoyandagoni qonunii khud – volidayn, farzandkhondagon va parastoron, ba istisnoi ahdhoi dar qismi 2 hamin modda nombarshuda, ahdhoi digarro anjom medihand.

Ahdhoi anjomdodai chunin noboligon, inchunin badi minbad onro khatti maqul donistani volidayn, farzandkhondagon va parastoroni u boetibor  meboshand.

  1. Noboligoni az chordah to hajdahsola huquq dorand, ki biduni rizoiyati volidayn, farzandkhondagon va parastoronashon:

a) muzdi mehnat, stipendiya va daromadi digari qonunii khudro mustaqilona ikhtiyordori namoyand;

b) huquqi muallifi asari ilmi, adabi yo sanat, ikhtiro yo mahsuli digari qonunan hifzshavandai natijai faoliyati zehnii khudro tatbiq namoyand;

v) mutobiqi qonun dar muassisahoi krediti amonat guzorand va onro ikhtiyordori namoyand;

g) ahdhoi khurdi maishii dar qismi 2 moddai 29 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardidaro anjom dihand.

Noboligoni ba sinni shonzdahsolagi rasida hamchunin huquq dorand, ki mutobiqi qonun dar borai kooperativho uzvi kooperativ boshand.

  1. Noboligoni az chordah to hajdahsola az rui ahdhoe, ki mutobiqi qismhoi 1 va 2 hamin modda anjom dodaand, mustaqilona masuliyati molu mulki bar dush dorand. Chunin noboligon baroi ziyoni rasonidaashon mutobiqi hamin Kodeks masuliyat dorand.
  2. Dar surati mavjud budani asoshoi kofi sud metavonad bo darkhosti volidayn, farzandkhondagon yo maqomi vasoyatu parastori noboligi az chordah to hajdahsolaro, ba istisnoi holathoe, ki chunin nobolig mutobiqi qismi 2 moddai 22 yo moddai 28 hamin Kodeks qobiliyati purrai amalro ba dast ovardaast, huquqi mustaqilona ikhtiyordori namudani muzdi mehnat, stipendiya yo daromadi digari uro mahdud kunad yo az in huquq mahrum sozad.

 

Moddai 28.  Emansipatsiya
  1. Agar noboligi ba sinni shonzdahsolagi rasida tibqi shartnomai mehnati, az jumla az rui qarordod kor kunad yo bo rozigii volidayn, farzandkhondagon yo parastor bo faoliyati sohibkori mashgul shavad, u metavonad doroi qobiliyati purrai amal elon karda shavad.

Doroi qobiliyati purrai amal (emansipatsiya) elon kardani nobolig bo rozigii hardui volidayn, farzandkhondagon yo parastor bo qarori maqomi vasoyatu parastori yo dar surati nabudani chunin rozigi bo qarori sud surat megirad.

  1. Volidayn, farzandkhondagon va parastor az rui uhdadorihoi noboligi doroi qobiliyati purrai amal (emansipatsiya) – shuda, az jumla az rui uhdadorihoe, ki dar natijai ziyoni rasonidai u ba miyon omadaand, javobgar nestand.

 

Moddai 29. Qobiliyati amali noboligoni ba sinni chordah narasida
  1. Bar ivazi noboligoni ba sinni chordah narasida (khurdsolon) az nomi onho ahdro, ba istisnoi ahdi dar qismi 2 hamin modda zikrgardida, tanho volidayn, farzandkhondagon va vasiyoni onho anjom doda metavonand.

Nisbat ba ahdi namoyandagoni qonunii noboligon doir ba molu mulkashon qoidahoi dar qismhoi 2 va 3 moddai 38 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida istifoda meshavand.

  1. Noboligoni az shash to chordahsola huquqi mustaqilona bastani ahdhoi zaylro dorand:

a) ahdi khurdi maishi (kharidani non, kitob, qalam va gayra), ki hangomi bastan az jonibi khudi onho anjom doda meshavand;

b) ahde, ki baroi bemuzd ba dast ovardani foida ravona gardida, tasdiqi notariali yo baqaydgirii davlatiro talab namekunand;

v) ahdhoi ikhtiyordori kardani mablaghoe, ki namoyandai qonuni yo bo rozigii u shakhsi seyum baroi maqsadi muayyan yo baroi ikhtiyordorii ozodona dodaast.

  1. Az rui ahdi noboligi ba sinni chordah narasida, az jumla ahde, ki u mustaqilona anjom dodaast, masuliyati molu mulkiro volidayn, farzandkhondagon va vasiyon bar dush dorand, agar isbot nakunand, ki uhdadori bo gunohi onho vayron shudaast. In shakhs hamchunin tibqi qonunguzori baroi ziyoni rasonidai noboligon  niz masuliyat dorand.

 

Moddai 30. Gayri qobili amal donistani shahrvand
  1. Sud shahrvandero, ki dar asari bemorii ruhi yo kamaqliash ahamiyati amali khudro dark yo onro idora karda nametavonad, muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunhoi murofiai grajdani gayri qobili amal etirof karda metavonad. U tahti vasoyat qaror doda meshavad.
  2. Az nomi shahrvande, ki gayri qobili amal etirof gardidaast, ahdro vasi ba ijro merasonad.
  3. Agar asose, ki mutobiqi on shahrvand gayri qobili amal etirof gardida bud, az miyon bardoshta shavad, sud uro qobili amal etirof mekunad. Dar asosi qarori sud vasoyati baroi u muqarrargardida bekor karda meshavad.
  4. Agar sud arizai gayri qobili amal etirof kardani shakhsro qone nagardonad va muqarrar gardad, ki talabot musohilakorona arz shudaast, shakhse, ki bo chunin amal ba u ziyoni ruhi rasonida shudaast, haq dorad az arzkunanda jubroni in ziyonro talab namoyad.
Moddai 31. Mahdud sokhtani qobiliyati amali shahrvand
  1. Sud metavonad qobiliyati amali shahrvandero, ki dar asari suiistemolii mashrubot, vositahoi nashador, moddahoi psikhotropi va prekursorho yo moddahoi digari madhushkunanda khud yo oilai khudro dar vaziyati vaznini moddi qaror medihad, muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunhoi murofiai grajdani mahdud sozad. U tahti parastori qaror doda meshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

U huquq dorad mustaqilona ahdhoi khurdi maishi bandad.

Baroi anjom dodani ahdhoi digar, giriftani muzdi mehnat, nafaqa va daromadi digar va sarf kardani on u tanho bo rozigii parastor huquq dorad. Vale chunin shahrvand baroi ahdhoi anjomdoda va ziyoni rasonidaash mustaqilona masuliyati molu mulki dorad.

  1. Agar asoshoe, ki mutobiqi onho qobiliyati amali shahrvand mahdud gardida bud, az miyon bardoshta shavand, sud mahdudiyati qobiliyati amali uro bekor mekunad. Dar asosi qarori sud parastorii baroi shahrvand muqarrargardida bekor karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 32. Vasoyat va parastori
  1. Vasoyatu parastori baroi hifzi huququ manfiathoi shahrvandoni gayri qobili amal va qobiliyati purrai amal nadoshta muqarrar megardad. Vasoyatu parastorii noboligon hamchunin bo maqsadi tarbiyai onho muqarrar karda meshavad. Huququ uhdadorihoi marbutai vasiyonu parastoronro Kodeksi oilai Jumhurii Tojikiston muayyan menamoyad.
  2. Vasiyonu parastoron biduni vakolati makhsus huququ manfiathoi shakhsi tahti vasoyat yo parastoriashonro dar munosibat bo hama guna ashkhos, az jumla dar sudho, hifz mekunand.
  3. Vasoyatu parastorii noboligon dar surati volidayn, padaru modarkhond nadoshtani onho, az huquqi volidayn mahrum gardonida shudani volidaynashon, inchunin dar holathoe, ki chunin shahrvandon bo sababhoi digar biduni parastorii volidayn mondaand, az jumla dar surati az tarbiya yo hifzi huququ manfiathoyashon sarkashi namudani volidayn muqarrar karda meshavad.

 

Moddai  33. Vasoyat
  1. Vasoyat baroi khurdsolon, inchunin shahrvandone muqarrar karda meshavad, ki sud onhoro dar natijai bemorii ruhi yo kamaqliashon gayri qobili amal etirof namudaast.
  2. Vasiyon mutobiqi qonun namoyandagoni shakhsi tahti vasoyatashon buda, az nomi onho va ba manfiatashon tamomi ahdi zaruriro anjom medihand.
Moddai 34.  Parastori
  1. Parastori baroi noboligoni az chordah to hajdahsola, inchunin shahrvandone muqarrar karda meshavad, ki sud qobiliyati amali onhoro bo sababi suiistemolii mashrubot, vositahoi nashador, moddahoi psikhotropi va prekursorho yo moddahoi digari madhushkunanda mahdud sokhtaast. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Parastoron baroi anjomi on ahdhoe rozigi medihand, ki shahrvandoni tahti parastori qarordoshta baroi mustaqilona anjom dodani onho huquq nadorand.

Parastoron ba shakhsi tahti parastori baroi tatbiqi huquq va ijroi uhdadorihoyashon musoidat menamoyand, inchunin onhoro az suiistifodai shakhsi seyum (gayr) hifz menamoyand.

 

Moddai 35. Maqomoti vasoyatu parastori
  1. Maqomoti vasoyatu parastori maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti khudidorakunii shahrak va dehot meboshand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Sud vazifador ast, ki dar davomi se ruzi badi etibori qonuni paydo kardani qaror dar borai gayri qobili amal etirof namudani shahrvand yo dar borai mahdud sokhtani qobiliyati amali u baroi tahti vasoyat yo parastori qaror dodani chunin shahrvand dar in khusus ba maqomi vasoyatu parastorii mahalli zisti u khabar dihad.
  3. Maqomi vasoyatu parastorii mahalli zisti shakhsi tahti vasoyatu parastori qarordoshta ba faoliyati vasiyonu parastoroni onho nazorat mekunad.

 

Moddai 36.  Vasiyon va parastoron
  1. Vasi yo parastor az jonibi maqomi vasoyatu parastorii mahalli zisti shakhsi ba vasoyat yo parastori ehtiyojdoshta dar davomi yak mohi pas az lahzae, ki maqomoti mazkur dar khususi zarurati tahti vasoyat yo parastori qaror dodani shahrvand ogohi yoftand, muqarrar karda meshavad. Dar surati joy doshtani holathoi jolibi diqqat vasi yo parastorro maqomi vasoyatu parastorii mahalli zisti vasi (parastor) tain karda metavonad. Agar baroi shakhsi muhtoji vasoyat yo parastori dar davomi yak moh vasi yo parastor tain karda nashavad, ijroi vazifahoi vasi yo parastor muvaqqatan ba zimmai maqomi vasoyatu parastori guzoshta meshavad.

Shakhsi manfiatdor metavonand nisbati taini vasi yo parastor ba sud shikoyat namoyand.

  1. Tanho shahrvandoni ba balogat rasidai qobili amal vasi yo parastor tain shuda metavonand. Shahrvandonero, ki az huquqi padariyu modari mahrum karda shudaand, inchunin shahrvandonero, ki tibqi qonunguzori vasoyat yo parastor shudanashon man karda shudaast, vasoyat va parastor tain kardan mumkin nest.
  2. Shakhsro tanho bo rozigii khudash vasi yo parastor tain kardan mumkin ast. Zimnan boyad odobu akhloq va sifathoi digari shakhsi, qobiliyati ijro kardani vazifai vasi yo parastor, munosibati bayni u va shakhsi muhtoji vasoyat yo parastori va agar imkon boshad, khohishi shakhsi tahti vasoyat yo parastori qarordoshta boyad ba nazar girifta shavad.
  3. Vasiyon va parastoroni shahrvandoni muhtoji vasoyat yo parastorie, ki dar muassisahoi dakhldori tarbiyavi, tabobati, muassisahoi hifzi ijtimoii aholi yo muassisahoi digari shabeh qaror dorand yo joygir karda shudaand, in muassisaho  ba hisob meravand.
Moddai 37. Vazifai khudro ijro kardani vasiyon va parastoron

 

  1. Vazifai vasoyatu parastori, gayr az holathoi peshbininamudai qonun ba tavri roygon ijro karda meshavad.
  2. Vasiyonu parastoroni shahrvandoni nobolig boyad bo shakhsi tahti vasoyatashon (parastoriashon) qarordoshta yakjoya zindagi kunand. Judo zindagi kardani parastor bo shakhsi tahti parastorii ba sinni shonzdah rasida ba sharte bo ijozati maqomi vasoyatu parastori ijozat doda meshavad, ki in ba tarbiya va hifzi huququ manfiathoi shakhsi tahti parastori tasiri manfi narasonad.

Vasiyonu parastoron vazifadorand, ki dar khususi tagyir yoftani mahalli zistashon maqomoti vasoyatu parastoriro ogoh sozand.

  1. Vasiyonu parastoron vazifadorand, ki shakhsi tahti vasoyatashon (parastoriashon) qarordoshtaro tarbiya kunand, dar borai salomati, takomuli jismoni, ruhi, manavi va akhloqi, tahsil va kasbomuzii u gamkhori zohir namoyand.
  2. Vazifahoi dar qismi 3 hamin modda nombarshuda ba zimmai parastoroni shahrvandoni bolige, ki sud qobiliyati amalashonro mahdud sokhtaast, guzoshta nameshavand.
  3. Agar asoshoe, ki mutobiqi onho shahrvand dar natijai suiistemolii mashrubot, vositahoi nashador, moddahoi psikhotropi va prekursorho yo moddahoi digari madhushkunanda gayri qobili amal yo doroi qobiliyati mahdudi amal etirof gardida bud az miyon bardoshta shavand, vasi yo parastor vazifador ast, ki dar khususi qobili amal donistani shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) va bekor kardani vasoyat yo parastorii u ba sud darkhost peshnihod namoyad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
              Moddai 38. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori)
  1. Daromadi shahrvandi tahti vasoyat (parastori), az jumla daromadi az hisobi idorai molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) ba u taalluqdoshtaro, ba istisnoi molu mulke, ki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) mustaqilona ikhtiyordori karda metavonad, vasi yo parastor bo rozigii peshakii maqomi vasoyatu parastori tanho ba manfiati shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) sarf menamoyad.

Biduni rozigii peshakii maqomi vasoyatu parastori vasi yo parastor huquq dorad az hisobi mablage, ki boyad ba shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) hamchun daromad pardokhta shavad, mablagi zaruriro jihati taminoti shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) kharj  namoyad.

  1. Vasi biduni rizoiyati peshakii maqomi vasoyatu parastori baroi anjom dodan va parastor baroi dodani rozigi jihati anjomi ahdi furush, az jumla ivaz yo hadya kardani molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat, kiro (ijora), ba istifodai roygon dodan yo ba garav mondani on ahde, ki boisi az dast dodani huquqi shakhsi tahti vasoyat, taqsimi molu mulki u yo az on judo kardani hissa megardad, inchunin har guna ahdi digare, ki boisi kam shudani molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat megardad, huquq nadorad.

Tartibi idorai molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) tibqi qonun muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Vasi, parastor, hamsaron va kheshovandoni nazdiki onho baroi bastani ahdho bo shakhsi tahti vasoyatashon (parastoriash), ba istisnoi hamchun hadya yo istifodai roygon ba shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) dodani molu mulk, inchunin baroi namoyandagi kardani shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) hangomi bastani ahd yo peshburdi parvandahoi sudi bayni shakhsi tahti vasoyatu (parastoriyu) hamsari vasi yo parastor va kheshovandoni nazdiki onho huquq nadorand.

 

Moddai 39. Idorakunii vakolatii molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori)
  1. Dar surati joy doshtani zarurati idorakunii doimii molu mulki gayrimanqul va manquli qimatnoki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) maqomi vasoyatu parastori bo mudir, ki hamin maqom muayyan kardaast, dar khususi idorakunii vakolatii chunin molu mulk shartnoma mebandad. Dar in holat vasi yo parastor vakolati khudro nisbati molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyatash (parastoriash), ki ba idorai vakolati doda nashudaast, nigoh medorad.

Hangomi vakolathoi idorai molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori)-ro ijro kardani mudir amali qoidahoi peshbininamudai qismhoi 2 va 3 moddai 38 hamin Kodeks ba mudir dakhl dorad.

  1. Ikhtiyordorii vakolatii molu mulki shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) az rui asoshoe, ki qonun baroi qati shartnomai idorai vakolatii molu mulk peshbini namudaast, inchunin dar surati qati vasoyatu parastori qat megardad.

 

Moddai 40. Az ijroi vazifa ozod  va dur kardani vasiyonu parastoron
  1. 1. Maqomi vasoyatu parastori dar holati bargardonidani kudak ba volidaynash yo ba farzandi qabul gardidanash vasi yo parastorro az ijroi vazifahoyash ozod mekunad.

Hangomi ba muassisai dakhldori tarbiyavi, tabobati, muassisai hifzi ijtimoii aholi yo muassisahoi digari shabeh joygir kardani shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori), muassisai vasoyatu parastori, ba sharte ki in khilofi manfiathoi shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) naboshad, vasi yo parastori qablan tainshudaro az ijroi vazifahoyash ozod mekunad.

  1. Dar surati joy doshtani sababhoi uzrnok (bemori, tagyir yoftani vazi molu mulki, nabudani hamfikri bo shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori va gayra) vasi yo parastor mumkin ast bo khohishi khud az ijroi vazifahoyash ozod karda shavad.
  2. Dar surati vazifahoyashro gayriqanoatbakhsh ijro kardani vasi yo parastor, az jumla dar holati vasoyat yo parastoriro ba maqsadhoi garaznok istifoda kardani u yo shakhsi tahti vasoyatro (parastoriro) be nazorat, be kumaki lozima guzoshtanash, inchunin digar holathoe, ki qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston peshbini namudaast,maqomi vasoyatu parastori metavonad vasi yo parastorro az ijroi in vazifaho dur karda, jikhati ba javobgarii muqarrarnamudai qonun jalb kardani shahrvandi gunahkor tadbirhoi zaruri andeshad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 41. Qat gardidani vasoyatu parastori
  1. Vasoyatu parastori nisbati shahrvandoni bolig dar holathoi az jonibi sud qabul gardidani qaror dar borai qobili amal etirof namudani shakhsi tahti vasoyat (parastori) yo bekor kardani mahdudiyathoi qobiliyati amali u dar asosi arizai vasi, parastor yo maqomi vasoyatu parastori qat megardad.
  2. Dar surati ba sinni chordah rasidani shakhsi tahti vasoyat qarordoshta vasoyati u qat megardad va shahrvande, ki vazifai vasiro ijro mekard, biduni qarori ilovagi dar in khusus parastori nobolig megardad.
  3. Parastorii nobolig dar surati ba sinni hajdah rasidani shakhsi tahti parastori, inchunin dar surati izdivoj kardanash va dar holathoi digari to ba balogat rasidan doroi qobiliyati purrai amal gardidani u (qismi 2 moddai 22 va moddai 28) qat megardad.

 

Moddai 42. Himoya (patronaji)–i shahrvandoni qobili amal
  1. Bo khohishi shahrvandi boligi qobili amale, ki bo sababi vazi salomatiash huquqi khudro mustaqilona tatbiqu himoya va vazifahoyashro ijro karda nametavonad, mumkin ast baroi u parastori dar shakli homi (patronaj) muqarrar karda shavad. Muqarrar namudani homi (patronaj) boisi mahdudshavii huquqi shakhsi tahti parastori namegardad.
  2. Parastori (yovari) shahrvandi boligi qobili amalro maqomi vasoyatu parastori tanho bo rizoiyati chunin shahrvand tain karda metavonad.
  3. Parastor (yovar) molu mulki shakhsi boligi qobili amali tahti parastoriash taalluqdoshtaro dar asosi shartnomai suporish yo idorai vakolati, ki bo shakhsi tahti parastori basta shudaast, ikhtiyordori mekunad. Ahdhoi maishi va ahdhoi digarero, ki ba tamin va qone gardonidani talaboti shakhsi tahti parastori ravona gardidaand, parastor (yovari)-i u bo rizoiyati shakhsi tahti parastori anjom medihad.
  4. Himoya (patronaj)-i mutobiqi qismi 1 hamin modda muqarrargardidai shahrvandi boligi qobili amal bo talabi shahrvandi tahti himoya qarordoshta qat megardad.

Parastor (yovar)-i shahrvandi tahti himoya qarordoshta dar holathoi peshbininamudai moddai 40 hamin Kodeks az ijroi vazifahoi ba zimmaash guzoshtashuda ozod karda meshavad.

  1. Tanho shahrvandoni boligi qobili amal, ki qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston vasi yo parastor shudani onhoro man nakardaast, parastori (yovari) shahrvandi boligi qobili amal tain shuda metavonand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 43. Bedarak goib etirof namudani  shahrvand

Agar dar  tuli yak sol dar joi istiqomati shahrvand dar khususi boshishgohi u malumote naboshad, sud bo darkhosti shakhsi manfiatdor metavonad  uro bedarak goib etirof namoyad.

Dar surati  muqarrar karda natavonistani ruzi rasidani malumoti okhir dar khususi shakhsi goib, ogozi hisobi muhlat baroi etirofi bedarak goib sanai avvali mohe, ki pas az mohi rasidani malumoti okhir dar khususi shakhsi goib faro merasad va dar surati muqarrar karda natavonistani in moh,  yakumi yanvari soli minbada hisob meshavad.

 

Moddai 44. Oqibati bedarak goib etirof namudani shahrvand
  1. Molu mulki shahrvandi bedarak goib etirofgardida dar surati zarurati muhofizati on dar asosi qarori sud ba idorai vakolatii shakhse supurda meshavad, ki az jonibi maqomi vasoyatu parastori muayyan gardida, dar asosi shartnomai bo in maqom bastashuda dar borai idorai vakolati amal mekunad.

Idorakunandai molu mulki shakhsi bedarak goib etirofgardida ijroi vazifahoi shahrvandro ba zimma girifta, az hisobi molu mulki shakhsi goib qarzi uro mesuporad, in molu mulkro ba manfiati chunin shakhs idora mekunad. Bo darkhosti shakhsi manfiatdor ba shahrvandone, ki shakhsi bedarak meboist onhoro tamin mekard, taminotpuli doda meshavad.

  1. Maqomi vasoyatu parastori to sipari shudani yak soli pas az rasidani malumot dar khususi joi isti shahrvandi bedarak niz metavonad baroi hifzi molu mulki u idorakunandaro tain namoyad.
  2. Oqibati bedarak goib etirof namudani shakhsro, ki dar hamin modda peshbini nashudaast, qonun muayyan menamoyad.

 

Moddai 45. Bekor kardani qarori bedarak goib etirof namudani shahrvand
  1. Dar surati hozir shudani shahrvandi bedarak goib etirofgardida yo muayyan gardidani joi isti u sud qarorro dar borai bedarak goib etirof namudani uro bekor mekunad. Dar asosi qarori sud idorai molu mulki shahrvand bekor karda meshavad.
  2. Agar badi se soli tain kardani idorakunanda qarori bedarak goib elon namudani shakhs bekor nashuda, dar khususi favtida etirof namudani shahrvand ba sud murojiate peshnihod nagardida boshad, maqomi vasoyatu parastori vazifador ast, ki bo arizai favtida etirof namudani shahrvand ba sud murojiat kunad.

 

Moddai 46. Favtida elon namudani shahrvand
  1. Agar dar mahalli zisti shahrvand dar davomi se sol az joi istash malumote naboshad va agar u dar vaziyate bedarak goib shuda boshad, ki khatari marg ba hayotash tahdid mekard yo ba gumoni az falokat vafot kardani u asos medihad, dar davomi shash moh sud metavonad chunin shahrvandro favtida elon namoyad.
  2. Sud khizmatchii harbi yo shahrvandi digari bo sababi amaliyoti jangi bedarak goibshudaro tanho badi yak soli pas az anjomi amaliyoti jang favtida elon karda metavonad.
  3. Ruzi vafoti shahrvande, ki favtida elon shudaast, ruzi etibori qonuni paydo kardani qarori sud dar borai favtida elon namudani u donista meshavad. Dar surati favtida elon gardidani shahrvandi dar vaziyate bedarak goibshuda, ki ba hayoti u tahdid mekard yo baroi gumoni dar natijai falokat vafot kardani u asos medihad, sud metavonad ruzi takhminii vafoti uro ruzi vafoti in shahrvand etirof namoyad.
  4. Favtida elon namudani shahrvand nisbati huququ uhdadorihoi chunin shahrvand boisi oqibathoe megardad, ki vafoti u sabab shuda metavonist.

 

Moddai 47. Oqibati hozir shudani shahrvande, ki favtida elon shuda bud
  1. Dar surati hozir shudan yo oshkor gardidani mahalli budu boshi shahrvande, ki favtida elon shuda bud, sud qarori dakhldorro bekor mekunad.
  2. Shahrvand, ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai qismi 3 moddai 323 hamin Kodeks, sarfi nazar az vaqti hozir shudanash metavonad az har shakhs bargardonidani molu mulki mahfuzmondaero talab namoyad, ki pas az favtida elon gardidani shahrvand bemuzd ba ikhtiyori in shakhs guzashta ast.

Ashkhose, ki molu mulki shahrvandi favtida elonshuda dar natijai ahdhoi bomuzd ba ikhtiyorashon guzashtaast, agar isbot gardad, ki hangomi kharidani molu mulk onho zinda budani shahrvandi favtida elonshudaro medonistand, vazifadorand in molu mulkro ba u bargardonand. Dar surati bargardonida natavonistani khudi molu mulk arzishi on jubron karda meshavad. Agar molu mulki shahrvandi favtida elonshuda az rui huquqi meros ba ikhtiyori davlat guzashta, bo rioyai sharthoi dar hamin modda peshbinigardida furukhta shuda boshad, pas az bekor kardani qarori favtida elon namudani shahrvand ba u mablagi az furushi molu mulk badastomada bargardonida meshavad.

  1. Sohibi bovijdon huquq dorad behbudihoi voridnamudaashro, ba sharte ki onhoro be ziyon judo kardan mumkin boshad, dar ikhtiyori khud monad. Agar chunin judo kardani behbudiho imkonnopazir boshad, sohibi bovijdon huquq dorad jubroni mablagi baroi behbudi kharjkardaashro, vale na ziyodtar az andozai arzishi molu mulk, talab namoyad.

 

BOBI 4. ShAKhSI  HUQUQI

 

§1. MUQARRAROTI ASOSI

 

Moddai 48. Mafhumi shakhsi huquqi
  1. Tashkilote shakhsi huquqi donista meshavad, ki dar molikiyat, peshburdi khojagidori yo idorakunii operativii molu mulkro doshta, az rui uhdadorihoi khud bo in molu mulk masuliyat dorad, metavonad az nomi khud huquqhoi molu mulki va shakhsii gayrimolumulkiro ba dast ovarda, tatbiq namoyad, uhdadori girad, dar sud davogar va javobgar boshad.

Shakhsi huquqi boyad balans yo smetai  mustaqil doshta boshand.

  1. Bo sababi ishtirok dar tashkili molu mulki shakhsi huquqi muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) on metavonand nisbati in shakhsi huquqi uhdadori yo huquqi molu mulki ba molu mulki on doshta boshand.

Ba shakhsi huquqie, ki ishtirokchiyonashon nisbati onho huquqi uhdadori dorand, inho dokhil meshavand: shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori,  kooperativhoi tijorati va kooperatsiyai matlubot.(QJT az 22.07.13s., №976)

Ba shakhsi huquqie, ki muassisoni onho ba molu mulkashon huquqi molikiyat yo huquqi digari molu mulki dorand, korkhonahoi vohid, az jumla korkhonahoi fari, inchunin muassisahoe dokhil meshavand, ki az jonibi molik mablagguzori meshavand.

  1. Ba shakhsi huquqie, ki muassisonashon (ishtirokchiyonashon) nisbati onho huquqi molu mulki nadorand, inho dokhil meshavand: ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini; fondhoi khayriya va fondhoi digari jamiyati, ittihodiyahoi shakhsi huquqi (assotsiatsiyaho va ittihodiyaho). (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 49. Qobiliyati huquqdorii shakhsi  khuquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqi metavonad mutobiqi maqsadhoi faoliyati dar hujjathoi tasisii on peshbinigardida huquqi grajdani va vobasta ba in faoliyat uhdadori doshta boshad.

Tashkilothoi tijorati, ba istisnoi korkhonahoi vohid va namudhoi digari  tashkilothoi peshbininamudai qonun metavonand huququ uhdadorihoe doshta boshand, ki baroi tatbiqi har namudi faoliyati bo qonun mannashuda zarurand. Shakhsi huquqi bo namudhoi alohidai faoliyate, ki nomgui onho bo qonun muayyan karda meshavad, tanho  dar asosi ijozatnomai makhsus (litsenziya) mashgul shuda metavonad.

  1. Huquqi shakhsi huquqi tanho dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonun metavonad mahdud karda shavad. Nisbati qarori mahdud kardani huquq ba sud shikoyat kardan mumkin ast.
  2. Qobiliyati huquqdorii shakhsi huquqi az lahzai tasisi on (qismi 2 moddai 51) ba miyon omada, dar lahzai ba okhir rasidani on (qismi 8 moddai 64) qat megardad.

Huquqi shakhsi huquqi jihati tatbiqi faoliyate, ki baroi mashgul shudan ba on giriftani ijozatnoma (litsenziya) zarur ast (qismi 1 hamin modda), agar dar qonunho tartibi digare muqarrar nashuda boshad, az lahzai giriftani chunin ijozatnoma (litsenziya) yo dar muhlati dar on zikrgardida ba miyon omada, bo guzashtani muhlati amali on qat megardad.

 

Moddai 50. Tashkilothoi tijorati va gayritijorati
  1. Tashkilothoe shakhsi huquqi buda metavonand, ki ba dast ovardani foidaro maqsadi asosii faoliyati khud qaror dodaand (tashkilothoi tijorati) yo chunin maqsadi ba dast ovardani foidaro nadoshta, foidaro bayni ishtirokchiyon taqsim namekunand (tashkilothoi gayritijorati).
  2. Shakhsi huquqie, ki tashkilothoi tijorati meboshand, metavonand dar shakli shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori, kooperativhoi tijorati, korkhonahoi vohidi davlati va kommunali tasis doda shavand.
  3. Shakhsi huquqie, ki tashkiloti gayritijorati meboshand, metavonand dar shakli kooperativhoi gayritijorati, kooperatsiya matlubot, ittihodiyahoi jamiyati yo tashkilothoi dini, muassisahoi az jonibi molik mablagguzorishavanda, fondhoi khayriya va fondhoi digar, inchunin dar digar shaklhoi peshbininamudai qonun tasis doda shavand. (QJT az 22.07.13s., №976; az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Tashkilothoi gayritijorati tanho ba qadre ba faoliyati sohibkori mashgul shuda metavonand, ki baroi maqsadhoi oinnomavii onho zarur ast.

  1. Tasisi ittihodiyahoi tashkilothoi tijorati va gayritijorati dar shakli assotsiatsiyaho yo ittifoqho ba roh monda meshavad.

 

Moddai 51. Baqaydgirii davlatii shakhsi huquqi

1.Shakhsi huquqi boyad muvofnqi tartibi muqarrariamudai qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba qaydi davlati shrifta shavad. Malumot dar borai bakaydgirii davlati, az jumla baqaydgirii tashkiletkhoi tijorati, nomi firma ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquqi va sokhibkoroni infirody dokhil karda meshavad, ki baroi shinosoii umum dastras meboshad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Asoskhoi rad kardani baqaydgirii davlatii shakhsi huquki muvofiqi konunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston muayyan karda meshavand. Rad kardani baqaydgiri bo daleli muvofiqi maqsad nabudani tasisi shakhsi hukuqi man ast. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Dar surati rad kardani baqaydgnrii davlati, inchunin sarkashy kardan az on ba sud shikoyat namudan mumkin ast.

  1. Shakhsi khuquqi az lahzai ba qaydi davlati girifta shudanash tasisgardida donista meshavad.
  2. Shakhsi khukuky tankho dar kholathoi muqarrarnamudai qonun az nav ba qayd girifta meshavad.

(QJT az 29.12.10s., №640)

 

Moddai 52. Muassisoni shakhsi huquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqiro yak yo yakchand muassis tasis doda metavonand.
  2. 2. Sohibmulk yo in ki maqomoti vakolatdori on yo shakhson va dar holathoi makhsus peshbinnamudai qonunguzori digar shakhsoni huquqi muassisi shakhsi huquqi shuda metavonand. Dar ayni zamon shakhsi huquqie, ki doroi huquqi peshburdi khojagidori yo idorai operativi meboshand, bo rizoiyati molik yo maqomi vakolatdori on metavonad muassisoni shakhsi huquqii digar boshad.

 

Moddai 53. Hujjathoi tasisi shakhsi huquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqi dar asosi oinnoma yo shartnomai tasis va oinnoma va yo tanho shartnomai tasis amal mekunad. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun shakhsi huquqie, ki tashkiloti tijorati nameboshad, dar asosi nizomnomai umumii in namudi tashkilot amal karda metavonad.

Shartnomai tasisi shakhsi huquqiro muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) on basta, oinnomaro tasdiq menamoyand.

Shakhsi huquqie, ki mutobiqi hamin Kodeks az jonibi yak muassis tasis yoftaast, dar asosi oinnomai tasdiqnamudai in muassis amal mekunad.

  1. Dar oinnoma va hujjathoi digari tasisii shakhsi huquqi boyad nomi shakhsi huquqi, mahalli joygirshavii on, tartibi idorai faoliyati shakhsi huquqi muayyan karda shavand, inchunin malumoti digari peshbininamudai qonun dar borai namudi dakhldori shakhsi huquqi nishon doda shavad.

Dar hujjathoi tasisii tashkilothoi gayritijorati va korkhonahoi vohid, dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun boshad, inchunin tashkilothoi tijoratii digar boyad maromu maqsadi faoliyati shakhsi huquqi muayyan karda shavad. Dar hujjathoi tasisii tashkilothoi digari tijorati mumkin ast maromu maqsadi muayyani faoliyati onho peshbini karda shavad.

Dar shartnomai tasis tarafho (muassison) jihati tasisi shakhsi huquqi uhdadori qabul namuda, tartibi faoliyati mushtarak dar mavridi tasisi on, sharthoi ba on dodani molu mulki khud va ishtirok dar faoliyati onro muayyan menamoyand. Dar shartnoma inchunin shartu tartibi taqsimi foidayu ziyon miyoni ishtirokchiyon, idora kardani faoliyati shakhsi huquqi, az hayati on baromadani muassison (ishtirokchiyon) muayyan karda meshavad. Bo muvofiqai muassison ba shartnomai tasis mumkin ast sharthoi digar niz dokhil karda shavand.

  1. 3. Tagyiroti ba khujjathoi tasisii hizbkhoi siyosi, ittihodiyahoi jamiyaty, fondhoi khayriya va fondhoi digar, inchunin tashkilothoi dini voridkardashuda pas az bakaydgirii davlati baroi shakhsoni ssyum etnbor paydo mekunand. Tagyiroti malumotho dar hujjatkhoi tasisii shakhsoni huquqii digar pas az vorid namudani onkho ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquqi va sokhibkoroni infirody baroi shakhsoni seyum etibor paydo mekunand. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640; az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 54. Maqomoti shakhsi huquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqi ba vositai maqomotash, ki dar asosi qonunhoi amalkunanda va hujjathoi tasisi huquqi grajdani ba dast ovardaast, ijroi uhdadorihoi grajdaniro ba zimma megirad. Tartibi tain yo intikhobi maqomoti shakhsi huquqi tibqi qonun va hujjathoi tasis muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun shakhsi huquqi metavonad ba vositai ishtirokchiyonash huquqi grajdani ba dast ovarda, ijroi uhdadorihoi grajdaniro ba zimma girad.
  3. Shakhse, ki mutobiqi qonun yo hujjathoi tasisi shakhsi huquqi az nomi on baromad mekunad, boyad ba manfiati shakhsi huquqii namoyandagi mekardaash sofdilona va oqilona amal kunad. Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, u vazifador ast, ki bo talabi muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni, azoi) shakhsi huquqi ziyonero, ki u ba shakhsi huquqi rasonidaast, jubron namoyad.

 

Moddai 55. Nom va mahalli joygirshavii  shakhsi huquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqi nomi khudro dorad, ki dar on ba shakli tashkiliyu huquqiash ishora karda meshavad. Nomi tashkilothoi gayritijorati, korkhonahoi vohid va dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun tashkilothoi digari tijorati boyad ishora ba khususiyati faoliyati shakhsi huquqiro doshta boshad.

Ba nomi shakhsi huquqi dokhil kardani ishora ba nomi purra yo mukhtasari rasmi (nomi davlat), ba rekvizithoi asnod yo mavodi reklamavii shakhsi huquqi dokhil kardani chunin nom yo unsurhoi ramzi davlati muvofiqi tartibi muayyannamudai Hukumat ijozat doda meshavad.

  1. Mahalli joygirshavii shakhsi huquqi, agar mutobiqi qonun dar hujjathoi tasisii shakhsi huquqi mahalli digare muqarrar nashuda boshad, mahalli baqaydgirii davlatii on muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Nom va mahalli joygirshavii shakhsi huquqi dar hujjathoi tasisii on nishon doda meshavad.
  3. Shakhsi huquqie, ki tashkiloti tijorati meboshad, boyad nomi firmavi doshta boshad.

Shakhsi huquqie, ki nomi firmavii on muvofiqi tartibi muqarrargardida ba qayd girifta shudaast, baroi istifodai on huquqi mustasno dorad.

Tartibi baqaydgiri va istifodai nomi firmaviro qonunho mutobiqi hamin Kodeks muayyan menamoyand.

Shakhse, ki nomi ba qayd giriftashudai firmavii shakhsi digarro gayriqonuni istifoda mekunad, bo talabi sohibi huquqdori nomi firmavi vazifador ast istifodai onro qat karda, ziyoni rasonidaashro jubron namoyad.

 

Moddai 56. Namoyandagi va filialho
  1. Namoyandagi vohidi alohidai shakhsi huquqi meboshad, ki berun az mahalli joygirshavii on qaror doshta, manfiati shakhsi huquqiro hifz va namoyandagi menamoyad, az nomi on ahdho va amalhoi digari huquqiro anjom medihad.
  2. Filial vohidi alohidai shakhsi huquqi meboshad, ki berun az mahalli joygirshavii on qaror doshta, tamomi yo yak qismi vazifahoi on, az jumla vazifai namoyandagiro ijro mekunad.
  3. Namoyandagiyu filialho shakhsi huquqi nabuda, bo qarori maqomi dakhldori shakhsi huquqi, ki onro qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston va oinnomai shakhsi huquqi muayyan namudaand, tasis doda meshavand. Rohbaroni namoyandagiyu filialho az jonibi shakhsi huquqi tain gardida, dar asosi vakolatnomai on amal mekunand. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

Namoyandagiyu filialho boyad dar oinnomai shakhsi huquqie, ki onhoro tasis dodaast, nishon doda shavand.

 

Moddai 57. Masuliyati shakhsi huquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqi gayr az muassisahoe, ki az jonibi molik mablagguzori meshavand, az rui uhdadorihoi khud bo tamomi molu mulkashon masuliyat dorand.
  2. Korkhonai davlati va muassisai az jonibi molik mablagguzorishavanda az rui uhdadorihoi khud muvofiqi tartib va dar asosi sharthoi peshbininamudai qismi 8 moddai 125, moddahoi 126 va 127 hamin Kodeks masuliyat dorand.
  3. Muassisi (ishtirokchii) shakhsi huquqi yo moliki on, ba istisnoi holathoi dar hamin Kodeks yo hujjathoi tasisi shakhsi huquqi peshbinigardida az rui uhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqi, shakhsi huquqi boshad, az rui uhdadorihoi muassis (ishtirokchi) yo molik masuliyat nadorad.

Agar sababgori muflisshavii shakhsi huquqi muassison (ishtirokchiyon), moliki molu mulki  shakhsi huquqi yo shakhsi digare boshand, ki huquqi dodani dasturhoi hatmiro ba shakhsi huquqi yo ba tariqi digar imkoniyati muayyan namudani amalhoi onro dorand, ba zimmai chunin ashkhos dar surati narasidani molu mulki shakhsi huquqi mumkin ast az rui uhdadorihoi on masuliyati ilovagi guzoshta shavad.

 

Moddai 58. Aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi
  1. Aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi (muttahid, hamroh, taqsim, judo kardan, tabdil dodan) metavonad bo qarori muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) on yo maqomi shakhsi huquqie, ki mutobiqi hujjathoi tasis doroi chunin vakolat meboshad, ba amal barovarda shavad.
  2. Bo maqsadi mahdud sokhtani faoliyati inhisori (monopolisti) dar qonun mumkin ast holatho va tartibi majburan aznavtashkildihii tashkilothoi tijorati dar asosi qarori sud peshbini karda shavad.

Agar muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) shakhsi huquqi,  maqomi  vakolatdori onho yo maqomi shakhsi huquqi, ki tibqi hujjathoi tasis baroi aznavtashkildihii on   vakolatdor ast, aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqiro dar muhlati muqarrarnamudai qarori sud ba amal nabarorand, sud az jumlai shakhsi gayr mudiri shakhsi huquqiro tain namuda, ba u suporish medihad, ki aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqiro ba amal barorad. Az lahzai tain gardidani mudiri gayr vakolati idora namudani korhoi shakhsi huquqi ba zimmai u meguzarad. Mudiri gayr az nomi shakhsi huquqi dar sud baromad mekunad va balansi taqsimotro tartib doda, onro yakjoya bo hujjathoi tasisii shakhsi huquqi dar natijai aznavtashkildihi bavujudoyanda jihati tasdiq ba sud mesuporad. Az jonibi sud tasdiq gardidani hujjathoi mazkur baroi baqaydgirii davlatii shakhsi huquqii navtasis asos meboshad.

  1. Dar holathoi muqarrarnamudai qonun aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi dar shakli muttahid, hamroh kardan yo tagyir dodan tanho bo rizoyati maqomoti davlatii vakolatdor ba amal barovarda meshavad.
  2. Shakhsi huquqi, ba istisnoi holathoi aznavtashkildihi dar shakli hamrohkuni, az lahzai baqaydgirii shakhsi huquqii navtasis aznavtashkilshuda donista meshavad.

Dar surati aznavtashkildikhii shakhsi khuquqy dar shakli ba on hamrohshavii shakhsi huquqpi digar, shakhsoni khuquqie, ki dar hamrohshavi ishtirok menamoyand, dar in khusus bo tartibi mukarrarshuda dar yak vakt ba maqomoti anchomdihandai baqaydgirii davlati baroi vorid namudani malumot ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquki va sokhibkoroni infirody ariza peshnikhod menamoyand. Shakhsi khuquqi az lahzae aznavtashkilshuda ba hisob meravad, ki malumot dar borai qat yoftani faoliyati, shakhsi huquqii hamrohshuda va malumot dar borai tagyiroti hujjathoi tasisii shakhsi huquqi ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni hukuqy va sokhibkoroni infirody vorid karda shudaand.

Aznavtashkildihii shakhsi hukuqi dar shakli tabdildikhi pas az vorid namudani malumot ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shahsoni khuquqy va sokhibkoroni infirodi dar borai tagyirdihii shakli tashkiliyu huquqii shakhsi khuquqi ba itmomrasida donista meshavad. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)

  1. Aznavtashkildihii bonkho tibqi hamin Kodeks va qonunguzorii bonki surat megirad.

 

Moddai 59. Vorisii huquqi hangomi aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi
  1. Hangomi muttahidshavii shakhsi huquqi huququ uhdadorihoi har yaki onho mutobiqi sanadi supurdan ba shakhsi huquqii navtasis meguzarand.
  2. Dar surati hamrohkunii shakhsi huquqi ba shakhsi huquqii digar huququ uhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqii hamrohshuda mutobiqi sanadi supurdan ba ikhtiyori shakhsi huquqii digar meguzarad. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)
  3. Dar surati judo kardani shakhsi huquqi huququ uhdadorihoi on mutobiqi balansi taqsimot ba shakhsi huquqii navtasis meguzarand.
  4. Hangomi az hayati shakhsi huquqi judo kardani yak yo yakchand shakhsi huquqi mutobiqi balansi taqsimot huququ uhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshuda ba har yaki onho meguzarad.
  5. Hangomi az yak namudi shakhsi huquqi ba namudi digar tabdil dodani shakhsi huquqi (tagyir dodani shakli tashkiliyu huquqi) huququ uhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshuda ba shakhsi huquqii navtasis mutobiqi akti supurdan guzaronida meshavand.

 

Moddai 60. Sanadi supurdan yo balansi taqsimot
  1. Sanadi supurdan yo balansi taqsimot boyad muvofiqi muqarrarot oidi guzashtani hamai uhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshuda nisbati hamai kreditoronu qarzdoroni u, az jumla uhdadorihoi mavridi bahsi tarafayn qaror doshtaro ham dar bar girifta boshad.
  2. . Sanadi supurdan yo balansi taqsimot az jonibi muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) shakhsi huquqi yo maqome, ki dar khususi aznavtashkildikhii shakhsi huquky karor qabul namudaast, tasdik gardida, ba maqomoti anjomdihandai bakaydgirii davlati baron bakaydgirii davlatii shakhsi huquqii navtasis va baroi ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquky va sokhibkoroni infirody vorid namudani malumot dar borai shakhsoni khuquqii aznavtashkilshuda peshnikhod karda meshavand. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)

 

Moddai 61. Kafolati huquqii kreditoroni shakhsi huquqi hangomi aznavtashkildihii on
  1. Muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) shakhsi huquqi yo maqome, ki dar khususi aznavtashkildihii shakhsi huquqi qaror qabul kardaast, boyad kreditoroni shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshavandaro dar in bora khatti ogoh sozand.
  2. Kreditori shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshavanda huquq dorad qat yo ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadoriro, ki az rui on hamin shakhsi huquqi qarzdor meboshad, inchunin jubroni ziyonro talab namoyad.
  3. Agar balansi taqsimot baroi muayyan namudani andozai huquq va uhdadorihoi vorisoni huquqhoi shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshavanda imkoniyat nadihad, shakhsi huquqii navtasis az rui uhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshuda dar nazdi kreditoroni u masuliyati mushtarak dorand.

 

Moddai 62. Barham dodani shakhsi huquqi
  1. Barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi boisi qat gardidani on biduni ba shakhsi digar ba tariqi vorisi huquq guzashtani huququ uhdadorihoyash megardad.
  2. Shakhsi huquqi dar holathoi zerin metavonad barham doda shavad:

– bo qarori muassison (ishtirokchiyon)  yo maqomoti shakhsi huquqie, ki mutobiqi hujjathoi tasisi chunin vakolatro dorad, az jumla bo sababi guzashtani muhlate, ki shakhsi huquqi  tasis doda shuda bud yo  noil shudan ba maqsadhoi tasisdodashuda;

– bo halnomai sud hangomi tasision roh dodan ba dagalona vayronkunii qonun, agar chunin vayronkuni khususiyati islohnopazir doshta boshad yo be ijozatnomai dakhldor mashgul shudan ba faoliyat yo faoliyati man namudai qonun, yo amali namudani faoliyati vayronkunii yakchandmarotiba va dagalonai digari qonunguzori yo az tarafi ittihodiyahoi jamiyati, tashkilothoi dini va fondhoi jamiyati muntazam amali namudani faoliyate, ki ba maqsadhoi oinnomaviashon mukholif meboshad, hangomi bozkhosti ijozatnoma, ki amali namudani amaliyothoi dar ijozatnoma peshbinishuda namudi yagonai faoliyati ijozatdodashuda meboshad, inchunin dar holathoi digari peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

  1. Talabi barham dodani shakhsi huquqiro tibqi asoshoi dar qismi 2 hamin modda zikrgardida maqomoti hokimiyati davlati yo maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlatie, ki muvofiqi qonun baroi peshnihodi chunin talab huquq dorad, ba sud peshnihod karda metavonad.

Bo qarori sud dar borai barham dodani shakhsi huquqi mumkin ast vazifai barham dodani shakhsi huquqi ba zimmai muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) on yo maqomi dar asosi hujjathoi tasisi shakhsi huquqi ba barhamdihii on vakolatdoshta guzoshta shavad.

  1. Shakhsi huquqie, ki tashkiloti tijorati meboshad, yo chun kooperativi gayritijorati va yo fondi jamiyati faoliyat mekunad, bo sababi muflis etirof shudanash inchunin mutobiqi moddai 66 hamin Kodeks barham doda meshavad.

Agar arzishi molu mulki chunin shakhsi huquqi baroi qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoron nokifoya boshad, onro tanho muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai moddai 66 hamin Kodeks barham dodan mumkin ast.

Muqarraroti bo sababi muflisi barham dodani shakhsi huquqi ba muassisaho dakhl nadorad.

  1. Agar bo qonunguzorii bonki tartibi digar muqarrar nashuda boshad, barhamdihii bonkho tibqi hamin Kodeks surat megirad.

 

Moddai 63. Vazifai shakhse, ki dar borai barham dodani shakhsi huquqi qaror qabul kardaast
  1. Muassison (ishtirokchiyon)–i shakhsi huquqi yo maqomi dar khususi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi qarorqabulkarda vazifadorand, ki betakhir az in khusus maqomi baqaydgirandai shakhsi huquqiro khatti ogoh sozand va on ba fekhristi   yagonai   davlatii   shakhsoni   hukuqi   va   sokhibkoroni infirody dar khususi dar jarayoni barhamdihi qaror doshtani shakhsi huquqi malumot vorid mesozad. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)
  2. Muassison (ishtirokchiyon)–i shakhsi huquqi yo maqomi dar khususi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi qaror qabulkarda komissiyai barhamdihi (barhamdihanda)–ro tain namuda, mutobiqi hamin Kodeks tartib va muhlati barhamdihiro muqarrar menamoyand.
  3. Komissiyai barhamdihi az lahzai tain gardidanash baroi nazorat kardani amali maqomoti shakhsi huquqi dar mavridi ikhtiyordorii molu mulkash vakolat ba dast meorad. Az jumla tamomi amaliyoti maqomoti shakhsi huquqi, ki ba begona kardani molu mulki on yo pardokhti qarz ravona gardidaand, tanho bo rizoyati komissiyai barhamdihi metavonad ba amal barovarda shavad.

 

Moddai 64. Tartibi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi
  1. Komissiyai barhamdihi dar ruznomae, ki malumoti baqaydgirii davlatii shakhsi huquqiro nashr menamoyad, dar khususi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi va tartibu muhlati peshnihodi talabot az jonibi kreditoroni on elonro chop mekunad. In muhlat naboyad az du mohi pas az lahzai nashri elon dar borai barhamdihi kamtar boshad.

Komissiyai barhamdihi jikhati malum sokhtani kreditoron va giriftani qarzi debitori tamomi chorahoi imkonpazirro andeshida, inchunin kreditoronro dar khususi barham dodani  shakhsi huquqi khatti ogoh mesozad.

  1. Pas az tamom shudani muhlati peshnihodi talabot az jonibi kreditoron komissiyai barhamdihi balansi barhamdihii fosilavi tartib medihad, ki dar on malumot dar borai tarkibi molu mulki shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda, nomgui talaboti peshkashnamudai kreditoron, inchunin malumot dar khususi natijai barrasii onho zikr meyobad.

Balansi fosilavii barhamdihi az jonibi muassisoni  (ishtirokchiyoni) shakhsi huquqi yo maqomi qabulkardai qaror dar borai barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi tasdiq karda meshavad.

  1. Agar mablagi mavjudai shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda (gayr az muassisaho) baroi qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoron nokifoya boshad, komissiyai barhamdihi muvofiqi tartibi baroi ijroi qarorhoi sud muqarrargardida molu mulki shakhsi huquqiro az tariqi savdoi ommavi ba furush merasonad.
  2. Pardokhti mablaghoi puli ba kreditoroni shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda az jonibi komissiyai barhamdihi az rui navbati dar moddai 65 hamin Kodeks muqarrargardida, ba istisnoi kreditoroni navbati panjum, ki mablagi puli ba onho pas az yak mohi badi sanai tasdiqi balansi fosilavii barhamdihi pardokhta meshavad, mutobiqi balansi fosilavii barhamdihi az ruzi tasdiqi on sar karda, pardokhta meshavad.
  3. Pas az pardokhti pulii kreditoron komissiyai barhamdihi balansi barhamdihiro tartib medihad, ki onro muassison (ishtirokchiyon)–i shakhsi huquqi yo maqomi qabulkardai qaror dar borai barham dodani shakhsi huquqi tasdiq menamoyand.
  4. Dar surati nokifoya budani mablagi muassisai barhamdodashavanda baroi qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoron, onho huquq dorand, ki baroi az hisobi moliki molu mulki in muassisa qone gardonidani qismi boqimondai talabotashon ba sud murojiat namoyand.
  5. Molu mulki pas az qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoron boqimondai shakhsi huquqi, agar dar qonun yo hujjathoi tasisi shakhsi huquqi tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, ba muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) on, ki doroi huquqi molikiyat ba in molu mulk yo huquqi uhdadori nisbati in shakhsi huquqi meboshand, supurda meshavad.
  6. Barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi badi dar in khusus vorid namudani sabt ba fehrasti davlati shakhsi huquqi baitmomrasida va shakhsi huquqi boshad barhamdodashuda etirof karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 65. Qone gardonidani talaboti  kreditoron
  1. Dar surati barham dodani shakhsi huquqi talabi kreditoroni on ba navbati zayl qone gardonida meshavand:

– dar navbati avval – talabi shahrvandone bo rohi ba sarmoya tabdil dodani pardokhthoi dakhldori vaqtbay qone gardonida meshavad, ki shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda dar nazdi onho baroi rasonidani ziyon ba hayot va salomatiashon masuliyat dorad;

– dar navbati duyum – dar mavridi pardokhti kumakpulii az kor raftan va muzdi kori  ashkhose, ki tibqi shartnomai mehnati, az jumla tibqi qarordod kor mekunand va dar mavridi dodani mukofotpuli az rui shartnomahoi muallifi hisobu kitob karda meshavad;

– dar navbati seyum – talabi kreditoron az rui uhdadorihoe qone gardonida meshavand, ki bo garavi molu mulki shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda tamin gardidaand;

– dar navbati chorum – qarz az rui pardokhthoi hatmi ba bujet pardokhta meshavad;

– dar navbati panjum – talabi kreditoroni digar tibqi qonun hisobu kitob karda meshavad.

Dar surati barham dodani bonkho yo digar tashkilothoi krediti, ki mablaghoi shahrvandonro jalb namudaand, dar navbati avval talaboti shahrvandone, ki amonatguzori onho meboshand, qone gardonida meshanand.

  1. Talabi har navbat pas az purra qone gardonidani talabi navbati peshina qone gardonida meshavad.
  2. Dar surati nokifoya budani molu mulki shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda, agar dar qonun tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, in molu mulk dar bayni kreditoron muvofiqi qonunhoi amalkunanda, taqsim karda meshavad.
  3. Agar komissiyai barhamdihi qone gardonidani talaboti kreditorro rad kunad yo az barrasii on sarkashi namoyad, kreditor huquq dorad, ki to tasdiq gardidani balansi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi nisbati amali komissiyai barhamdihi ba sud davo namoyad.

Bo qarori sud talabi kreditor mumkin ast az hisobi molu mulki boqimondai shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashuda qone gardonida shavad.

  1. Talabi kreditor, ki pas az guzashtani muhlati baroi peshnihodi on muqarrarnamudai komissiyai  barhamdihi peshnihod gardidaast, az hisobi molu mulki shakhsi qarzdor, ki pas az qone gardonidani talabi sari vaqt peshkashnamudai kreditoron boqi  mondaast, qone gardonida meshavad.
  2. Talabi kreditoron, ki bo sababi nokifoya budani molu mulki shakhsi huquqii barhamdodashavanda qone gardonida nashudaast, ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai moddai 68 hamin Kodeks, pardokhtashuda donista meshavad. Talabi kreditorone, ki komissiyai barhamdihi onhoro etirof nakardaast, agar kreditor ba sud bo davo murojiat nakarda boshad, inchunin talabe, ki qone gardonidani on bo qarori sud ba kreditor rad shudaast, hamchunin pardokhtashuda donista meshavand.

 

Moddai 66. Muflisshavii shakhsi huquqi
  1. Shakhsi huquqie, ki ba faoliyati tijorati mashgul meboshad, ba istisnoi korkhonahoi makhsusi (kazonii) davlati, agar qobiliyati qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoronro bo sababi nokifoyagii doroihoi bozorgir nadoshta naboshad, on goh mumkin ast  muflis etirof karda shavad.
  2. Shakhsi huquqi az jonibi sud muflis etirof karda meshavad.

Shakhsi huquqi inchunin metavonad yakjoya bo kreditoron dar khususi eloni muflisshavi va ikhtiyoran barham doda shudanash qaror qabul namoyad.

  1. Asoshoi az jonibi sud muflis etirof gardidani shakhsi huquqi yo dar khususi muflisshavii khud elon kardani on, inchunin tartibi barhamdihii chunin shakhsi huquqi tibqi qonun dar borai muflisshavi muqarrar karda meshavad. Talabi kreditoron az rui navbati muqarrarnamudai qismi 1 moddai 65 hamin Kodeks qone gardonida meshavad.

 

Moddai 67. Oqibati muflis donistani shakhsi huquqi
  1. Az jonibi sud muflis etirof shudani shakhsi huquqi inchunin tibqi qarori mushtarak bo kreditoron dar khususi muflisshavii khud elon kardani shakhsi huquqi boisi barham dodani in shakhsi huquqi megardad.
  2. Az lahzai muflis donista shudani shakhsi huquqi:

a) muhlati pardokhti tamomi uhdadorihoi qarzii in shakhsi huquqi, agar on peshtar faro narasida boshad, farorasida hisob meyobad;

b) zam kardani jarimai ahdshikani va foizi tamomi qarzhoi in shakhsi huquqi qat megardad;

v) tamomi mahdudiyathoi dar qonun peshbinigardida dar mavridi ruyonidani mablag az molu mulki shakhsi huquqi az miyon bardoshta meshavand;

g) bahshoi molu mulki bo ishtiroki in shakhsi huquqi ba sifati javobgar, ba istisnoi bahshoe, ki az rui onho qarorho etibori qonuni paydo kardaand, qat megardand;

d) hama talabhoi molu mulki ba nisbati in shakhsi huquqi tanho dar jarayoni barhamdihi peshnihod shuda metavonand.

  1. Dar surati tibqi qarori mushtarak bo kreditoron dar khususi muflisshavii khud elon kardani shakhsi huquqi, agar dar sozishnoma bo kreditoron tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, qoidahoi qismi 2 hamin modda istifoda meshavand.

 

Moddai 68. Ruyonidani mablag az molu mulki shakhsi huquqi pas az barham dodani on

Agar badi barhamdihii shakhsi huquqi isbot shavad, ki on bo maqsadi khalos khurdan az masuliyati nazdi kreditoroni khud aqallan yak qismi molu mulkashro ba shakhsi digar dodaast yo ba tariqi digar qasdan pinhon kardaast, kreditorone, ki talabothoyashon dar jarayoni barhamdihi purra qone nagardidaast, huquq dorand qismi pardokhta nashudai qarzashonro az hisobi in molu mulk ruyonand. Dar in holat mutobiqan qoidahoi moddai 324 hamin Kodeks istifoda meshavand. Shakhse, ki in molu mulkro giriftaast, agar niyati shakhsi huquqiro dar mavridi az kreditoron pinhon kardani in molu mulk medonist yo meboist donad, shakhsi bevijdon donista meshavad.

 

§2. ShIRKATU JAMIYaTHOI KhOJAGIDORI

 

  1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI

 

Moddai 69. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori
  1. Shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori tashkilothoi tijoratie meboshand, ki sarmoyai oinnomaviashon (harifonaashon) ba hissahoi (pasandozhoi) muassison (ishtirokchiyon) taqsim shudaast. Molu mulki az hisobi pasandozhoi muassison (ishtirokchiyon) hosilshuda, inchunin az jonibi shirkatu jamiyati khojagidori dar jarayoni faoliyati on istehsol yo kharidashuda molikiyati haqqonii on ast.

Dar holathoi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks jamiyati khojagidori mumkin ast az jonibi yak shakhs tasis doda shavad va u ishtirokchii yagonai on megardad.

  1. Shirkathoi khojagidori mumkin ast dar shakli shirkati komil yo shirkati ba bovari asosyofta (shirkati kommanditi) tasis doda shavand.
  2. Jamiyathoi khojagidori metavonand dar shakli jamiyathoi sahhomi, jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud yo ilovagi tasis doda shavand.
  3. Sohibkoroni infirodi va (yo) tashkilothoi tijorati metavonand ishtirokchiyoni shirkathoi komil va sharikoni komili jamiyathoi ba bovari asosyofta boshand.

Shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi metavonand ishtirokchiyoni jamiyathoi khojagidori va sahhomoni shirkathoi ba bovari asosyofta boshand.

Maqomoti hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati, agar dar qonun tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, huquqi ishtirokchiyoni jamiyathoi khojagidori va sahmguzoroni shirkathoi ba bovari asosyofta budanro nadorand.

Muassisahoe, ki onhoro molikonashon mablagguzori menamoyand, agar dar qonun tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, bo ijozati molik metavonand ishtirokchiyoni jamiyathoi khojagidori va sahmguzoroni  shirkatho boshand.

Ishtiroki guruhhoi alohidai shahrvandon dar shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori, ba istisnoi jamiyathoi sahhomii kushoda, mumkin ast tibqi qonun man yo mahdud karda shavad.

  1. Shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori, ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks va qonunhoi digar metavonand muassisoni (ishtirokchiyoni) shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidorii digar boshand.
  2. Pul, kogazhoi qimatnok, digar ashyo yo huquqi molu mulki yo huquqi digari doroi arzishi puli metavonad hissa yo molu mulki shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori boshad.

Arzishi pulii sahmi ishtirokchii jamiyati khojagidori bo muvofiqai   muassison  (ishtirokchiyon)-i jamiyat muayyan karda, dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun metavonad az taftishi mustaqilonai eksperti guzaronida shavad.

  1. Shirkathoi khojagidori, inchunin jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud va ilovagi baroi barovardani sahmiya huquq nadorand.

 

Moddai 70. Huququ uhdadorihoi ishtirokchiyoni shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori
  1. Ishtirokchiyoni shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori huquq dorand, ki:

– ba istisnoi holathoi dar qismi 2 moddai 89 hamin Kodeks va qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi peshbinigardida dar idorai korhoi shirkat yo jamiyat ishtirok namoyand;

– muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai hujjathoi tasis dar borai faoliyati shirkat yo jamiyat malumot girifta, bo daftarhoi muhosibaviyu sanadi digari on shinos shavand;

– dar taqsimoti foida ishtirok namoyand;

– dar surati barham dodani shirkat yo jamiyat qismi molu mulki pas az hisobbarobarkuni bo kreditoron boqimonda yo arzishi onro girand.

Ishtirokchiyoni shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori, inchunin metavonand digar huquqhoi dar hamin Kodeks, qonunho dar borai jamiyathoi khojagidori va hujjathoi tasisi shirkat yo jamiyat peshbinigardidaro doshta boshand.

  1. Ishtirokchiyoni shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori vazifadorand, ki:

– muvofiqi tartib, andoza, usul va dar muhlathoi peshbininamudai hujjathoi tasis sahm guzorand;

– malumoti makhfiro dar khususi faoliyati shirkat yo jamiyat fosh nakunand.

Ishtirokchiyoni shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori metavonand uhdadorihoi digari dar hujjathoi tasisi on peshbinigardidaro doshta boshand.

 

Moddai 71. Tabdil dodani shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori
  1. Shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidorii yak nav muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai hamin Kodeks metavonand bo qarori majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyon ba navi digari shirkatu jamiyathoi khojagidori yo kooperativhoi tijorati tabdil doda shavand.
  2. Dar surati ba jamiyat tabdil dodani shirkat har shariki komile, ki ishtirokchii (sahmdori) jamiyat megardad, dar davomi du sol az rui uhdadorihoi az shirkat ba jamiyat guzashta bo tamomi molu mulki khud masuliyati ilovagi ba zimma megirad. Az jonibi shariki sobiqa begona kardani hissaash (sahmash) ba u taalluqdoshta uro az chunin masuliyat ozod namekunad. Qoidahoi dar hamin band bayongardida mutobiqan hangomi ba kooperativi tijorati tabdil dodani shirkat istifoda meshavand.

 

  1. ShIRKATI KOMIL

 

Moddai 72. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai shirkati komil
  1. Shirkate komil donista meshavad, ki ishtirokchiyoni on (sharikoni komil) mutobiqi shartnomai baynashon imzoshuda az nomi shirkat bo faoliyati sohibkori mashgul shuda, az rui uhdadorihoi on nisbati tamomi molu mulki ba onho taalluqdoshta masuliyat bar dush dorand.
  2. Shakhs ishtirokchii tanho yak shirkati komil buda metavonad.
  3. Nomi firmavii shirkati komil boyad inhoro dar bar girifta boshad: nomi (unvoni) hamai ishtirokchiyoni on, inchunin kalimahoi «shirkati komil» yo nomi (unvoni) yak yo yakchand ishtirokchi bo ilova kardani kalimahoi “va kompaniya” inchunin kalimahoi «shirkati komil».

 

Moddai 73. Shartnomai tasisi shirkati komil
  1. Shirkati komil dar asosi shartnomai tasis bunyod gardida, amal mekunad va in shartnoma vazifai oinnomai shirkati komilro niz anjom medihad. Shartnomai tasisiro hamai ishtirokchiyoni on imzo mekunad.
  2. Shartnomai tasisi shirkati komil gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, inchunin boyad sharthoro dar borai andoza va tarkibi sarmoyai sharikonai shirkat; dar borai andoza va tartibi tagyir dodani hissai har ishtirokchi dar fondi oinnomavi; dar borai andoza, tarkib, muhlat va tartibi sahmguzorii on; dar borai masuliyati ishtirokchiyon baroi vayron kardani uhdadorihoi sahmguzorii onro dar bar girifta boshad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 74. Idorakuni dar shirkati komil
  1. Idorakunii faoliyati shirkati komil bo muvofiqai tamomi ishtirokchiyon surat megirad. Dar shartnomai tasis mumkin ast holathoe peshbini karda shavand, ki qaror bo aksariyati ovozi ishtirokchiyon qabul megardad.
  2. Agar dar shartnomai tasis tartibi digari muayyan namudani shumorai ovozhoi ishtirokchiyon peshbini nagardida boshad, har ishtirokchii shirkati komil yak ovoz dorad.
  3. Har ishtirokchii shirkat, sarfi nazar az on ki baroi peshburdi korhoi umumi vakolatdor ast yo ne, haq dorad shakhsan bo tamomi hujjathoi marbut ba peshburdi kori shirkat shinos shavad. Rad kardani chunin huquq yo mahdud kardani on, az jumla dar asosi sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni shirkat, etibor nadorad.

 

Moddai 75. Idorai kori shirkati komil
  1. Har ishtirokchii shirkati komil huquq dorad, ki az nomi shirkat amal kunad, agar dar shartnomai tasis muqarrar nagardida boshad, ki hamai ishtirokchiyoni shirkat idorai korro yakjoya anjom medihand yo peshburdi kor ba ishtirokchiyoni alohida supurda shudaast. Dar surati idorai mushtaraki korhoi shirkat az jonibi ishtirokchiyoni on, baroi anjomi har ahd rizoiyati hamai ishtirokchiyoni shirkat zarur ast.

Agar peshburdi kori shirkatro ishtirokchiyoni on ba zimmai yak yo baze ishtirokchi guzoshta boshand, ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda baroi az nomi shirkat anjom dodani ahdho boyad vakolatnomai ishtirokchi (ishtirokchiyon)-ro doshta boshand, ki peshburdi korhoi shirkat ba zimmaash guzoshta shudaast.

Dar munosibat bo shakhsoni seyum shirkat huquq nadorad  ba on havola namoyad, holathoi shartnomai tasis vakolathoi ishtirokchiyoni shirkatro mahdud mekunad, ba istisnoi holathoi az tarafi shirkat isbotshavanda, ki shakhsi seyum dar lahzai anjomi ahdho medonist yo baralo meboist donad, ki ishtirokchii shirkat huquqi az nomi shirkat amalkardanro nadosht.

  1. Vakolati peshburdani kori shirkat, ki ba yak yo yakchand ishtirokchiyon doda shudaast, mumkin ast az tarafi sud bo talabi yak yo yakchand ishtirokchiyoni digari shirkat, dar mavridi joy doshtani asoshoi jiddi, az jumla dar holati az tarafi shakhsi (shakhsoni) vakolatdor dagalona vayron kardani uhdadorihoi on (onho) yo ba idora namudani kor qobiliyat nadoshtani on (onho) qat gardonida shavad. Dar asosi qarori sud ba shartnomai tasisi shirkat tagyiroti zaruri vorid karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 76. Uhdadorihoi ishtirokchii shirkati komil
  1. Ishtirokchii shirkati komil vazifador ast, ki mutobiqi sharthoi shartnomai tasis dar faoliyati on ishtirok namoyad.
  2. Ishtirokchii shirkati komil vazifador ast, ki dar muddati yak sol az ruzi baqaydgirii davlatii shirkat sad foizi sahmi khudro ba sarmoyai sharikonai shirkat guzaronad. Dar surati ijro nakardani in uhdadori, agar dar shartnoma oqibathoi digare peshbini nagardida boshand, ishtirokchi vazifador ast, ki ba shirkat ziyoni rasonidaro jubron namoyad. (QJT az 29.12.10 s., №640; az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  3. Ishtirokchii shirkati komil be rizoiyati ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda az nom va ba manfiati khud yo ba manfiati shakhsi seyum baroi anjomi ahdhoe, ki mushobehi ahdhoi mohiyati faoliyati shirkatro tashkilkunanda, huquq nadorad.

Dar surati vayron kardani in qoida shirkat haq dorad, ki bo khosti khud az chunin ishtirokchi jubroni ziyoni ba shirkat rasonida  yo ba shirkat supurdani tamomi foidai az chunin ahdho badastovardaashro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 77. Taqsimi foida va ziyoni shirkati  komil
  1. Agar dar shartnomai tasis yo sozishnomai digari ishtirokchiyon tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, foida va ziyoni shirkati komil bayni ishtirokchiyonash mutanosiban ba hissai onho dar sarmoyai sharikona taqsim karda meshavad. Sozishi az foida yo ziyon benasibgardondani har kadome az ishtirokchiyoni shirkat, man ast. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Agar dar natijai rasidani ziyon ba shirkat arzishi aktivhoi sofi on az andozai sarmoyai sharikonaash kamtar shavad, foidai badastovardai on to zamone, ki arzishi doroihoi naqd az andozai sarmoyai sharikona ziyodtar nashavad, bayni ishtirokchiyon taqsim karda nameshavad. (QJT az 29.12.10s., №640; az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 78. Masuliyati ishtirokchiyoni shirkati komil az rui uhdadoriho
  1. Ishtirokchiyoni shirkati komil bayni khud mushtarakona az rui uhdadorihoi shirkat bo tamomi molu mulki khud masuliyati ilovagi dorand.
  2. Ishtirokchii shirkati komil, ki muassisi on nameboshad, dar qatori digar ishtirokchiyon az rui uhdadorihoi ba miyon omada to ba shirkat dokhil shudanash barobari ishtirokchiyoni digar masuliyat dorad.
  3. Ishtirokchii az shirkat khorijshuda az rui uhdadorihoi shirkat, ki to khorijshavii u ba miyon omadaand, az sanai tasdiqi hisobot dar borai faoliyati shirkat dar soli az shirkat khorij shudanash barobari ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda dar muhlati se sol masuliyat dorad.
  4. Sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni shirkat dar borai mahdud yo bartaraf namudani masuliyati dar hamin modda peshbinigardida etibor nadorad.

 

Moddai 79. Supurdani sahmi ishtirokchi dar molu mulki shirkati komil
  1. Ishtirokchii shirkati komil haq dorad bo rizoyati ishtirokchiyoni boqimondai on sahmi khudro dar molu mulki shirkat, ki ba sahmi u dar sarmoyai sharikona mutobiq ast, yo yak qismi onro ba ishtirokchii digari shirkat va yo shakhsi seyum suporad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Agar hissa (qismi hissa) ba shakhsi digar supurda shavad, ba in shakhs purra yo yak qismi dakhldori huquqi ba ishtirokchii hissaro (yak qismi hissaro) supurda taalluqdoshta meguzarad. Shakhse, ki hissa (qismi hissa) ba q supurda shudaast, muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qismi 2 moddai 78 hamin Kodeks az rui uhdadorihoi shirkat masuliyat dorad.
  3. Agar ishtirokchii shirkat sahmi khudro ba shakhsi digar suporad, ishtiroki u dar shirkat qat gardida, in baroi u boisi oqibathoe megardad, ki dar qismi 3 moddai 78 hamin Kodeks muqarrar shudaand.

 

Moddai 80. Ruyonidani mablag az hissai ishtirokchii molu mulki shirkati komil

Ruyonidani mablag az hissai ishtirokchii molu mulki shirkati komil az rui qarze, ki bo ishtiroki u dar shirkati aloqamand nabuda (qarzi shakhsi) tanho dar surate roh doda meshavad, ki  agar molu mulki digari in ishtirokchi baroi pardokhti qarzash nokifoya boshad. Kreditoroni chunin ishtirokchi haq dorand az shirkati komil pardokhti arzishi molu mulki shirkat , ki ba sahmi qarzdor dar sarmoyai sharikona muvofiq ast yo judo kardani in molu mulkro bo maqsadi az on ruyonidani mablag talab namoyand. Qismi molu mulki shirkat, ki boyad judo karda shavad yo arzishi on muvofiqi balansi dar lahzai az jonibi kreditoron peshkash gardidani talab tartibdodashuda muayyan karda meshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Dar surati ruyonidani mablag az tamomi hissai ishtirokchi az molu mulki shirkati komil  ishtiroki u dar shirkat qat gardida, on boisi oqibathoi dar qismi 3 moddai 78 hamin Kodeks peshbinishuda megardad.

 

Moddai 81. Az hayati shirkati komil baromadani ishtirokchi
  1. Ishtirokchii shirkati komil haq dorad, ki dar khususi dast kashidanash az ishtirok dar shirkat arz namuda, az hayati on baroyad.

Ishtirokchi dar khususi dast kashidanash az ishtirok dar shirkati komile, ki be ishorai muhlat tasis gardidaast, boyad na kamtar az shash mohi to voqean az hayati shirkat baromadanash arz namoyad. Pesh az muhlat dast kashidan az ishtirok dar shirkati komili baroi muhlati muayyan tasisgardida tanho bo sababi uzrnok ijozat doda meshavad.

  1. Sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni shirkat dar khususi rad kardani huquqi az hayati shirkat baromadan etibor nadorad.

 

Moddai 82. Az hayati shirkati komil khorij kardani ishtirokchi
  1. Dar surati bedarak goib, gayri qobili amal yo doroi qobiliyati mahdudi amal etirof gardidani yake az ishtirokchiyoni shirkati komil u metavonad bo qarori yakdilonai ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda az hayati shirkat khorij karda shavad. Shakhsi huquqie, ki ishtirokchii shirkat buda, nisbati on bo qarori sud ijroi rasmu qoidahoi aznavtashkildihi ogoz gardidaand, metavonad ba hamin tartib az hayati shirkat khorij karda shavad.
  2. Dar surati joy doshtani sababhoi uzrnok, az jumla dagalona vayron kardani uhdadoriho yo nadoshtani qobiliyati oshkorgardidai peshburdi oqilonai kor ishtirokchiyoni shirkati komil huquq dorand, ki bo tartibi sudi az hayati shirkat khorij kardani yake az ishtirokchiyonro bo qarori yakdilonai ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda talab namoyand.
  3. Az hayati shirkat khorij gardidani ishtirokchi ishtiroki uro dar shirkat qat namuda, boisi oqibathoi peshbininamudai qismi 3 moddai 78 hamin Kodeks megardad.

 

Moddai 83. Oqibati az hayati shirkati komil baromadani ishtirokchi
  1. Agar dar shartnomai tasis tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, ba ishtirokchii az hayati shirkati komil baromada arzishi qismi molu mulki shirkat, ki ba hissai u dar sarmoyai sharikona muvofiq ast, pardokhta meshavad. Bo muvofiqai bayni ishtirokchii az shirkat baromada va ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda pardokhti arzishi molu mulk mumkin ast bo dodani molu mulk dar shakli asl (natura) ivaz karda shavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Qismi molu mulki shirkat, ki boyad ba ishtirokchii az hayati shirkat baromada doda shavad yo arzishi on, ba istisnoi holathoi dar moddai 80 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida, az rui  balansi dar lahzai baromadai u tartibdodashavanda muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Az hayati shirkat baromadani ishtirokchi ishtiroki uro dar shirkat qat namuda, boisi oqibathoi peshbininamudai qismi 3 moddai 78 hamin Kodeks megardad.

 

Moddai 84. Vorisii huquqi dar  shirkati  komil
  1. Dar surati vafoti ishtirokchii shirkati komil vorisi u tanho bo rozigii hamai ishtirokchiyoni digar metavonad ba shirkati komil shomil gardad.
  2. Shakhsi huquqie, ki vorisi huquqii shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshudai dar shirkati komil ishtirokdoshta meboshad, agar dar shartnomai tasisi shirkat tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, sarfi nazar az rizoyati ishtirokchiyoni shirkat huquq dorad ba shirkat shomil gardad.
  3. Meroskhuri (vorisi huquqii) ishtirokchii shirkati komili shomili shirkat nagardida az rui uhdadorihoi shirkat dar nazdi shakhsi seyum, ki ishtirokchii khorijgardida mutobiqi qismi 3 moddai 78 hamin Kodeks masuliyat medosht, dar doirai molu mulki ba u merosmondai ishtirokchii khorijgardidai jamiyat masuliyat dorad.

 

Moddai 85. Barham dodani shirkati komil
  1. Shirkati komil bo sababhoi dar moddai 62 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, inchunin dar surati boqi mondani tanho yak ishtirokchi dar shirkat barham doda meshavad. In ishtirokchi huquq dorad, ki dar davomi shash mohi pas az ishtirokchii yagonai shirkat shudanash chunin shirkatro muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai hamin Kodeks ba jamiyati khojagidori tabdil dihad.
  2. Dar holathoi az hayati shirkat baromadan yo vafot kardani yagon ishtirokchii shirkati komil, az shirkat khorij kardani yake az onho, barham dodani shakhsi huquqii dar shirkat ishtirokkunanda yo az jonibi kreditoroni yake az ishtirokchiyon ruyonidani mablag az qismi molu mulke, ki ba hissai u dar sarmoyai sharikona muvofiq ast, agar in dar shartnomai tasisi shirkat yo sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda peshbini gardida boshad, shirkat metavonad ba faoliyati khud idoma dihad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 86. Hisobbarobarkuni hangomi az shirkati komil  baromadani ishtirokchi
  1. Ba ishtirokchie, ki az hayati shirkati komil baromadaast yo az on khorij karda shudaast, agar dar shartnomai tasis tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, arzishi qismi molu mulki shirkat mutobiqi hissai in ishtirokchi dar sarmoyai sharikona pardokhta meshavad. Bo muvofiqai bayni ishtirokchii baromada va ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda pardokhti arzishi molu mulkro bo dodani molu mulk dar shakli asl (natura) ivaz kardan mumkin ast. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Dar surati barham dodani shakhsi huquqii dar shirkat ishtirokkunanda, hisobbarobarkuni az jonibi komissiyai dakhldori barhamdihi anjom doda meshavad.

Ba istisnoi holati peshbininamudai moddai 80 hamin Kodeks qismi molu mulki shirkate, ki boyad ba ishtirokchii khorijshuda doda shavad yo arzishi on az rui balansi dar lahzai khorijshavii u tartibdodashuda muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Hisobu kitob bo meroskhuri shomili shirkat nagardidai ishtirokchii shirkati komil va vorisi shakhsi huquqie, ki ishtirokchii shirkat bud, mutobiqi qismi 1 hamin modda anjom doda meshavad.
  2. Agar dar shartnomai tasis yo sozishnomai ishtirokchiyon tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, dar surati az shirkat khorij shudani yake az ishtirokchiyon, hissai ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda dar sarmoyai sharikona shirkat mutanosiban ziyod meshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

 

  1. ShIRKATI BA BOVARI ASOSYOFTA

 

Moddai 87. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai shirkati ba bovari asosyofta
  1. Shirkati ba bovari asosyofta (shirkati kommanditi) on shirkate donista meshavad, ki dar on dar barobari ishtirokchiyone, ki az nomi shirkat faoliyati sohibkoriro ba amal barovarda, az rui uhdadorihoi shirkat bo molu mulki khud masuliyat dorand (sharikoni komil), yak yo yakchand ishtirokchii sahmguzore (kommandiston) hastand, ki tavakkali ziyoni marbut ba faoliyati shirkatro dar doirai mablagi sahmguzoriashon bar uhda doshta, dar tatbiqi faoliyati sohibkori az jonibi shirkat ishtirok namekunand.
  2. Mavqei sharikoni komile, ki dar shirkati ba bovari asosyofta ishtirok dorand va masuliyati onho az rui uhdadorihoi shirkat muvofiqi qoidahoi hamin Kodeks dar khususi ishtirokchiyoni shirkati komil muayyan karda meshavad.
  3. Shakhs tanho dar yak shirkati ba bovari asosyofta shariki komil buda metavonad.

Ishtirokchii shirkati komil shariki komili shirkati ba bovari asosyofta buda nametavonad.

Shariki komil dar shirkati ba bovari asosyofta ishtirokchii shirkati komil buda nametavonad.

  1. Nomi firmavii shirkati ba bovari asosyofta boyad az nomi (nomgui) hamai sharikoni komil va kalimahoi “shirkati ba bovari asosyofta” yo “shirkati kommanditi” va yo az nomi (nomgui) na kamtar az yak shariki komil bo ilovai kalimahoi ” va sharikonash” va kalimahoi “shirkati ba bovari asosyofta” yo “shirkati kommanditi” iborat boshad.
  2. Nisbati shirkati ba bovari asosyofta qoidahoi hamin Kodeks dar borai shirkati komil ba hamon andozae istifoda meshavand, ki on khilofi qoidahoi Kodeksi mazkur dar khususi shirkati ba bovari asosyofta naboshad.

 

Moddai 88. Shartnomai tasisi shirkati ba bovari asosyofta
  1. Shirkati ba bovari asosyofta dar asosi shartnomai tasis bunyod gardida, faoliyat mekunad. Shartnomai tasis az jonibi hamai sharikoni komil ba imzo rasonida meshavad.
  2. Shartnomai tasisi shirkati ba bovari asosyofta gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, inchunin boyad sharthoro dar borai andoza va tarkibi sarmoyai sharikonai shirkat; dar borai andoza va tartibi tagyir dodani hissai har yake az sharikoni komil dar sarmoyai sharikona; dar borai andoza, tarkib, muhlat va tartibi sahm guzoshtai onho, masuliyati onho baroi vayron kardani uhdadorihoi sahmguzori; dar borai andozai umumii sahmi guzoshtai sahmguzoronro dar bar girad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 89. Idorai shirkati ba bovari asosyofta va peshburdi korhoi on
  1. Faoliyati shirkati ba bovari asosyoftaro sharikoni komil idora mekunand. Onho tartibi idora va peshburdi kori chunin shirkatro az jonibi sharikoni komili on tibqi qoidahoi hamin Kodeks dar khususi shirkati komil muqarrar menamoyand.
  2. Sahmguzoron huquqi ishtirok kardanro dar idora va peshburdi korhoi shirkati ba bovari asosyofta nadorand va az nomi on tanho dar asosi vakolatnoma amal karda metavonand. Onho baroi mavridi bahs qaror dodani amalhoi sharikoni komil dar bobati idora va peshburdi kori shirkat huquq nadorand.

 

Moddai 90. Huququ uhdadorihoi sahmguzori  shirkati ba bovari asosyofta
  1. Sahmguzori shirkati ba bovari asosyofta vazifador ast, ki ba sarmoyai sharikona sahm guzorad. Guzoshtani sahmro shahodatnomai ishtiroki az jonibi shirkat ba sahmguzor dodashuda tasdiq menamoyad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Sahmguzori shirkati ba bovari asosyofta huquq dorad, ki:

a) muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai shartnomai tasis qismi foidai shirkatro baroi hissaash dar sarmoyai sharikona girad; (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

b) bo hisobotu balansi shirkat shinos shavad;

v) badi anjomi soli moliyavi az hayati shirkat baromada, muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai shartnomai tasis sahmi khudro girad;

g) hissai khudro dar sarmoyai sharikona yo yak qismi onro ba sahmguzori digar yo shakhsi seyum dihad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Muvofiqi shartho va tartibi peshbininamudai qismi 2 moddai 100 hamin Kodeks sahmguzoron nisbat ba shakhsi seyum dar kharidani hissa (qismi on) huquqi afzaliyatnok dorand. Dar surati tamomi hissai khudro ba shakhsi digar dodani sahmguzor ishtiroki u dar shirkat qat megardad.

Dar shartnomai tasisi shirkati ba bovari asosyofta mumkin ast ba sahmguzor huquqhoi digare peshbini karda shavad.

 

Moddai 91. Barham dodani shirkati ba bovari asosyofta
  1. Shirkati ba bovari asosyofta dar surati khorij gardidani hamai sahmguzoroni dar on ishtirokdoshta barham doda meshavad. Vale sharikoni komil huquq dorand, ki shirkati ba bovari asosyoftaro barham nadoda, onro ba shirkati komil tabdil dihand.

Shirkati ba bovari asosyofta inchunin tibqi asoshoi barhamdihii shirkati komil (moddai 85) barham doda meshavad. Vale, agar dar hayati on aqallan yak shariki komil va yak sahmguzor monad, shirkati ba bovari asosyofta nigoh doshta meshavad.

  1. Hangomi barhamdihi, az jumla muflisshavii shirkati ba bovari asosyofta sahmguzoron baroi giriftani sahm az molu mulki pas az qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoron boqimondai shirkat nisbat ba sharikoni komil huquqi afzaliyatnok dorand.

Agar dar shartnomai tasis yo sozishnomai sharikoni komilu sahmguzoron tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, molu mulki  pas az in boqimondai shirkat dar bayni sharikoni komil va sahmguzoron mutobiqi hissai onho dar sarmoyai sharikonai shirkat taqsim karda meshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

  1. KOMMANDITI SAHHOMI bo QJT az 12.05.07 s., № 247 khorij karda shud
Moddai 92 bo QJT az 12.05.07 s., № 247 khorij karda shud
Moddai 93 bo QJT az 12.05.07 s., № 247 khorij karda shud

 

  1. JAMIYaTI DOROI MASULIYaTI MAHDUD

 

Moddai 94. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud
  1. Jamiyati az jonibi yak yo yakchand shakhs tasisgardidae jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud donista meshavad, ki sarmoyai oinnomavii on ba hissahoi barobar, ba andozai muayyannamudai hujjathoi tasis taqsim shudaast. Ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud az rui uhdadorihoi on masuliyat nadorand va ziyoni tavakkali marbut ba faoliyati jamiyatro dar doirai arzishi sahmi guzoshtaashon bar dush dorand.

Ishtirokchiyoni purra sahm naguzoshtai jamiyat, az rui uhdadorihoi on dar doirai arzishi qismi pardokhtanashudai sahmi har ishtirokchi masuliyati mushtarak dorand.

  1. Nomi firmavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud boyad nomi jamiyat va iborai “doroi masuliyati mahdud”-ro doshta boshad.
  2. Mavqei huquqii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud va huququ uhdadorihoi ishtirokchiyoni on bo hamin Kodeks va Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud muayyan karda meshavand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

 

Moddai 95. Ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi  masuliyati mahdud
  1. Shumorai ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud naboyad az si nafar ziyod boshad. Dar aksi hol, agar shumorai ishtirokchiyoni on to haddi muqarrargardida kam karda nashavad, on boyad dar davomi sol ba jamiyati sahhomi tabdil yobad va badi guzashtani in muhlat boshad, bo tartibi sudi boyad barham doda shavad.
  2. Jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud jamiyati khojagidorii digarro, ki az yak shakhs iborat ast, ba sifati ishtirokchii yagona doshta nametavonad.

 

Moddai 96. Hujjathoi tasisi jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud
  1. Hujjathoi tasisi jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud shartnomai tasisi az jonibi muassisoni on imzogardida va oinnomai tasdiqnamudai onho ba hisob meravad. Agar jamiyatro yak shakhs tasis dihad, hujjati tasisi on oinnoma meboshad.
  2. Hujjathoi tasisi jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, inchunin boyad sharthoro dar borai andoza, tarkib, muhlat va tartibi sahmguzorii ishtirokchiyon, masuliyati onho baroi vayron kardani uhdadoriho dar mavridi sahmguzori; dar borai andozai sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat; dar borai hayat va salohiyati maqomoti idorai jamiyat va tartibi qaror qabul kardani onho, az jumla doir ba masalahoe, ki az rui onho qarorho bo yak ovoz yo bo aksariyati mutlaqi ovozho qabul karda meshavand, inchunin digar malumoti peshbininamudai qonunro doshta boshand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 97. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi  masuliyati mahdud
  1. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud az arzishi sahmhoi ishtirokchiyoni on iborat ast.

Sarmoyai oinnomavi andozai haddi aqalli molu mulki jamiyatro muayyan mekunad, ki manfiati kreditoroni onro kafolat medihand. Andozai sarmoyai oinnomavi az mablagi muayyannamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud kamtar buda nametavonad.

  1. Ozod kardani ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud az uhdadorii sahmguzori ba sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat, az jumla bo rohi ba hisob giriftani talabot ba jamiyat roh doda nameshavad.
  2. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroy masuliyati mazdud dar muddati yak sol az ruzi baqaydgirii davlatii jamiyat az jonibi ishtirokchiyoni on boyad purra pardokhta shavad. Dar surati vayron kardani in uhdadori jamiyat boyad oid ba kam namudani sarmoyai oinnomavii khud to andozai vokean pardokhtshudai on elon kunad va dar in khusus tibqi tartibi muqarrarshuda ba maqomoti anjomdihandai baqaydgirii davlati baroi vorid namudani malumot ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquqi va sohibkoronp infirodi ariza pgshnihod namoyad yo dar borai barhamdihii jamiyat karor qabul kunad. (QJT az 29.12.10s., №640)
  3. Agar badi anjomi soli duyum va har soli minbadai moliyavi arzishi doroihoi naqdi jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud nisbat ba sarmoyai oinnomavi kamtar gardad, jamiyat vazifador ast, ki dar khususi kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii khud elon doshta, dar in bora tibqi tartibi muqarrarshuda ba maqomoti anjomdihandai baqaydgirii davlati baroi vorid namudani malumot ba  Fekhristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquqy va sohibkoroni infirodi ariza peshnihod namoyad. Dar surati ijro nakardani in uhdadori yo kamtar shudani arzishi doroihoi jamiyat az andozai haddi aqalli dar qonun muayyanshudai sarmoyai oinnomavi, jamiyat boyad barham doda shavad. (QJT az 29.12.10s., №640)
  4. Kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdudro tanho pas az ogoh sokhtani tamomi kreditoroni on ijozat doda meshavad. Dar in holat kreditoron huquq dorand, ki qat yo ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadorihoi dakhldor va jubroni ziyonashonro talab namoyand.
  5. Ziyod kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat pas az sahmguzorii purrai tamomi ishtirokchiyoni on ijozat doda meshavad.
  6. Bo qarori majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud, ki bo aksariyati ovozi az se du hissai tamomi ishtirokchiyoni jamiyat qabul shudaast, mumkin ast uhdadorii onho dar mavridi mutanosiban ba hissahoyashon dar sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat dokhil namudani sahmi ilovagi muqarrar karda shavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 98. Idorai jamiyati doroi  masuliyati mahdud
  1. Maqomi olii idorai jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyoni on meboshad.

Dar jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud maqomi ijroiya  (dastjami yo infirodi) tasis doda meshavad, ki rohbarii joriro ba faoliyati on anjom doda, ba majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyoni on hisobot medihad. Maqomi idorai infirodii   jamiyat metavonad inchunin na az jumlai ishtirokchiyoni on niz intikhob gardad.

  1. Salohiyati maqomoti idorai jamiyat, inchunin tartibi qaror qabul namudan va az nomi jamiyat amal kardani onho mutobiqi hamin Kodeks, qonun dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud va oinnomai jamiyat muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Ba salohiyati mustasnoi majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud inho dokhil meshavand :

a) tagyir dodani oinnomai jamiyat va  andozai sarmoyai oinnomavii on;

b) tasis dodani maqomoti ijroiyai jamiyat va pesh az muhlat qat namudani vakolathoi onho;

v) tasdiq kardani hisoboti solona va balansi muhosibavii jamiyat bo taqsimoti foidayu ziyoni on;

g) qabul kardani qaror dar borai aznavtashkildihi yo barhamdihii jamiyat;

d) intikhob namudani komissiyai taftishotii jamiyat.

Tibqi qonun dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud ba salohiyati mustasnoi majlisi umumi mumkin ast inchunin halli masalahoi digar niz mansub donista shavad.

Halli masalahoi ba salohiyati mustasnoi majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyoni jamiyat mansubro vay ba maqomi ijroiyai jamiyat supurda nametavonad.

  1. Jihati taftish va tasdiqi durustii hisoboti solonai moliyavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud jamiyat huquq dorad har sol auditori kasbii bo jamiyat yo ishtirokchiyoni on manfiati molu mulki nadoshta (auditori beruna)-ro jalb namoyad. Hisoboti solonai moliyavi inchunin metavonad bo talaboti har yake az ishtirokchiyoni on taftishi auditori karda shavad.

Tartibi taftishi auditorii faoliyati jamiyat tibqi qonun va oinnomai jamiyat muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Az jonibi jamiyat ba tab rasonidani malumot dar borai natijai idorai korhoi on (hisoboti kushod) ba gayr az holathoi peshbininamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud zarur nest.

 

Moddai 99.  Aznavtashkildihi yo barhamdihii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud
  1. Jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud metavonad ba tavri ikhtiyori bo qarori yakdilonai ishtirokchiyonash az nav tashkil yo barham doda shavad.

Asoshoi digari aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii jamiyat, inchunin tartibi aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii on bo hamin Kodeks va qonunhoi digar muayyan karda meshavand.

  1. Jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud metavonad ba jamiyati sahhomi yo kooperativi tijorati tabdil yobad.

 

Moddai 100. Ba shakhsi digar guzaronidani hissai sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud
  1. Ishtirokchii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud huquq dorad, ki hissai khudro dar sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat yo yak qismi onro ba yak yo yakchand ishtirokchii hamin jamiyat furushad yo ba tariqi digar dihad.
  2. Agar dar oinnomai jamiyat tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, ishtirokchii jamiyat metavonad hissai khudro (qismi onro) ba shakhsi seyum furushad.

Ishtirokchiyoni jamiyat mutanosiban ba andozai hissai khud baroi kharidani hissai ishtirokchi (qismi on) huquqi afzaliyatnok dorand, ba sharte ki dar oinnomai jamiyat yo sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni on tartibi digari tatbiqi in huquq peshbini nagardida boshad. Agar ishtirokchiyoni jamiyat dar davomi yak mohi ogohi yoftanashon yo dar muhlati digari dar oinnomai jamiyat yo sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni on peshbinigardida az huquqi afzaliyatnoki khud istifoda nanamoyand, hissai ishtirokchi mumkin ast ba shakhsi seyum furukhta shavad.

  1. Agar mutobiqi oinnomai jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud ba shakhsi seyum furukhtani hissai ishtirokchi (qismi on) imkonnopazir buda, ishtirokchiyoni digari jamiyat az kharidani on dast kashand, jamiyat vazifador ast, ki ba ishtirokchi arzishi voqeii onro bo pul yo molu mulk dar shakli asl (natura) pardozad.
  2. To purra pardokhtani mablagi hissai ishtirokchii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud tanho hamon qismash metavonad furukhta shavad, ki mablagi on qablan pardokhta shudaast.
  3. Agar hissai ishtirokchi (qismi on) az jonibi khudi jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud kharida shavad, jamiyat vazifador ast, ki dar muhlat va bo tartibi peshbininamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud va hujjathoi tasisi jamiyat onro ba ishtirokchiyoni digar yo shakhsi seyum furushad yo mutobiqi qismhoi 4 va 5 moddai 97 hamin Kodeks sarmoyai oinnomavii khudro kam kunad.
  4. Hissa dar sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud ba sharte ba ikhtiyori meroskhuroni shahrvandon va vorisoni huquqii shakhsi huquqii ishtirokchiyoni uzvi jamiyat meguzarad, ki dar hujjathoi tasisi jamiyat tanho bo rozigii ishtirokchiyoni boqimondai jamiyat imkonpazir budani chunin guzarish peshbini nashuda boshad.

Ba guzaronidani hissa rozi nashudani onho jamiyatro uhdador mesozad, ki  muvofiqi tartib va sharthoi peshbininamudai qonuni jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud va hujjathoi tasisi jamiyat ba meroskhuroni (vorisoni huquqii) ishtirokchi   arzishi onro pardozad yo munosibi  hamin arzish moli asl (natura) dihad.

 

Moddai 101. Az hayati jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud baromadani ishtirokchi

Ishtirokchii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud, sarfi nazar az rizoyati ishtirokchiyoni digari jamiyat,  huquqi har vaqt az hayati jamiyat baromadanro dorad.

 

Moddai 102. Ruyonidani mablag az hisobi hissai  ishtirokchii  molu mulki  jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud
  1. Ruyonidani mablag baroi pardokhti qarzi shakhsii ishtirokchi az hisobi hissai u dar molu mulki jamiyat tanho dar holate roh doda meshavad, ki molu mulki digari in ishtirokchi baroi pushonidani qarz nokifoya boshad. Kreditoroni chunin ishtirokchi haq dorand az jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud mutobiqi sahmi qarzdor dar sarmoyai oinnomavi pardokhtani arzishi qismi molu mulki jamiyat yo judo kardani in qismi molu mulkro bo maqsadi ruyonidani mablag az hisobi on talab namoyand. Qismi molu mulki jamiyat, ki boyad judo karda shavad, yo arzishi on az rui balans, yo ki dar lahzai peshnihodi talab az jonibi kreditoron tartib dodaand, muayyan karda meshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Ruyonidani mablag az hisobi tamomi hissai ishtirokchii dar molu mulki jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud ishtiroki uro dar jamiyat qat mesozad.

 

Moddai 103. Az jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud khorij kardani ishtirokchi

Agar ishtirokchii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud oinnomai jamiyatro dagalona vayron karda, bo hamin ba manfiati on ziyon ovarda boshad, metavonad bo qarori majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyoni jamiyat, ki bo aksariyati ovozi az se du hissai  hamai ishtirokchiyonash qabul shudaast, az jamiyat khorij karda shavad.

Nisbati qarori majlisi umumi dar borai az jamiyat khorij kardani ishtirokchi ba sud shikoyat kardan mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 104. Hisobbarobarkuni hangomi az jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud khorij gardidani ishtirokchi
  1. Ba ishtirokchie, ki az hayati jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud baromadaast yo khorij karda shudaast, mutobiqi hissai u dar sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat bo usul va dar muhlati peshbininamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati mahdud yo oinnomai jamiyat arzishi qismi molu mulki jamiyat pardokhta meshavad.

Bo muvofiqai ishtirokchii khorijshavanda va jamiyat yo ba ivazi pardokhti arzishi molu mulk  mumkin ast khudi molu mulk dar  shakli asl (natura) ivaz karda shavad.

Ba istisnoi holati dar moddai 102 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida qismi molu mulki jamiyat, ki boyad ba ishtirokchii khorijshavanda doda shavad, yo arzishi on az rui balans, ki dar lahzai khorijshavii u tartib doda shudaast, muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Agar ba sifati sahm ba sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud huquqi istifodai molu mulk peshnihod shuda boshad, in molu mulk ba ishtirokchii az jamiyat khorijshavanda bargardonida meshavad. Dar in surat pastshavii arzishi chunin molu mulk bo sababi istifodai muhtadili on jubron karda nameshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Hisob bo meroskhuri dar hayati jamiyat nabudai ishtirokchii jamiyat yo vorisi huquqii shakhsi huquqie, ki ishtirokchii on ast, mutobiqi qoidahoi hamin modda ba amal barovarda meshavad.

 

  1. JAMIYaTI DOROI MASULIYaTI ILOVAGI

 

Moddai 105. Muqarraroti umumi dar borai jamiyathoi doroi masuliyati ilovagi
  1. Jamiyati doroi masuliyati ilovagi jamiyate donista meshavad, ki az jonibi yak yo chand shakhs tasis gardida, sarmoyai oinnomaviash muvofiqi andozahoi dar hujjathoi tasis muayyangardida ba hissaho taqsim meshavad; ishtirokchiyoni chunin jamiyat az rui uhdadorihoi on bo molu mulki khud ba andozai dar hujjathoi tasisi jamiyat muayyangardidai baroi hamaashon barobari arzishi sahmi guzoshtaashon masuliyati mushtaraki ilovagi dorand. Agar dar hujjathoi tasisi jamiyat tartibi digari taqsimoti masuliyat peshbini nagardida boshad, dar surati muflisshavii yake az ishtirokchiyon masuliyati u az rui uhdadorihoi jamiyat bayni ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda mutanosiban ba sahmhoyashon taqsim karda meshavad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Nomi firmavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati ilovagi boyad nomi jamiyat, inchunin iborai «doroi masuliyati ilovagi»-ro dar bar girad.
  3. Nisbati jamiyati doroi masuliyati ilovagi qoidahoi hamin Kodeks dar borai jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud istifoda meshavand, zero dar hamin modda qoidahoi digare peshbini nagardidaand.

 

  1. JAMIYaTI SAHHOMI

 

Moddai 106. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Jamiyati sahomi jamiyate donista meshavad, ki sarmoyai oinnomavii on ba miqdori muayyani sahmiyaho taqsim shudaast; ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati sahhomi (sahmdoron) az rui uhdadorihoi on masuliyat nadorand va ziyoni tavakkali marbut az faoliyati jamiyatro ba andozai arzishi sahmiyahoi ba onho taalluqdoshta ba zimma megirand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Sahmdorone, ki arzishi sahmiyahoro purra napardokhtaand, az rui uhdadorihoi jamiyati sahhomi dar doirai qismi pardokhtanashudai arzishi sahmiyahoyashon masuliyati mushtarak dorand.

  1. Nomi firmavii jamiyati sahhomi boyad nomi on va ishorai sahhomi budani jamiyatro dar bar girifta boshad.
  2. Mavqei huquqii jamiyati sahhomi va huququ uhdadorihoi sahmdoron mutobiqi hamin Kodeks va Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai jamiyathoi sahomi» muayyan karda meshavad.

Khususiyathoi mavqei huquqii jamiyathoi sahhomie, ki bo rohi khususigardonii korkhonahoi davlati tasis yoftaand, inchunin bo qonuni khususigardonii in korkhonaho muayyan karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 107. Jamiyati sahhomii kushoda
  1. Jamiyati sahhomie, ki ishtirokchiyonash sahmiyahoi khudro be rizoyati sahmdoroni digar begona karda metavonad, jamiyati sahhomii kushoda etirof megardad. Chunin jamiyati sahhomi huquq dorad, ki mutobiqi sharthoi muqarrarnamudai qonun va sanadi digari huquqi obunai ozodi sahmiyahoi mebarovardaash va furushi ozodi onhoro amali gardonad.
  2. Jamiyati sahhomii kushoda har sol hisoboti solona, balansi muhosibavi va hisobi foidayu ziyonro baroi malumoti umum nashr mekunad.

 

Moddai  108.  Jamiyati sahhomii pushida
  1. Jamiyati sahhomie, ki sahmiyahoi on tanho bayni muassisonash yo doirai shakhsi digari peshaki muayyan taqsim meshavand, jamiyati sahhomii pushida donista meshavad. Chunin jamiyat baroi obunai ozodi sahmiyahoi mebarovardaash va yo ba tariqi digar ba doirai nomahdudi ashkhos jihati kharid peshnihod kardani onho huquq nadorad.

Sahmdoroni jamiyati sahhomii pushida dar kharidani sahmiyahoi  az  jonibi  sahmdoroni  digari  in jamiyat furukhtashavanda huquqi afzaliyatnok dorand.

  1. Shumorai ishtirokchiyoni jamiyati sahhomii pushida naboyad az shumorai muqarrarnamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi beshtar boshad, dar aksi hol on boyad dar davomi yak sol ba jamiyati sahhomii kushoda tabdil doda shavad va agar pas az guzashtani in muhlat shumorai onho to haddi muqarrarnamudai qonun kam nashavad, boyad az tariqi sud barham doda shavad.
  2. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonuni jamiyathoi sahhomi jamiyati sahhomii pushida metavonad baroi ba malumoti umum ba tab rasonidani hujjathoi dar qismi 2 moddai 107 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida vazifador karda shavad.

 

Moddai 109. Tasisi jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Muassisoni jamiyati sahhomi bayni khud shartnomae mebandand, ki tartibi faoliyati yakjoyaro oid ba tasisi jamiyat anjom dodani onho, andozai sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat, navhoi sahmiyahoi barovardameshuda va tartibi pahn kardani onho, inchunin sharthoi digari peshbininamudai qonunro dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi muayyan menamoyad.

Shartnomai tasisi jamiyati sahhomi ba tavri khatti basta meshavad.

  1. Muassisoni jamiyati sahhomi az rui uhdadorihoi to baqaydgirii jamiyat bamiyonomada masuliyati mushtarak dorand.

Jamiyat az rui uhdadorihoi muassison, ki bo tasisi on aloqamandand, tanho dar surate masuliyat bar dush dorad, ki amali onho minbad az jonibi majlisi umumii sahmdoron maqul donista shavad.

  1. Hujjati tasisi jamiyati sahhomi oinnomai az jonibi muassison tasdiqgardidai on meboshad.

Oinnomai jamiyati sahhomi gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, inchunin boyad sharthoro dar borai navhoi sahmiyahoi mebarovardai jamiyat, arzishi nominali va miqdori onho; dar borai andozai sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat; huquqi sahmdoron; dar borai hayat va salohiyati maqomoti idorai jamiyat va tartibi qaror qabul kardani  onho, az jumla doir ba masalahoe, ki az rui onho qaror yakdilona yo bo aksariyati kulli ovozho qabul meshavad, dar bar girifta boshad. Dar oinnomai jamiyati sahhomi inchunin boyad malumoti digari peshbininamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi darj gardida boshad.

  1. Tartibi anjom dodani amalhoi digar dar mavridi tasisi jamiyati sahhomi, az jumla salohiyati majlisi muassison bo qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Dar surati tamomi sahmiyahoro kharidani yak sahmdor, jamiyati sahhomi metavonad az jonibi yak shakhs tasis doda shavad yo az yak shakhs iborat boshad. Malumot dar in bora boyad dar oinnomai jamiyat va Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni huquqi va sohibkoroni infirody darj gardida, baroi ba ittiloi umum rasonidan nashr gardad. (QJT az 29.12.10s., №640)

 

Moddai 110. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi az arzishi nominalii sahmiyahoi az jonibi sahmdoron kharidashudai jamiyat murattab megardad.

Sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat andozai haddi aqalli molu mulki jamiyatro muayyan mekunad, ki manfiati kreditoroni onro kafolat medihad. On az andozai peshbininamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi kamtar buda nametavonad.

  1. Az vazifai pardokhti arzishi sahmiyahoi jamiyat ozod kardani sahmdoron, inchunin bo rohi bahisobgirii talabot ba jamiyat az in vazifa ozod kardani u roh doda nameshavad.
  2. Obunai ozod ba sahmiyahoi jamiyati sahhomi to lahzai pardokhti purrai sarmoyai oinnomavii on roh doda nameshavad. Hangomi tasisi jamiyati sahhomi tamomi sahmiyahoi on boyad bayni muassison taqsim karda shavad.
  3. Agar badi ba okhir rasidani soli duyum va khar soli minbadai moliyavi arzishi doroii sofi jamiyati sahomi az sarmoyai oinnomavi kamtar gardad, jamiyat vazifador ast, ki dar khususi kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii khud to andozae, ki az arzishi doroihoi sofi on ziyod nameboshad, elon kunad va dar in bora tibqi tartibi mukarrarshuda ba maqomoti anjomdikhandai baqaydgirii davlati baroi vorid namudani malumot ba Fehristi yagonai davlatii shakhsoni hukuqi va sohibkoroni infirody ariza peshniqod namoyad. Dar surati ijro nagardidani ukhdadorihoi mazkur va yo agar arzishi doroikhoi sofi jamiyat az andozai haddi aqalli dar qonun muayyangardidai sarmoyai oinnomavi kamtar gardad, jamiyat boyad barkham doda shavad. (QJT az 29.12.10s., №640)
  4. Dar qonun yo oinnomai jamiyat mumkin ast mahdudiyathoi miqdor, arzishi nominalii umumii sahmiyaho yo miqdori haddi aksari ovozhoi yak sahmdor muqarrar karda shavand.

 

Moddai 111. Ziyod kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii  jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Jamiyati sahhomi huquq dorad, ki bo qarori majlisi umumii sahmdoron sarmoyai oinnomaviro bo rohi baland bardoshtani arzishi nominalii sahmiyaho yo barovardani sahmiyahoi ilovagi ziyod kunad.
  2. Ziyod kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi pas az pardokhti purrai arzishi on ijozat doda meshavad. Ziyod kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyat baroi pushonidani ziyoni ba on rasonidashuda roh doda nameshavad.
  3. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi, dar oinnomai jamiyat mumkin ast huquqi afzaliyatnoki sahmdoroni sahmiyahoi oddi (muqarrari) yo sahmiyahoi digari ovozdihanda dar mavridi kharidani sahmiyahoi ilovagie, ki jamiyat mebarorad, muqarrar gardad.

 

Moddai 112 Kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Jamiyati sahhomi huquq dorad, ki bo qarori majlisi umumii sahmdoron bo rohi kam kardani arzishi nominalii sahmiyaho yo kharidani yak qismi sahmiyaho bo maqsadi ikhtisori miqdori umumii onho sarmoyai oinnomaviro kam kunad.

Kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavi badi bo tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi ogoh kardani hamai kreditoroni on roh doda meshavad. Dar ayni zamon kreditoroni jamiyat huquq dorand talab namoyand, ki jamiyat uhdadorihoi dakhldori onro pesh az muhlat qat yo ijro karda, mablagi ziyonro ba onho jubron namoyad.

  1. Kam kardani sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi bo rohi kharidan va pushonidani qismi sahmiyaho ba sharte roh doda meshavad, ki chunin imkoniyat dar oinnomai jamiyat peshbini gardida boshad.
  2. Dar natijai sarmoyai oinnomaviro az andozai haddi aqalli dar qonun muayyanshuda (qismi 1 moddai 110) kamtar kardani jamiyati sahhomi on barham mekhurad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 113. Mahdudiyatho dar mavridi barovardani kogazhoi qimatnok va pardokhti dividendhoi jamiyati sahhomi

 

  1. Hissai sahmiyahoi imtiyoznok dar hajmi umumii sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati sahhomi naboyad az 25 foiz ziyod boshad.
  2. Jamiyati sahhomi pas az pardokhti purrai sarmoyai oinnomavi baroi barovardani vombarg ba mablagi na beshtar az andozai sarmoyai oinnomavi yo andozai taminoti bo in maqsad ba jamiyat peshnihodkardai shakhsi seyum badi purra dodani mablagi sarmoyai oinnomavi huquq dorad. Dar surati nabudani taminot barovardani vombarg tanho pas az se soli faoliyati jamiyati sahhomi va ba sharti to in vaqt durust tasdiq kardani du balansi solonai jamiyat mumkin ast.
  3. Jamiyati sahhomi dar holathoi zerin huquqi elon kardanu pardokhtani dividendro nadorad:

– to pardokhti purrai tamomi sarmoyai oinnomavi;

– agar arzishi doroihoi jamiyati sahhomi az sarmoyai  oinnomavi va fondi ehtiyotii on kamtar boshad yo dar natijai pardokhti dividendho az andozai onho kamtar gardad.

 

Moddai 114. Idorakuni dar jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Maqomi olii idorai jamiyati sahhomi majlisi umumii sahmdoroni on meboshad.

Ba salohiyati mustasnoi  majlisi umumii sahmdoron inho dokhil  meshavand:

a) tagyir dodani oinnomai jamiyat, az jumla tagyir dodani andozai sarmoyai oinnomavii on;

b) intikhob namudani azoi shuroi direktoron (shuroi noziron) va komissiyai taftishoti (revizori)-i jamiyat va pesh az muhlat qat namudani vakolati onho;

v) tasis dodani maqomoti ijroiyai jamiyat va pesh az muhlat qat namudani vakolati onho, ba sharte ki dar oinnomai jamiyat halli in masalaho ba salohiyati shuroi direktoron (shuroi noziron) mansub donista nashuda boshad;

g) tasdiq namudani hisoboti solona, balanshoi muhosibavi, hisobi foidayu ziyoni jamiyat va taqsimi  foidayu ziyoni on:

d) qaror dar borai aznavtashkildihi yo barhamdihii jamiyat.

Tibqi qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi ba salohiyati majlisi umumii sahmdoron inchunin mumkin ast halli masalahoi digar mansub donista shavad.

Halli masalahoi tibqi qonun ba salohiyati mustasnoi majlisi umumii sahmdoron mansub donistashudaro on ba maqomoti ijroiyai jamiyat supurda nametavonad.

  1. Dar jamiyate, ki shumorai sahmdoronash az panjoh nafar beshtar ast, shuroi direktoron (shuroi noziron) tasis doda meshavad.

Mutobiqi qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi, dar surati tasisi shuroi direktoron (shuroi noziron) dar oinnomai jamiyat boyad salohiyati mustasnoi on muayyan karda shavad. Halli masalahoero, ki tibqi oinnoma ba salohiyati mustasnoi shuroi direktoron (shuroi noziron) mansub donista shudaand, on ba maqomoti ijroiyai jamiyat suporida nametavonad.

  1. Maqomi ijroiyai jamiyat metavonad dastjami (rayosat, mamuriyat) yo infirodi (direktor, direktori generali) boshad. Vay ba faoliyati jorii jamiyat rohbari karda, ba shuroi direktoron (shuroi noziron) va majlisi umumii jamiyat hisobot medihad.

Halli tamomi masalahoe, ki salohiyati tibqi qonun yo oinnomai jamiyat muayyangardidai digar maqomoti idorai jamiyatro tashkil namekunand, ba salohiyati maqomi ijroiyai jamiyat mansub ast.

Bo qarori majlisi umumii sahmdoron vakolathoi maqomi ijroiyai jamiyat mumkin ast tibqi shartnoma ba digar tashkiloti tijorati yo sohibkori infirodi (mudir) supurda shavand.

  1. Salohiyati maqomoti idorai jamiyati sahhomi, inchunin tartibi qabul kardani qaror va az nomi jamiyat amal kardani onho mutobiqi hamin Kodeks, qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi va oinnomai jamiyat muayyan karda meshavand.
  2. Jamiyati sahhomie, ki mutobiqi hamin Kodeks yo qonun dar borai jamiyathoi sahhomi ba nashri hujjathoi dar qismi 2 moddai 107 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida baroi malumoti umum vazifador ast, boyad baroi taftish va tasdiqi durustii hisoboti solonai moliyavi har sol auditori kasbiero jalb namoyad, ki bo jamiyat yo ishtirokchiyoni on manfiathoi moddi nadorad.

Faoliyati jamiyati sahhomi, az jumla jamiyati sahhomie, ki baroi nashri hujjathoi zikrgardida ba malumoti umum vazifador nest, bo talabi sahmdorone, ki hissai umumiashon dar sarmoyai oinnomavi dah foiz yo ziyoda az onro tashkil medihad, boyad har vaqt taftishi auditori karda shavad.

Tartibi guzaronidani taftishi auditorii jamiyati sahhomi tibqi qonun va oinnomai jamiyat muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 115. Aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii jamiyati sahhomi
  1. Jamiyati sahhomi bo qarori majlisi umumii sahmdoron metavonad ikhtiyoran az nav tashkil yo barham doda shavad.

Asosu tartibi digari aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii jamiyati sahhomi bo hamin Kodeks va qonunhoi digar muayyankarda meshavad.

  1. Jamiyati sahhomi metavonad ba jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdud yo kooperativi tijorati tabdil doda shavad.
  2. JAMIYaTHOI FARI VA VOBASTA

 

Moddai 116. Jamiyati khojagidorii fari
  1. Agar digar jamiyat yo shirkati khojagidori (asosi) bo sababi ishtiroki afzaliyatnoki khud dar sarmoyai oinnomavii on yo mutobiqi shartnomai bayni onho va yo ba tariqi digar imkoniyati muayyan namudani qarorhoi az jonibi chunin jamiyat qabulshavandaro doshta boshad, jamiyati khojagidorii fari donista meshavad.
  2. Jamiyati fari baroi qarzhoi jamiyat (shirkat)-i asosi masuliyat nadorad.

Jamiyat (shirkat)-i asosie, ki huquqi ba jamiyati fari, az jumla tibqi shartnoma ba on dodani dasturhoi baroyash hatmiro dorad, az rui ahdhoe, ki jamiyati fari bo maqsadi ijroi chunin dasturho anjom medihad, ba in jamiyat masuliyati mushtarak dorad.

Dar surati bo gunohi jamiyat (shirkat)-i asosi muflis shudani jamiyati fari, jamiyat (shirkat)-i asosi az rui qarzhoi on masuliyati ilovagi dorad.

  1. Agar dar qonuni dar borai jamiyathoi khojagidori tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, ishtirokchiyon (sahomdoron)-i jamiyati fari huquq dorand, ki az jamiyat (shirkat)-i asosi jubroni ziyoni bo gunohi on ba jamiyati fari rasidaro talab namoyand.

 

Moddai 117. Jamiyati khojagidorii vobasta
  1. Agar jamiyati digar (bartaridoshta, ishtirokkunanda) beshtar az 20 foizi sahmiyahoi ovozdihandai jamiyati sahhomi yo 20 foizi sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdudro doshta boshad, jamiyati khojagidorii vobasta etirof meshavad.
  2. Jamiyati khojagidorie, ki ziyoda az 20 foizi sahmiyahoi ovozdihandai jamiyati sahhomi yo 20 foizi sarmoyai oinnomavii jamiyati doroi masuliyati mahdudro kharidaast, muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonunho boyad dar borai jamiyathoi khojagidori dar in khusus betakhir malumot nashr namoyad.
  3. Haddi ishtiroki mutaqobilai jamiyathoi khojagidori dar sarmoyai oinnomavii yakdigar va miqdori ovozhoe, ki yake az chunin jamiyatho dar majlisi umumii ishtirokchiyon yo sahmdoroni jamiyati digar istifoda karda metavonad, bo qonun muayyan karda meshavad.

 

§3. KOOPERATIVHOI TIJORATI

 

Moddai 118. Mafhumi  kooperativi  tijorati
  1. Kooperativ – ittihodiyai mustaqil va ikhtiyorii bo tartibi muqarrargardida baqaydgiriftashuda meboshad, ki dar asosi uzviyati shakhson bo maqsadi qone namudani talaboti mushtaraki iqtisodi, ijtimoi, farhangi va digar talaboti onho, inchunin sayu kushishi shakhsoni mazkur tavassuti muttahidkunii molu mulk (azohaqqii sahmi) va tasisi tashkiloti ba tavri demokrati idorashavandai molu mulki yakjoya tasis doda meshavad.
    Kooperativi tijorati tashkiloti tijorati buda, mutobiqi oinnoma asosan ba shakhsoni seyum khizmat merasonad. Daromadi sofi kooperativi tijorati metavonad dar bayni azoi on tibqi tartibi  muqarrarnamudai Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai kooperativho” va oinnomai kooperativ taqsim karda shavad
  2. Azoi kooperativi tijorati az rui uhdadorihoi kooperativ ba andoza va muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston « Dar borai kooperativho» va oinnomai kooperativ masuliyat dorand. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)
  3. Nomi firmavii kooperativ boyad nomi on va kalimahoi “kooperativi tijorati dar bar girifta boshad.
  4. Mavqei huquqii kooperativhoi tijorati va huququ uhdadorihoi azoi onho mutobiqi hamin Kodeks va Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai kooperativho»muayyan karda meshavand. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

 

Moddai 119. Tasisi  kooperativhoi  tijorati
  1. Hujjati tasisi kooperativi tijorati oinnomai tasdiqnamudai majlisi umumii azoi on meboshad.
  2. Oinnomai kooperativ gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida boyad inchunin sharthoi zerinro dar bar girifta boshad: dar borai andozai sahmpulii azoi kooperativ; dar borai hayat va tartibi sahmpuliro supurdani azoi kooperativ va masuliyati onho baroi rioya nakardani uhdadori dar mavridi supurdani sahmpuli; dar borai tartibi taqsim namudani foida va ziyoni kooperativ; dar borai andoza va sharthoi masuliyati azoi on baroi qarzhoi kooperativ; dar borai hayat va salohiyati maqomoti idorai kooperativ va tartibi qaror qabul kardani on, az jumla oid ba masalahoe, ki doir ba onho qtaror yakdilona yo bo aksariyati kulli ovozho qabul karda meshavad.
  3. Shumorai azoi kooperativ naboyad kamtar az se nafar boshad.

 

Moddai 120.  Molu mulki kooperativi tijorati
  1. Molu mulke, ki molikiyati kooperativi tijorati ast, mutobiqi oinnomai kooperativ ba sahmhoi azoi on taqsim karda meshavad.

Tibqi oinnomai kooperativ mumkin ast muqarrar karda shavad, ki qismi muayyani molu mulki ba kooperativ taalluqdoshta fondhoi taqsimnashavanda buda, onho baroi maqsadhoi muayyannamudai oinnoma istifoda meshavand.

Qarori tasis namudani fondhoi taqsimnashavandaro, agar dar oinnomai kooperativ tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, azoi kooperativ yakdilona  qabul mekunand.

  1. Uzvi kooperativ vazifador ast, ki dar muddati yak sol az ruzi bakaydgirii davlatii kooperativ sad foizi sahmpulii khudro suporad. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)
  2. Kooperativ baroi barovardani sahmiyaho huquq nadorad.
  3. Foidai kooperativ dar bayni azoyash mutobiqi Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai kooperativho” va oinnomai kooperativ taqsim karda meshavad. Molu mulke, ki pas az barham dodani kooperativ va qone gardonidani talaboti kreditoroni on boqi memonad, dar bayni azoi on mutanosiban bo sahmashon taqsim karda meshavad. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

 

Moddai 121. Idorakuni  dar  kooperativi  tijorati
  1. Maqomi olii idorai kooperativ majlisi umumii azoi on meboshad.

Dar kooperativi doroi shumorai ziyoda az sad azo Shuroi nozironi kooperativ tasis doda meshavad, ki on faoliyati rayosati kooperativro nazorat mekunad. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

Rayosati koooperativ  ba faoliyati hamaruzai kooperativ  rohbari karda, ba shuroi noziron va majlisi umumii azoi kooperativ hisobotdihanda meboshad.

Azoi shuroi noziron va rayosati kooperativ, tanho azoi kooperativ buda metavonad. Uzvi kooperativ dar yak vaqt uzvi shuroi noziron va uzvi rayosati kooperativ buda nametavonad.

  1. Salohiyati maqomoti idorai kooperativ va tartibi qaror qabul kardani onho tibqi qonun va oinnomai kooperativ muayyan karda meshavand.
  2. Ba salohiyati mustasnoi majlisi umumii azoi kooperativ inho dokhil meshavand:

a) qabul va tagyir dodani oinnomai kooperativ;

b) tasis dodani shuroi noziron va qat gardonidani vakolati azoi on, inchunin tasis dodan va qat namudani vakolati maqomoti ijroiyai kooperativ, ba sharte ki in huquq mutobiqi oinnomai kooperativ ba shuroi nozironi on doda nashuda boshad;

v) qabul va khorij kardani azoi kooperativ;

g)  tasdiq  namudani  hisoboti solonayu balanshoi bukhgalterii kooperativ va taqsim kardani foidayu ziyoni on;

d) qabul kardani qarori aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii kooperativ.

Tibqi Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston « Dar borai kooperativho» va oinnomai kooperativ ba salohiyati mustasnoi  majlisi umumi mumkin ast inchunin halli masalahoi digar niz mansub donista  shavad. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

Halli masalahoi marbut ba salohiyati mustasnoi majlisi umumi yo shuroi nozironi kooperativro onho ba maqomoti ijroiyai kooperativ supurda nametavonand.

  1. Uzvi kooperativ hangomi qaror qabul kardani majlisi umumi yak ovoz dorad.

 

Moddai 122. Qat gardidani uzviyat dar kooperativi tijorati va guzoshtani azohaqqi
  1. Uzvi kooperativ huquq dorad bo salohdidi khud az hayati kooperativ baroyad. Dar in surat ba u boyad arzishi sahm pardokhta yo mutobiqi sahmi u molu mulk doda shavad, inchunin mablaghoi digari dar oinnomai kooperativ peshbinigardida pardokhta shavand.

Sahm va molu mulki digari uzvi kooperativi khorijshavanda pas az anjomi soli moliyavi va tasdiqi balansi muhosibavii kooperativ doda meshavad.

  1. Dar surati uhdadorihoi tibqi oinnoma ba zimmaash guzoshtashudaro ijro nakardan yo ba tavri boyadu shoyad ijro nakardani uzvi kooperativ, inchunin dar holathoi digari peshbininamudai qonun va oinnomai kooperativ, bo qarori majlisi umumi az kooperativ khorij karda meshavad.

Uzvi kooperativi tijorati bo sababi uzvi kooperativi shabeh budanash metavonad bo qarori majlisi umumi az kooperativ khorij karda shavad.

Uzvi kooperativi az hayati on khorijshuda mutobiqi qismi 1 hamin modda ba giriftani sahm, pardokhthoi digari dar oinnomai kooperativ peshbinigardida huquq dorad.

  1. Uzvi kooperativ, uzvi sobiq yo vorisi uzvi favtidai kooperativ metavonand sahmi khudro tanho ba uzvi amalkunanda yo oyandai kooperativ guzasht kunand, ba sharte ki chunin guzashtkuni ba foidai kooperativ boshad. Tartibi guzasht kardani sahm tibqi oinnomai kooperativ muqarrar megardad. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)
  2. Agar dar oinnomai kooperativ tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, dar surati vafot yoftani uzvi kooperativi tijorati vorisoni u metavonand ba uzviyati kooperativ qabul karda shavand. Dar aksi hol kooperativ ba vorison arzishi sahmi uzvi favtidai kooperativro medihad.
  3. Ruyonidani mablag az hisobi sahmi uzvi kooperativi tijorati az rui qarzi shakhsii u muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun va oinnomai kooperativ, tanho dar surati nokifoya budani molu mulki digari u baroi pardokhti chunin qarz roh doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 123. Aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii kooperativhoi tijorati
  1. Kooperativi tijorati mumkin ast bo qarori majlisi umumii azoi on ikhtiyoran az nav tashkil yo barham doda shavad.

Asoshoi digar va tartibi aznavtashkildihi va barhamdihii kooperativ bo hamin Kodeks va digar qonunho muayyan karda meshavand.

  1. Kooperativi tijorati bo qarori yakdilonai azoyash metavonad ba shirkat yo jamiyati khojagidori tabdil doda shavad.

 

§ 4. KORKhONAHOI  DAVLATI

 

Moddai 124. Muqarraroti asosi dar borai korkhonahoi davlati
  1. Korkhonahoi davlati dar namudhoi korkhonai vohidi davlati bo huquqi idorai operativi vujud doshta metavonand.
  2. Molu mulki korkhonahoi davlati taqsimnashavanda buda, ba sahmho (hissaho), az jumla bayni kormandoni korkhona taqsim karda nameshavand.
  3. Nomi firmavii korkhonai davlati boyad ishora ba sohibmulki onro doshta boshad.
  4. Maqomi korkhonai davlati rohbari on meboshad, ki az jonibi sohibmulk yo maqomoti vakolatdori on tain karda meshavad va ba onho hisobot medihad.
  5. Korkhonai davlati bo qarori maqomoti vakolatdori davlati tasis, az nav tashkil va barham doda meshavad.
  6. Holati huquqii korkhonai davlati bo Kodeksi mazkur va Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai korkhonahoi davlati» muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 125. Korkhonai vohidi davlatii ba huquqi  peshburdi khojagidori asosyofta
  1. Korkhonai vohidi davlati tashkiloti tijoratiest, ki huquqi ba molumulki vobastakardai molik sohib shudanro nadorad.
  2. Korkhonai vohid bo qarori maqomoti davlatii vakolatdor tasis doda meshavad.
  3. Hujjati tasisi korkhonai vohid oinnomai az jonibi maqomoti davlatii vakolatdor tasdiqgardidai on meboshad.
  4. Andozai fondi oinnomavii korkhonai vohid naboyad az mablagi muayyannamudai qonun kamtar boshad.
  5. Fondi oinnomavii korkhonap vokhid boyad az chonibi molik dar muddati yak sol az ruzi baqaydgirii davlatii on purra pardokhta shavad. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)
  6. Agar badi anjomi soli moliyavi arzishi doroihoi sofi korkhonai vohid az andozai fondi oinnomavii dar oinnomai korkhona peshbinigardida kamtar shavad, maqome, ki vakolati tasis dodani chunin korkhonahoro dorad, vazifador ast, ki muvofiqi tartibi muqarrargardida fondi oinnomaviro kam kunad. Agar arzishi doroihoi sof az andozai dar qonun muayyangardida (qismi 3 hamin modda) kamtar gardad, korkhona metavonad bo qarori sud barham doda shavad.
  7. Dar surati qabul namudani qarori kam kardani fondi oinnomavi korkhona vazifador ast, ki dar in khusus kreditoroni khudro khatti ogoh sozad.

Kreditori korkhona metavonad qat yo ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadorihoero, ki in korkhona az rui onho qarzdor meboshad,  inchunin jubroni ziyonro talab namoyad.

  1. Korkhonai vohidi davlati az rui uhdadorihoyash ba tamomi molu mulkash javobgar buda, az rui uhdadorihoi molumulkii  molkash javobgar nameboshad. Sohibmulk az rui uhdadorihoi korkhonai vohidi davlati ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai qismi 3 moddai 57 Kodeksi mazku rva digar sanadi qonunguzori javobgar nameboshad.

 

Moddai 126. Korkhonai farii korkhonai vohidi davlati
  1. Korkhonai vohidi davlati metavonad bo rozigii sohibi amvol ba sifati shakhsi huquqi korkhonai digari vohid (korkhonai fari)-ro bo tartibi muqarrarnamuda bo rohi ba huquqi peshburdi khojagi ba on dodani molu mulki khud tasis dihad.
  2. Muassis oinnomai korkhonai fariro tasdiq va rohbari onro tain menamoyad.
  3. Korkhonai vohidi davlati ba istisnoi holathoi dar qismi 3 moddai 57 hamin Kodeks peshbinishuda az rui uhdadorihoi korkhonai fari masuliyat nadorad.

 

Moddai 127. Korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlatie, ki ba huquqi idorai operativi asos yoftaast
  1. Hamon korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati meboshad, ki molu mulki davlatiro bo huquqi idorai operativi dar ikhtiyor dorad.
  2. Korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati bo qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston yo maqomoti ijroiyai mahallii hokimiyati davlati tasis doda meshavad.
  3. Hujjati tasisi korkhona oinnomai on meboshad, ki az jonibi muassis tasdiq megardad.
  4. Nomi firmavii korkhonai ba huquqi idorai operativi asosyofta boyad ishora ba on doshta boshad, ki korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati ast.
  5. Faoliyati khojagii korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati bo maqsadu vazifahoi dar oinnoma sabtgardida muayyan karda meshavad.
  6. Jumhurii Tojikiston yo vohidi marziyu mamuri az rui uhdadorihoi korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati masuliyati ilovagi dorand.

 

§5. TAShKILOTHOI GAYRITIJORATI

 

Moddai 128. Kooperativi gayritijorati
  1. Kooperativi gayritijorati tashkiloti gayritijorati buda, mutobiqi oinnomai kooperativ asosan ba azoi khud khizmat merasonad. Daromadi sofi kooperativi gayritijorati, ki dar natijai khizmatrasoniho ba shakhsoni seyum ba dast ovarda shudaast, dar bayni azoi on taqsim karda nameshavad va in daromad jihati rushdi minbadai on sarf karda meshavad. Dar surati asosan ba shakhsoni seyum khizmat rasondani kooperativi gayritijorati, on boyad ba kooperativi tijorati tabdil doda shavad.(QJT az 22.07.13s., №976)
  2. Oinnomai kooperativi gayritijorati ba gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida, inchunin boyad sharthoro dar borai andozai azohaqqii azoi kooperativ; dar borai tarkib va tartibi supurdani azohaqqi az jonibi azoi kooperativ va masuliyati onho baroi vayron kardani uhdadori dar mavridi supurdani azohaqqi; dar borai hayatu salohiyati maqomoti idorai kooperativ va tartibi qaror qabul kardani onho, az jumla doir ba masalahoe, ki az rui onho qaror yakdilona yo bo aksariyati kulli ovozho qabul karda meshavad; dar borai tartibi jubroni ziyoni ba kooperativ rasonidashuda az jonibi azoi kooperativ, dar bar girad.
  3. Nomi kooperativi gayritijorati boyad ishora ba maqsadi asosii faoliyati on, inchunin kalimai “kooperativ” –ro dar bar girifta boshad.
  4. Vazi huquqii kooperativho, huququ uhdadorihoi azoi onho bo Kodeksi mazkur va Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai kooperativho” ba tanzim darovarda meshavand. (QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

 

Moddai 1281. Kooperatsiyai matlubot
  1. Ittihodi ikhtiyorii shahrvandon dar asosi uzviyat bo maqsadi qone gardonidani talaboti moddii sahmdoron bo rohi muttahid sokhtani azohaqqii onho kooperatsiyai matlubot etirof karda meshavad.
  2. Asoshoi huquqii tashkili faoliyat, vazi huquqii kooperatsiyai matlubot va huququ uhdadorihoi sahmdoron mutobiqi Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston “Dar borai kooperatsiyai matlubot dar Jumhurii Tojikiston” muqarrar karda meshavand. (QJT az 22.07.13s., №976)

 

Moddai 129. Ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini

                                    (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

  1. Ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini tashkilothoe etirof karda meshavand, ki dar onho shahrvandon muvofiqi tartiboti muqarrargardida dar asosi umumiyati manfiathoyashon baroi qone gardonidani talabothoi manavi yo digari gayrimoddi ikhtiyoran muttahid gardidaand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini tashkilothoi gayritijorati meboshand. Onho tanho baroi noil shudan ba maqsadhoe, ki bahri onho tasis gardidaand, huquq dorand ba faoliyati tijorati va faoliyati digari sohibkorii ba in maqsadho muvofiqro anjom dihand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

  1. Ishtirokchiyoni (azoi) ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini huquqashonro ba molu mulke, ki ba molikiyati in ittihodiyaho, tashkilotho guzaronidaand, inchunin ba azohaqqi nigoh namedorand. Onho az rui uhdadorihoi ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dinie, ki dar onho ba sifati uzviyat ishtirok menamoyand, masuliyat nadorand, ittihodiyahoi, tashkilothoi mazkur boshand, az rui uhdadorihoi azoi khud masul nameboshand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Khususiyathoi mavqei huquqii ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi dini hamchun ishtirokchiyoni munosibathoi bo hamin Kodeks tanzimshavanda tibqi qonun muayyan karda meshavand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

 

Moddai 130. Fondhoi jamiyati
  1. Fondi jamiyati tashkiloti gayritijoratii uzviyatnadoshtae etirof karda meshavad, ki az jonibi shahrvandon yo shakhsi huquqi dar asosi pardokhthoi ikhtiyorii molu mulki tasisgardida, maqsadhoi khayriya, ijtimoi, farhangi, talimi yo maqsadhoi digari umumii mufidro pesh giriftaast.

Molu mulke, ki muassisoni fond ba on supurdaand, molikiyati fond meboshad. Muassison az rui uhdadorihoi fondi tasisdodaashon masuliyat nadorand, fond boshad,az rui uhdadorihoi muassisoni khud masul nest.

  1. Fondi jamiyati molu mulkro baroi maqsadhoe, ki dar oinnomaash muayyan gardidaand, istifoda menamoyad. Fond huquq dorad, jihati noil shudan ba maqsadhoi umumii mufide, ki fond baroi on tasis gardidaast, ba faoliyati sohibkorii ba in maqsadho munosib mashgul shavad. Baroi ba amal barovardani faoliyati sohibkori fondho huquq dorand, jamiyathoi khojagidori tasis dihand yo dar onho ishtirok namoyand.

Fond vazifador ast, ki har sol dar khususi istifodai molu mulkash hisobotro ba tab rasonad.

  1. Tartibi idorai fondi jamiyati va tartibi tashkili maqomoti on tibqi oinnomai az jonibi muassison tasdiqgardida muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Dar oinnomai fondi jamiyati gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2, moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida boyad malumoti zerin darj gardida boshad: nomi fond, ki kalimai “fond”-ro dar bar giriftaast; malumot dar borai maqsadi fond; malumot dar borai maqomoti fond, az jumla dar borai shuroi parastoron, ki ba faoliyati fond nazorat mekunand; tartibi tain namudani mansabdoroni fond va az vazifa ozod kardani onho; mahalli joygirshavii fond; taqdiri molu mulki fond dar surati barham doda shudani on .

 

Moddai 131. Tagyir dodani oinnoma va barham dodani fondi jamiyati
  1. Oinnomai fondi jamiyati metavonad az jonibi maqomoti fond tagyir doda shavad, ba sharte ki dar oinnoma bo hamin tartib tagyir dodani on peshbini gardida boshad.

Agar betagyir mondani oinnoma boisi oqibathoe gardad, ki hangomi tasisi fond onhoro peshbini namudan gayriimkon buda, imkoniyati tagyir dodani on dar oinnoma peshbini nashuda boshad yo shakhsi  vakolatdor onro tagyir nadihand, sud huquq dorad, ki tibqi arizai maqomoti fond, shuroi parastoron yo maqomi digari doroi vakolati nazorati faoliyati fond ba on tagyirot vorid namoyad.

  1. Qarori barham dodani fondi jamiyatiro tanho sud dar asosi arizai shakhsi manfiatdor qabul karda metavonad.

Fond dar holathoi zerin metavonad barham doda shavad:

-agar molu mulki fond baroi tatbiqi hadafhoyash nokifoya buda, imkoniyati ba dast ovardani molu mulki zaruri tatbiqnoshudani boshad;

-agar noil shudan ba maqsadhoi fond nomumkin va tagyir dodani maqsadhoi fond gayriimkon boshad;

-dar surati az maqsadi dar oinnoma peshbinigardida dur shudani faoliyati fond;

-dar holathoi digari peshbininamudai qonun.

  1. Dar surati barham dodan fondi jamiyati molu mulki pas az qonegardonii talaboti kreditoron boqimondai on ba shakhsi dar oinnomai fond zikrgardida doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 132. Muassisaho
  1. Tashkilote, ki molik baroi amali gardonidani vazifahoi idorakuni, ijtimoiyu farhangi va yo vazifahoi digari doroi khususiyati gayritijorati tasis doda, onro purra yo qisman mablagguzori mekunad, muassisa donista meshavad.

Huquqi muassisa ba molu mulki ba vay vobastashuda va kharidai on mutobiqi moddahoi 313 va 315 hamin Kodeks muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Muassisa az rui uhdadorihoi khud bo mablagi pulii dar ikhtiyorash buda masuliyat dorad. Dar surati nokifoya budani in mablag moliki molu mulki dakhldor az rui uhdadorihoi on masuliyati ilovagi dorad.
  2. Khususiyahoi mavqei huquqii namudhoi alohidai muassisahoi davlati yo muassisahoi digar tibqi qonun muayyan karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 133. Ittihodiyahoi shakhsoni huquqi (assotsiatsiyaho va ittifoqho)
  1. Tashkilothoi tijorati bo maqsadi hamohangsozii faoliyati sohibkoriashon, inchunin namoyandagi va hifzi manfiathoi umumii molu mulki metavonand tibqi shartnomai bayni khud ittihodiyahoro dar shakli assotsiatsiyaho (ittifoqho) tasis dihand, ki onho tashkilothoi gayritijorati meboshand.

Agar bo qarori ishtirokchiyon ba zimai assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) faoliyati sohibkori guzoshta shavad, chunin assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) boyad bo tartibi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks ba jamiyat yo shirkati khojagidori tabdil doda shavad. Baroi tatbiqi faoliyati sohibkori assotsiatsiyaho (ittifoqho) huquq dorand, ki jamiyathoi khojagidori tasis dihand yo dar onho ishtirok namoyand.

  1. Ittihodiyahoi jamiyati va tashkilothoi digari gayritijorati, az jumla muassisaho, metavonand ikhtiyoran dar assotsiatsiyahoi (ittifoqhoi) in tashkilotho muttahid shavand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Assotsiatsiyai ittihodiyahoi gayritijorati tashkiloti gayritijorati meboshad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

  1. Assotsiatsiya shakhsi huquqi meboshad.

Azoi assotsiatsiya mustaqiliyati khud va huquqi shakhsi huquqiro nigoh medorand.

  1. Assotsiatsiya az rui uhdadorihoi azoi khud masuliyat nadorad.

Azoi assotsiatsiya az rui uhdadorihoi on ba andoza va muvofiqi  tartibi dar hujjathoi tasisi  assotsiatsiya peshbinigardida masuliyati ilovagi dorand.

  1. Nomi assotsiatsiya boyad ishora ba maqsadi asosii faoliyati on va maqsadi asosii faoliyati azoi onro bo ilovai kalimahoi “assotsiatsiya” yo “ittifoq” dar bar girifta boshad.

Azoi assotsiatsiya mustaqiliyati khud va huquqi shakhsi huquqiro nigoh medorand.

  1. Assotsiatsiya az rui uhdadorihoi azoi khud masuliyat nadorad.

Azoi assotsiatsiya az rui uhdadorihoi on ba andoza va muvofiqi  tartibi dar hujjathoi tasisi  assotsiatsiya peshbinigardida masuliyati ilovagi dorand.

  1. Nomi firmavii assotsiatsiya boyad ishora ba maqsadi asosii faoliyati on va maqsadi asosii faoliyati azoi onro bo ilovai kalimahoi “assotsiatsiya” yo “ittifoq” dar bar girifta boshad.

 

Moddai 134. Hujjathoi tasisi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq)
  1. Hujjathoi tasisi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) shartnomai tasisi az jonibi azoyoni on imzogardida va oinnomai tasdiqnamudai onho meboshand.
  2. Dar hujjathoi tasisi assotsiatsiya gayr az malumoti dar qismi 2 moddai 53 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida boyad sharthoi zerin darj gardida boshand: dar borai hayat va salohiyati maqomoti idorai assotsiatsiya va tartibi qaror qabul kardani onho, az jumla doir ba masalahoe, ki qaror az rui onho yakdilona yo bo aksariyati kulli ovozi azoi assotsiatsiya qabul karda meshavad va dar borai taqsimi molu mulke, ki pas az barham dodani assotsiatsiya boqi mondaast.

 

Moddai 135. Huququ uhdadorihoi azoi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq)
  1. Azoi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) huquq dorand, ki az khizmathoi on ba tavri roygon istifoda namoyand, ba sharte ki dar hujjathoi tasisi assotsiatsiya tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad va az khususiyati khizmatrasoni barnaoyad.
  2. Uzvi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) haq dorad, ki pas az khotimai soli moliyavi bo salohdidi khesh az hayati assotsiatsiya baroyad. Dar in surat u az rui uhdadorihoi assotsiatsiya dar davomi du soli pas az khorij shudanash mutanosiban ba azohaqqii khud masuliyati ilovagi bar dush dorad.

Uzvi assotsiatsiya dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi dar hujjathoi tasisi assotsiatsiya muqarrargardida mumkin ast bo qarori ishtirokchiyoni boqimonda az on khorij karda shavad. Dar mavridi azohaqqii molu mulki va masuliyati uzvi khorijshudai assotsiatsiya qoidahoi marbut ba baromadan az hayati assotsiatsiya istifoda meshavand.

  1. Bo rizoiyati uzvi assotsiatsiya ba on metavonad uzvi nav shomil shavad. Ba assotsiatsiya (ittifoq) shomil shudani ishtirokchii nav mumkin ast vobasta ba masuliyati ilovagii doshtai on oid ba uhdadorihoi assotsiatsiya (ittifoq), ki to shomilshavii u ba miyon omadaast, surat girad.

 

BOBI  5. IShTIROKI  JUMHURII  TOJIKISTON  VA VOHIDI MARZIYu MAMURI DAR MUNOSIBATHOI TANZIMShAVANDAI GRAJDANI

 

Moddai 136. Ishtiroki Jumhurii Tojikiston dar munosibathoi huquqii grajdani
  1. Jumhurii Tojikiston dar munosibathoi bo qonunhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda bo ishtirokchiyoni digari in munosibatho dar asosi barobar ishtirok menamoyad.
  2. Maqomoti hokimiyati davlatii Jumhurii Tojikiston dar doirai salohiyati khud, ki bo sanadi qonuni, nizomnomaho va yo sanadi digari muayyankunandai holati huquqii in maqomot muqarrar gardidaast, metavonand az nomi Jumhurii Tojikiston bo molu mulki khud doroi huququ uhdadorihoi molu mulki va shakhsii gayri molu mulkiro ba dast ovarda, tatbiq namoyand va dar sud baromad kunand.

Dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonun bo suporishi makhsusi Jumhurii Tojikiston az nomi on digar maqomoti davlati, shakhsi huquqi va shahrvandon amal karda metavonand.

  1. Bahshoi huquqii grajdani bo ishtiroki Jumhurii Tojikiston az jonibi sudho hal karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 137. Ishtiroki vohidi marziyu mamuri dar munosibathoi shahrvandiyu huquqi
  1. Vohidi marziyu mamuri dar munosibathoi bo qonunhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda bo ishtirokchiyoni in munosibatho barobar ishtirok menamoyad.
  2. Maqomoti mahallii namoyandagi va ijroiya dar doirai salohiyati khud, ki bo sanadi qonuni, nizomnomaho yo sanadi digari muayyankunandai statusi in maqomot muqarrar gardidaand, metavonand az nomi vohidhoi marziyu mamuri bo amali khud doroi huququ uhdadorihoi molu mulki va shakhsii gayri molu mulkiro ba dast ovarda, dar sud baromad kunand.

Dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonun maqomoti davlatii mahalli, shakhsi huquqi va shahrvandon metavonand bo suporishi makhsus az nomi vohidi marziyu mamuri amal kunand.

  1. Dar holathoi muayyannamudai qonun vohidhoi marziyu mamuri dar munosibathoi huquqii grajdani metavonand az nomi davlat amal namoyand.
  2. Agar dar qonunho tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, muqarraroti hamin Kodeks dar khususi ishtiroki mutaqobilai davlat va maqomoti on dar munosibathoi bo qonunhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda ba vohidi marziyu mamuri va maqomoti on dakhl dorand.
  3. Bahshoi shahrvandiyu huquqi bo ishtiroki vohidi marziyu mamuri az jonibi sudho hal karda  meshavand.

 

Moddai 138. Masuliyat az rui uhdadorihoi davlat, vohidi marziyu mamuri
  1. Davlat yo vohidi marziyu mamuri az rui uhdadorihoi khud bo molu mulki dar asosi huquqi molikiyati ba onho taalluqdoshta, gayr az molu mulke, ki ba shakhsi huquqii tasisdodai onho bo huquqi ikhtiyordorii khojagi yo idorai operativi vobasta karda shudaast, masuliyat dorand.
  2. Shakhsi huquqie, ki az jonibi davlat yo vohidi marziyu mamuri tasis doda shudaast, az rui uhdadorihoi onho masuliyat nadorad.
  3. Davlat, vohidi marziyu mamuri, gayr az hjolathoi peshbininamudai qonun, az rui hhdadorihoi shakhsi huquqii az jonibi onho tasisgardida masuliyat nadorand.
  4. Davlat az rui uhdadorihoi vohidi marziyu mamuri masuliyat nadorad.
  5. Vohidhoi marziyu mamuri az rui uhdadorihoi yakdigar, inchunin az rui hhdadorihoi davlat masuliyat nadorand.
  6. Qoidahoi qismhoi 2-5 hamin modda ba holathoe, ki davlat dar asosi shartnomai imzokardaash az rui uhdadorihoi vohidi marziyu mamuri yo shakhsi huquqi zamonat (kafolat) dodaast yo subekthoi mazkur az rui uhdadorihoi davlat zamonat (kafolat) dodaand, dakhl nadorand.

 

Moddai 139. Khususiyathoi masuliyati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar  munosibathoi  bo qonuhhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda bo ishtiroki shakhsi huquqi,  shahrvandon va davlathoi khoriji

Khususiyathoi masuliyati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar munosibathoi bo qonunhoi grajdani tanzimshavanda bo ishtiroki shakhsi huquqi, shahrvandon va davlathoi khoriji mutobiqi qonun dar borai masuniyati (immuniteti) davlat va molikiyati on muayyan karda meshavand.

 

BOBI 6. OBEKTHOI HUQUQI  GRAJDANI

 

§1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI

 

Moddai 140. Namudhoi obekthoi huquqi grajdani
  1. Obekthoi huquqi grajdani metavonand nematho va huquqi molu mulki va shakhsii gayri molu mulki boshand.
  2. Ba nematu huquqi molu mulki (molu mulk) inho dokhil meshavand: chizu chora, pul, az jumla asori khoriji, kogazhoi qimatnok, koru khizmatho, ittiloot, amal, natijai faoliyati zehni, nomi firma, tamgai mol va vositahoi digari fardikunonii mahsulot, huquqi molu mulki va molu mulki digar.
  3. Ba nematu huquqi shakhsii gayrimolu mulki inho dokhil meshavand: hayot, salomati, etibori shakhs, shanu sharaf, nomi nek, shuhrati kasbi, dakhlnopazirii hayoti shakhsi, sirri shakhsi vaoilavi, huquqi doshtani nom, huquqi muallifi, huquqi dakhlnopazirii asar va nematu huquqhoi digari gayrimoddi.

 

Moddai 141. Qobiliyati gardishi obekthoi huquqi grajdani
  1. Obekthoi huquqi grajdani, agar onho az ahdho barovarda nashuda boshand yo muomilotashon mahdud nashuda boshad, metavonand bo tartibi universalii vorosati huquq yo ba tariqi digar begona karda shavand yo az yak shakhs ba shakhsi digar guzarand.
  2. Namudhoi molu mulki huquqi grajdanie, ki dar muomilot budani onho roh doda nameshavad (obekthoi az muomilot baromada), boyad bevosita dar qonun ishora karda shavand.

Namudhoi obekthoi huquqi grajdanie, ki tanho ba ishtirokchiyoni muayyani muomilot taalluq doshta metavonand yo dar muomilot qaror doshtani onho tanho bo ijozati makhsus imkonpazir ast (obekthoe, ki qobiliyati muomilotashon mahdud ast), muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun muayyan karda meshavand.

  1. Nemat va huquqhoi shakhsii gayri molu mulkiro begona namudan va bo tarzhoi digar dodan mumkin  nest, ba istisnoi  holathoe, ki  sanadhoi qonunguzori muqarrar namudaast.

 

§ 2. AShYO

 

Moddai 142. Ashyoi  gayrimanqul va manqula
  1. Ba ashyoi gayrimanqul (molu mulki gayrimanqul) inho dokhil meshavand: bino (istiqomati va gayriistiqomati), inshoot va obekthoi sokhtmonii notamom, niholhoi bisyorsola va molu mulki digare, ki bo zamin aloqamandii mustahkam dorand, yane obekthoe, ki intiqolashon biduni rasonidani ziyoni voqeii behisob ba tainotashon imkonnopazir ast.
  2. Ba molu mulki gayrimanqul inchunin kishtihoi havoi va bahri, kishtihoi dar dokhili kishvar shinokunanda, obekthoi kayhon, ki muvofiqi sanadhoi qonunguzori ashyoi digarro niz ba jumlai molu mulki gayrimanqul nisbat dodan mumkin ast, dokhil meshavand, ki boyad ba qaydi davlati girifta shavand.

3.Ashyoe, ki ba molu mulki gayrimanqul dokhil nameshavad, az jumla pul va kogazhoi qimatnok, manqula donista meshavad. Baqaydgirii huquq ba ashyoi  manqul gayr az holathoi dar qonun zikrgardida zarur nest.

 

Moddai 143. Ba qaydgirii davlatii ashyoi gayrimanqul
  1. Huquqi molikiyatu huquqi digari molu mulki va ashyoi digari gayrimankul, mahdud kardani in huquq, ba miyon omadan, guzashtan va qat gardidani onho boyad az jonibi maqomoti makhsusi vakolatdori davlati, ki az jonibi Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston muayyan karda meshavad, dar fehrasti yagonai davlati ba qaydi davlati girifta shavand. Huquqhoi zerin boyad ba qayd girifta shavand: huquqi molikiyat, huquqi ikhtiyordorii khojagi, huquqi idorai operativi, huquqi sohibiyati yakumrai merosi, huquqi istifodai doimi, bayi joiz (ipoteka), servitutho, inchunin huquqhoi digar dar holathoi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks va qonunhoi digar. (Q JT az 11.03.2010s, №601).
  2. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, dar barobari ba qaydgirii davlati mumkin ast namudhoi alohidai ashyoi gayrimanqul makhsus ba qayd yo ba hisob girifta shavad.
  3. Maqome, ki huquqi ashyoi gayrimanqul va ahdhoi vobasta ba onro ba qaydi davlati megirad, vazifador ast bo darkhosti shakhsi huquqdor bo rohi dodani hujjat dar borai huquq yo ahdhoi ba qayd giriftashuda yo imzo guzoshtan dar hujjate, ki jihati ba qaydgiri peshkash gardidaast, amali ba qaydgiriro tasdiq namoyad.

4.Maqome, ki huquq ba molu mulki gayrimanqul yo ahdhoro ba amal barovardaast, vazifador ast, ki ba har shakhs dar borai ba qaydgiri va huquqi  ba qayd giriftashuda malumot dihad.

Malumot, sarfi nazar az mahalli ba qaydgiri, dar har maqomi ba qaydgirandai molu mulki gayrimanqul doda meshavad.

  1. Dar surati ba qaydi davlati nagiriftani huquq ba molu mulki gayrimanqul yo ahdho bo on yo az ba qaydgiri sarkashi kardani maqomi marbuta ba sud shikoyat kardan mumkin ast.
  2. Tartibi ba qaydgirii davlati va asoshoi rad kardani on mutobiqi hamin Kodeks va qonun dar borai ba qaydgirii huquq ba molu mulki gayrimanqul va ahdho ba on muqarrar karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 144. Korkhona
  1. Korkhona hamchun obekti huquq kompleksi molu mulkie etirof karda meshavad, ki baroi tatbiqi faoliyati sohibkori istifoda megardad.
  2. Korkhona dar majmu yo yak qismi on metavonad obekti kharidu furush, garav, ijora va ahdhoi digari marbut ba muqarrar namudan, tagyir dodan yo qat kardani huquqi molu mulki boshad.

Ba hayati korkhona hamchun kompleksi molu mulki, agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, tamomi namudhoi molu mulki baroi faoliyati on peshbinigardida, az jumla huquqi istifodai qitai zamin, bino, inshoot, tajhizot, asbobu anjom, ashyoi khom, mahsulot, huquqi talab, qarz, inchunin huquq ba alomathoi fardikunanda, mahsuloti on, koru khizmat (nomi firmavi, tamgai mol, tamgai khizmatrasoni) va huquqi mustasnoi digar dokhil meshavand.

 

Moddai 145. Ashyoi taqsimshavanda
  1. Ashyo metavonad taqsimshavanda va taqsimnashavanda boshad. Ashyoi taqsimshavanda molu mulkest, ki qismhoi on dar natijai taqsimkuni tainoti (funksiyai) khudro az dast namedihand.

 

Moddai 146. Ashyoi taqsimnashavanda

Ashyoe, ki taqsimoti on odatan biduni tagyir dodani tainotash imkonnopazir ast, taqsimnashavanda donista meshavad.

Khususiyathoi judo kardani hissa dar huquqi molikiyat ba ashyoi taqsimnashavanda tibqi qonun muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 147. Ashyoi murakkab

Agar ashyoi harkhela chizi tomi ba maqsadi umumi istifodashavandaro tashkil namoyand, onho hamchun yak chiz (ashyoi murakkab) arzyobi meshavand.

Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, amali ahdho dar mavridi ashyoi murakkab ba hamai qismhoi tarkibii on dakhl dorad.

 

Moddai 148. Ashyoi asosi va mansubiyat

Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, taqdiri ashyoe, ki baroi khizmatrasonii ashyoi digar (asosi) peshbini gardida, bo on az rui tainoti (mansubiyati) umumi aloqamand meboshad, ba qismati ashyoi asosi vobasta ast.

 

Moddai 149. Samara, mahsulot va daromad

Voridoti dar natijai istifodai molu mulk badastomada (samara, mahsulot, daromad), agar dar qonun, sanadi digari huquqi yo shartnomai istifodai in molu mulk tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, ba shakhse taalluq dorad, ki az in molu mulk dar asosi qonuni istifoda menamoyad.

 

Moddai 150. Hayvonot

Nisbati hayvonot qoidahoi umumi dar khususi molu mulk istifoda meshavand, zero dar qonun yo sanadi digari huquqi tartibi digare muqarrar nagardidaast.

 

Moddai 151. Ashyoi khosa va ashyoi  bo nishonai nav muayyanshavanda
  1. Ashyoe khosa donista meshavad, ki az ashyoi digar bo alomathoi tanho khosai khud farq mekunad. Ashyoi khosa ivaznashavanda meboshad.
  2. Ashyoi bo alomathoi nav muayyanshavanda on ashyoe donista meshavad, ki nishonahoi khosi hamai ashyoi hamin navro doshta bo miqdor, vazn va andoza muayyan karda meshavand. Ashyoi bo nishonahoi nav muayyanshavanda ivazshavanda meboshad.

 

Moddai 152.  Natijahoi faoliyati zehnii  hifzshavanda

Dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai hamin Kodeks va qonunhoi digar, huquqi mustasnoi shahrvand yo shakhsi huquqi ba natijahoi ba tavri obektivi zohirgardidai faoliyati zehni va vositahoi ba on barobari fardikunonii shakhsi huquqi, mahsuloti shakhsi voqei yo huquqi, korhoi ijrokarda yo khizmathoi rasonidai onho (nomi firmavi, tamgai mol, tamgai khizmatrasoni va gayra) etirof karda meshavad.

Natijai faoliyati zehni va vositahoi fardikunoniro, ki hadafi huquqi  mustasno meboshand, shakhsi seyum tanho bo rizoyati dorandai in huquq istifoda karda metavonad.

 

Moddai 153. Sirri khizmati va tijorati

Qonunhoi grajdani malumotero, ki doroi sirri khizmati yo tijorati meboshand, hifz menamoyad, ba sharte ki  malumot bo sababi ba shakhsi seyum malum  nabudanash arzishi voqei yo imkonpaziri (potensialii) tijorati doshta, dar asosi qonun baroi istifodai ozodona dastras naboshad, dorandai malumot jihati makhfi nigoh doshtani on tadbirho meandeshad.

Ashkhose, ki bo usulhoi gayriqonuni chunin malumotro ba dast ovardaand, inchunin khizmatchiyone, ki khilofi shartnoma (qarordod) – i mehnati yo ahli shartnoma, ki khilofi shartnomai grajdaniyu huquqi sirri khizmati yo tijoratiro fosh kardaand, boyad ziyoni voqeii rasonidashudaro jubron namoyand.

 

§ 3. AMAL  (beamali)

 

Moddai 154. Amal (beamali)

Amal (beamali) dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun metavonad obekti mustaqili huququ uhdadorihoi grajdani boshad.

 

§ 4. PUL VA KOGAZHOI QIMATNOK

 

1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI DAR BORAI  KOGAZHOI QIMATNOK

 

Moddai 155.  Pul  (asor)
  1. Prezidenta Jumhurii Tojikistoi nizomi pulii mamlakatro muayyan mekunad va puli millii Tojikiston vositai qonunii pardokht ba shumor meravad, ki kabuli on az rui arzishi etiborii khud dar qalamravi Jumhurii Tojikiston hatmist.
  2. Dar qalamravi Jumhurii Tojnkiston pardokht bo rohi hisobbarobarkunii naqdi va gayrinaqdi surat megirad. (QJT az 29.12.10s №640)

 

Moddai 156. Arzishhoi asori

Namudhoi molu mulke, ki arzishhoi asori etirof karda meshavand va tartibi bo onho anjom dodani ahdho tibqi qonun dar borai tanzimi asor va nazorati asor muayyan karda meshavand.

Huquqi molikiyat ba arzishhoi asori dar Jumhurii Tojikiston tibqi asoshoi umumi  muhofizat meshavad.

 

Moddai 157. Kogazi qimatnok
  1. Kogazi qimatnok hujjate meboshad, ki bo rioyai shakli muqarrargardida va rekvizithoi hatmi huquqi molu mulkiero tasdiq menamoyad, ki tatbiq yo guzasht kardani onho tanho dar surati nishon dodani on imkonpazir ast.

Bo dodani kogazi qimatnok dar majmu tamomi huquqhoi tasdiqnamudai on meguzarad.

  1. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun baroi tatbiq yo guzasht kardani huquqi dar qogazi qimatnok tasdiqgardida dalelhoi dar fehrasti makhsusi (muqarrari yo kompyuterii) shakhse, ki kogazi qimatnokro az nomi khud barovarda, az rui uhdadorii dar on sabtshuda masuliyat dorad, kifoya meboshad.

 

Moddai 158. Namudhoi kogazhoi qimatnok
  1. Ba kogazhoi qimatnok inho dokhil meshavand: vombarg, veksel, chek, sertifikati bonki, konosament, sahmiya va hujjathoi digare, ki mutobiqi sanadi qonunguzori dar borai kogazhoi qimatnok yo muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai onho ba jumlai kogazhoi qimatnok mansub donista shudaand.
  2. Kogazhoi qimatnok metavonand manzuri, orderi va nomi boshand.

Huquqi tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnoki nomi ba shakhsi dar on zikrshuda taalluq dorad.

Huquqi tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnoki manzuri ba shakhsi manzurkunandai  kogazi qimatnok taalluq dorad.

Huquqi tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnoki orderi ba shakhsi dar on nombarshuda va dar surati muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qismi 3, moddai 160 hamin Kodeks in huquqro guzasht kardani u  ba shakhsi vakolatdor taalluq dorad.

  1. Mutobiqi sanadi qonunguzori mumkin ast baroi barovardani navi muayyani kogazhoi qimatnok ba sifati nomi yo ba sifati orderi va yo ba sifati manzuri imkoniyat doda nashavad.

Dar sanadi qonunguzori inchunin mumkin ast imkoniyati barovardani kogazhoi qimatnoki doroi nishonai khelhoi gunoguni kogazhoi qimatnok peshbini karda shavad.

 

Moddai 159. Talabot nisbati kogazhoi qimatnok
  1. Namudhoi huquqi dar kogazhoi qimatnok tasdiqshavanda, rekvizithoi hatmii kogazhoi qimatnok, talabot nisbati shakli kogazi qimatnok va talaboti digari zaruri tibqi qonun yo muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai on muayyan karda meshavand.
  2. Dar surati nabudani rekvizithoi hatmii kogazi qimatnok yo ba shakli baroi chunin kogazho muqarrargardida mutobiqat nakardan on boisi beetiborshavii on megardad.

 

Moddai 160. Guzasht kardani huquq az rui kogazi qimatnok
  1. Baroi ba shakhsi digar guzasht kardani huquqi tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnoki manzuri ba dasti in shakhs supurdani kogazi qimatnok kifoya ast.
  2. Huquqi tasdiqnamudai  kogazi qimatnoki nomi muvofiqi tartibi baroi  guzashtkunii talabot (sessiya)-i muqarrargardida guzasht karda meshavad. Mutobiqi moddai 419 hamin Kodeks shakhse, ki huquqashro az rui kogazi qimatnok guzasht mekunad, na baroi  ijro nashudani talaboti dakhldor, balki baroi beetibor budani   on  masuliyat dorad.
  3. Huquq az rui kogazi qimatnoki orderi bo rohi dar in kogaz sabt kardani navishtajoti intiqolii  indossant guzasht karda meshavad. Indossant na tanho  baroi  mavjudiyati huquq, balki inchunin baroi tatbiqi on niz masuliyat dorad.

Indossamenti dar  kogazi qimatnok ba amal barovardashuda hamai huquqi  tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnokro ba shakhse medihad, ki ba u yo farmoni u huquq az  rui  kogazi qimatnok guzasht karda  shudaast  –  ba  indossat.  Indossament  blankavi  (biduni zikri shakhse,  ki talaboti u boyad ijro shavad) yo orderi (bo zikri shakhse, ki talabot yo farmoni u boyad ijro gardad) buda   metavonad.

Indossament metavonad tanho bo suporishi tatbiqi huquqi dar kogazi qimatnok  tasdiqshuda  biduni guzasht kardani in huquq ba indossat (indossamenti  suporishi)  mahdud karda shavad. Dar in holat indossat ba sifati namoyanda amal mekunad.

 

Moddai 161. Ijroi uhdadori az kogazi qimatnok
  1. Shakhse, ki kogazi qimatnokro dodaast va tamomi ashkhose, ki onro indossatsiya kardaand, dar  nazdi  sohibi qonuniash masuliyati mushtarak dorand. Dar surati talaboti sohibi qonunii kogazi qimatnokro dar mavridi ijroi uhdadorihoi dar on tasdiqgardida yak yo yakchand shakhs az jumlai ashkhose, ki az rui kogazi qimatnok to u masuliyat girifta budand, qone gardonand, onho nisbati shakhsi boqimondae, ki az rui kogazi qimatnok uhdadori qabul kardaand, huquqi peshnihod kardani  talaboti  bozpas  (regress)–ro sohib meshavand.
  2. Sarkashi az ijroi uhdadorii tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnok bo istinod ba  asos  nadoshtani uhdadori yo beetibor budani on roh doda nameshavad.

Dorandai kogazi qimatnok, ki ivaz yo sokhtakorii kogazi qimatnokro oshkor namudaast, haq dorad az shakhsi kogazro ba u supurda ba tavri dakhldor ijroi   uhdadorihoi tasdiqnamudai kogazi qimatnok va jubroni  ziyonro talab namoyad.

  1. Huquq az rui kogazi qimatnoke, ki dar dasti sohibi gayriqonuni ast, tatbiq karda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 162. Barqaror namudani kogazi qimatnok

Huquq az rui kogazhoi qimatnoki manzuri va kogazhoi qimatnoki orderii gumshudaro sud, bo tartibi dar qonunhoi murofiavi peshbinigardida barqaror menamoyad.

 

Moddai 163. Kogazhoi qimatnoki behujjat
  1. Dar holathoi muayyannamudai qonun yo muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarkardai on tashkilot – depozitarie, ki ijozatnoma (litsenziya)-i makhsus giriftaast, mutobiqi shartnoma bo emitent (shartnomai  depozitari) huquqi bo kogazi qimatnoki nomi yo orderi dodashavandaro, az jumla be hujjat (bo yorii  vositahoi tekhnikai   hisobbarori elektroni va gayra) sabt karda metavonad.

Nisbati chunin shakli sabti huquq, agar az khususiyathoi sabt tartibi digare barnaoyad,  qoidahoe istifoda meshavand,  ki dar hamin Kodeks  va qonunhoi digar  baroi kogazhoi qimatnok  muqarrar gardidaand.

Sabti huquq bo darkhosti emitent yo shakhsi ba sifati dorandai huquqi dakhldor baqayd  giriftashuda  ba kogazi qimatnok barobar  karda  meshavad  va  baroi  tatbiqu guzashti huquq az rui kogazi qimatnok kifoya meboshad. Bo talabi sohibi huquq depozitariy vazifador  ast,  ki  ba  u hujjati tasdiqkunandai sabti huquqro dihad.

Huquqi bo rohi sabt dar  nazdi  depozitariy  tasdiqshavanda, tartibi faoliyati depozitariyhoi kogazhoi qimatnok va ba onho dodani ijozatnoma (litsenziya) baroi anjomi ahdho  bo kogazhoi qimatnok va  tartibi sabti  rasmii  huquq  va  huquqdor az jonibi  depozitariy va tartibi anjomi ahdho bo kogazhoi  qimatnoki behujjat mutobiqi qonun yo bo tartibi muqarrarnamudai on muayyan karda meshavand.

  1. Ahdho bo kogazhoi qimatnoki behujjat  tanho  dar   surati murojiat ba depozitarii  rasman  sabtkunandai  huquq metavonad anjom doda shavad. Tatbiq, guzasht kardan va  mahdud  kardani huquq  boyad  az  jonibi  depozitariy rasman sabt karda shavad. Depozitariy baroi mahfuzi sabti  rasmi, tamini makhfi  doshtani  on,  dodani malumoti durust dar borai chunin sabtho va baroi sabti rasmii ahdhoi anjomdoda  masul meboshad.

 

  1. NAMUDHOI ALOHIDAI KOGAZHOI QIMATNOK

 

Moddai  164. Vombarg (khorij karda shud bo Qonuni ChT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247).

 

Moddai 165. Chek  (khorij karda shud bo Qonuni ChT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247).

 

Moddai 166. Veksel (khorij karda shud bo Qonuni ChT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247).

 

Moddai 167.  Sahmiya
  1. Kogazi qimatnoke sahmiya etirof karda  meshavad,  ki huquqi dorandai  onro  (sahmdorro)  baroi  dar shakli dividend giriftani yak qismi foidai jamiyati sahhomi,  baroi ishtirok dar idorai korhoi jamiyati sahhomi, inchunin ba qismi molu mulki badi barham  dodani on boqimonda tasdiq menamoyad.

Sahmiyaho metavonand manzuri yo nomi, ozodona muomilotshavanda yo doroi doirai mahdudi muomilot boshand.

  1. Jamiyati sahhomi metavonad dar doirai muqarrarnamudai qonun sahmiyahoi imtiyoznoke barorad, ki ba dorandagoni onho, sarfi nazar  az natijai faoliyati jamiyati sahhomi,  chun qoida bo sabti foizi  arzishi nominalii sahmiya  giriftani  dividendro kafolat medihad, inchunin ba onho huquqi nisbat ba sahmdoroni digar afzaliyatnoki giriftani qismi molu mulki pas az barhamdihii jamiyati sahhomi  boqimonda va huquqhoi digari dar sharthoi barovardani chunin sahmiyaho peshbinigardidaro medihad.

Agar dar oinnomai jamiyati sahhomi tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, sahmiyahoi afzaliyatnok ba dorandagonashon baroi ishtirok dar  idorai korhoi jamiyat huquq namedihand.

 

Moddai 168. Konosament

Konosament hujjati idorakunii  mol  meboshad,  ki huquqi dorandai qonunii onro dar mavridi idora kardani  bori  dar konosament zikrgardida va giriftani  bor  pas  az hamlu naqli on tasdiq menamoyad.

Konosament metavonad  manzuri, orderi yo nomi boshad.

Agar konosament yakchand nuskhai asli tartib doda shuda boshad, badi dodani bor az rui konosamenti avval  nuskhahoi boqimonda beetibor meshavand.

 

Moddai 169. Sertifikati bonki

Sertifikati bonki shahodatnomai khattii bonk dar borai pasandozi mablag meboshad,  ki huquqi amonatguzorro badi guzashtani mqhlati muqarrarshuda baroi az har muassisai hamin bonk giriftani mablagi pasandoz va foizi onro tasdiq   menamoyad.

Sertifikathoi bonki metavonand manzuri yo nomi boshand.

 

§ 5. NEMATHOI GAYRIMODDI VA HIFZI ONHO

 

Moddai 170. Nemathoi gayrimoddi
  1. Hayot va salomati, etibori shakhsi,  shanu sharaf, masuniyati shakhsi, nomusu  nomi  nek,  etibori kori,  dakhlnopazirii hayoti shakhsi, sirri shakhsi va oilavi,  huquqi joyivazkuni va intikhobi ozodi istiqomatu mahalli  zist,  huquqi doshtani  nomdori, huquqi muallifi, digar huquqhoi shakhsii gayrimoddi va nemathoi digari gayrimoddi, ki ba shahrvand az ruzi tavallud yo bo hukmi qonun taalluq dorand, begona  karda yo  ba tariqi digar guzasht karda nameshavand. Dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun huquqi shakhsii gayrimolu mulki va nemathoi digari gayrimoddii  shakhsi  favtidaro shakhsi digar, az jumla vorisoni sohibhuquq tatbiq va hifz karda metavonand.
  2. Nemathoi gayrimoddi mutobiqi hamin Kodeks va qonunhoi digar dar holatho va bo tartibi peshbininamudai onho, inchunin dar holatho va ba on andozae muhofizat karda meshavand, ki istifodai usulhoi muhofizati huquqi grajdani (moddai 12) az mohiyati huquqi gayrimoddii vayrongardida va khususiyati oqibathoi in vayronkui barmeoyad.

 

Moddai 171.  Jubroni ziyoni manavi

Agar ba shahrvand dar natijai amalhoi vayronkunandai huquqi shakhsii gayrimoddii u yo ba nemathoi digari gayrimoddii shahrvand tahdidkunanda ziyoni manavi (azobu shikanjai jismoni  yo ruhi) rasonida shuda boshad, inchunin dar holathoi digari peshbininamudai qonun sud metavonad shakhsi huquqvayronkardaro vazifador sozad, ki in ziyonro jubron namoyad.

Hangomi muayyan namudani andozai jubroni ziyoni manavi sud darajai gunohi shakhsi vayronkardai huquq va holathoi digari qobili tavajjuhro ba nazar megirad. Sud hamchunin boyad darajai azobu shikanjai jismoni va ruhii marbut ba  khususiyathoi infirodii shakhsi jabrdidaro ba nazar girad.

 

Moddai 172. Hifzi huquqi shakhsii  gayrimolu mulki
  1. Shakhse, ki huquqi shakhsii gayrimolu mulkiash vayron shudaast, ba gayr az  tartibi dar moddai 12 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida muvofiqi qoidahoi hamin  Kodeks  inchunin  ba jubroni ziyoni manavi huquq dorad.
  2. Huquqi shakhsi gayri molu mulkiro sud bo tartibi peshbininamudai qonunhoi murofiai grajdani muhofizat menamoyad.
  3. Huquqi shakhsii gayri molu mulki sarfi nazar az gunohi shakhsi vayronnamudai huquq hifz karda meshavad. Shakhse, ki hifzi huquqro talab kardaast, boyad daleli  vayron  gardidani  huquqi shakhsii gayri molu mulkiashro isbot kunad.
  4. Shakhse, ki huquqi gayri molu mulkiash vayron gardidaast, metavonad bo khosti khud rafi oqibati onro az shakhsi gunahkor talab namoyad yo az hisobi gunahkor mustaqilona amalhoi zaruriro anjom dihad va yo ijroi onhoro ba shakhsi seyum suporad.

 

Moddai 173. Huquqhoi shakhsii gayri molu mulkie, ki ba huquqi molu mulki aloqamandand

Dar surati hamzamon vayron gardidani huquqi shakhsi gayri molu mulki va molu mulki, andozai jubroni ziyoni molu mulki bo darnazardoshti jubronpulie, ki boyad ba jabrdida baroi khalaldor kardani huquqi shakhsii gayri molu mulkiash pardokhta  shavad,  ziyod  meshavad.

 

Moddai 174. Hifzi shanu sharaf va etibori kori
  1. Agar shakhsi pahnkardai malumote,  ki  shanu  sharaf  yo etibori korii   shahrvandro past mezanand, durustii chunin malumotro ba isbot narasonad,  shahrvand haq dorad  az tariqi sud raddiyai chunin malumotro talab kunad.

Bo talabi shakhsi manfiatdor hifzi  shanu  sharafi  shahrvand pas az vafotash niz imkonpazir ast.

  1. Agar malumote, ki shanu sharaf yo etibori  korii shahrvandro past mezanand, az tariqi vositahoi akhbori umum  pahn gardida boshand, onho boyad  dar  hamon  vositahoi akhbori umum bemuzd  rad karda shavand.

Agar malumoti  mazkur  dar  hujjati tashkilot darj gardida boshad, chunin hujjat boyad ivaz yo bozkhonda shavad.

Tartibi raddiyaro  dar  holathoi digar sud muqarrar menamoyad.

  1. Shahrvande, ki vositahoi akhbori umum dar khususi u malumoti khalaldorkunandai huquq yo manfiathoi bo qonun hifzshavandaashro nashr kardaand, haq dorad dar hamon vositahoi akhbori umum javobi khudro nashr kunad.
  2. Talabi shahrvand yo shakhsi huquqiro dar mavridi nashri raddiya yo javob dar vositai akhbori umum dar surate sud barrasi mekunad, ki maqomi akhbori umum nashri onro rad   kunad, yo dar davomi yak moh nashr nakarda va yo barham doda boshad.
  3. Agar qarori sud ijro nashuda boshad, sud haq dorad gunahkorro jarima bandad,  ki  ba andoza  va  bo tartibi peshbininamudai qonunhoi murofiavi ba nafi Jumhurii Tojikiston ruyonida meshavad. Pardokhti jarima gunahkorro az uhdadorii ijroi amali dar qarori sud peshbinigardida ozod namekunad.
  4. Shahrvande, ki dar khususi u malumoti pastzanandai shanu sharaf yo etibori koriash pahn gardidaast, haq dorad dar barobari raddiyai chunin malumot jubroni ziyoni manavii az pahn kardani onho rasidaro niz talab namoyad.
  5. Agar muayyan namudani shakhsi pahnkardai malumote, ki shanu sharaf  yo etibori  korii shahrvandro past mezanad, imkonnopazir boshad, shakhse, ki dar boraash chunin malumot pahn gardidaast, metavonad baroi nodurust donistani malumoti pahngardida ba sud murojiat namoyad.
  6. Qoidahoi hamin modda dar khususi hifzi etibori korii shahrvand mutobiqan dar mavridi hifzi etibori korii shakhsi huquqi niz istifoda meshavand.
Moddai 1741. Hifzi shanu sharaf hangomi tuhmat yo tahqir

Shanu sharaf va etibori kori hangomi tuhmat, yane didayu donista pahn kardani malumoti bardurug, ki shanu sharaf va etibori shakhsi digarro past mezanad yo tahqir, yane beadabona bo alfozi qabeh past zadani shanu sharaf va etibori shakhsi digar tibqi talaboti moddahoi 170, 171, va 174 Kodeksi mazkur hifz  karda meshavand.( QJT az 28.12.12s №928)

 

Moddai 175. Huquqi hifzi sirri hayoti shakhsi
  1. Shahrvand ba hifzi sirri hayoti shakhsi, az jumla dakhlnopazirii mukotibot, guftushunidhoi telefoni, sirri ruznomaho, qaydho, ruqaho, hayoti mahramona, pisarkhoni, tavallud, sirri tibbi, advokati va  sirri  pasandozho huquq dorad.

Fosh kardani  sirri hayoti  shakhsi tanho dar holathoi muqarrarnamudai sanadi qonuni mumkin ast.

  1. Nashri ruznomaho, ruqaho, qaydho va hujjathoi digar tanho bo rizoiyati muallifi onho, nashri maktubho boshad, bo rizoiyati muallif va unvoni (adresat) roh doda meshavad. Dar surati vafot  kardani yake az onho hujjathoi mazkurro bo rizoiyati hamsari dar qaydi hayot buda va farzandoni marhum nashr kardan mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 176. Huquq ba tasviri shakhsi
  1. Hej kas huquq nadorad, ki tasviri yagon shakhsero be rizoiyati u, dar surati vafoti u boshad, be rizoiyati vorisonash  istifoda namoyad.
  2. Nashr namudan, nuskha bardoshtan va pahn kardani asari tasvirie (rasm, aksi fotografi, kinofilm va gayra), ki dar on shakhsi digar tasvir yoftaast, tanho bo rizoiyati shakhsi tasviryofta, pas az vafotash boshad, bo rizoiyati farzandon va hamsari dar qaydi hayot budai u ijozat doda meshavad. Agar in dar qonun muqarrar gardida boshad, yo shakhsi tasviryofta bar ivazi muzd khudro akkosi kunonda boshad, chunin  rizoiyat talab karda   nameshavad.

 

Moddai 177. Huquqi dakhlnopazirii manzil

Shahrvand huquqi dakhlnopazirii manzilro doro ast, yane u huquq dorad, ki ba gayr az holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, kushishhoi biduni khohishi u zuran ba  manzilash vorid shudani kasro peshgiri namoyad.

 

ZERFASLI 3. AHDHO. NAMOYaNDAGI

 

BOBI 7. AHDHO

 

§ 1. MAFHUM, NAVHO VA ShAKLI AHD

 

Moddai 178. Mafhumi ahd

Amali shahrvandon  va  shakhsi huquqi, ki ba muqarrar namudan, tagyir dodan yo qat namudani huququ uhdadorihoi grajdani ravona gardidaast, ahd donista meshavad.

 

Moddai 179. Navhoi ahd
  1. Ahd metavonad yaktarafa,  dutarafa  yo  bisyortarafa   (shartnomaho) boshand.
  2. Ahde yaktarafa donista meshavad, ki baroi anjomi on mutobiqi qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho ifodai irodai yak taraf zarur yo kifoya meboshad.
  3. Baroi bastani shartnoma ifodai irodai muvofiqashudai du taraf (ahdi dutarafa)  yo  se  taraf  va  yo  beshtar  az on   (ahdi bisyortarafa) zarur ast.

 

Moddai 180. Uhdadori az rui ahdi yaktarafa

Ahdi yaktarafa baroi shakhsi anjomdodai ahdho uhdadorihoro ba  miyon  meorad. On uhdadorihoro baroi shakhsi digar tanho dar holathoi muqarrarnamudai qonun yo sozishnomai in ashkhos ba miyon ovarda metavonad.

 

Moddai 181. Tanzimi huquqii ahdi yaktarafa

Nisbati ahdi yaktarafa  mutobiqan muqarraroti umumi dar borai uhdadoriho va shartnomaho (fasli III)  istifoda  meshavand, zero in khilofi qonun, tabiat va mohiyati ahd nest.

 

Moddai 182. Ahdi bo shartu sharoit bastashuda
  1. Agar tarafho ba miyon omadani huququ uhdadoriro az sharte vobasta donand, ki faro rasidan yo narasidani on malum nest, ahd bo sharti batakhir anjomdodashuda etirof karda meshavad.
  2. Agar tarafho qati huququ uhdadoriro ba sharte vobasta karda boshand, ki faro rasidan yo narasidani on malum nest, ahd bo sharti bekorkuni anjomyofta etirof karda meshavad.
  3. Agar ba faro rasidani shart tarafe bevijdonona mone shuda boshad, ki faro rasidani on ba manfiatash nest, shart farorasida etirof karda meshavad.

Agar ba faro rasidani shart tarafe bevijdonona musoidat karda boshad,  ki  faro rasidani  on  ba  manfiatash ast,  shart  faro narasida etirof karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 183. Shakli ahd
  1. Ahd shifohi (dahoni) yo khatti (oddi yo notariali) basta meshavad.
  2. Ahde, ki mumkin ast shifohi basta shavad, dar on surat niz anjomyofta donista meshavad, ki raftori shakhs ba azmu khohishi bastani ahd shahodat medihad.
  3. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho sukut ifodai irodai bastani ahd donista meshavad.
  4. Agar dar qonun tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, ahde, ki bo dodani jeton, chipta (bilet) yo alomati digari odatan qabulshuda tasdiq gardidaast, anjomdodashuda etirof karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 184. Ahdi shifohi
  1. Ahde, ki dar qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho baroi on shakli khatti (oddi yo notariali) muqarrar nagardidaast, metavonad shifohi basta shavad.
  2. Agar dar sozishnomai  tarafho tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, hamai  ahdhoi hangomi  bastan ijroshavanda, ba istisnoi ahdhoe, ki baroi onho shakli  notariali muqarrar shudaast va ahdhoe, ki binobar rioya  nakardani shakli oddii  khattiashon  beetibor  megardand, metavonand ba tavri shifohi basta shavand.
  3. Ahd bo maqsadi ijroi shartnomai dar shakli khatti bastashuda bo muvofiqai tarafho mumkin ast shifohi basta shavad, ba sharte ki in  khilofi qonun  yo  shartnoma  naboshad.

 

Moddai 185. Shakli khattii ahd
  1. Ahdi khatti boyad bo tartib dodani hujjate basta shavad, ki mavzui onro ifoda karda, az jonibi yak yo jami kasi ahdbasta yo shakhsi ba tariqi  dakhldor  vakolatdori onho imzo shudaast.

Dar qonunho va sozishnomai tarafho mumkin ast talaboti ilovagie, ki shakli ahd boyad ba on mutobiqat namoyad (dar blankai doroi shakli muayyan  ba imzo rasondan,  muhr guzoshtan va gayra) muqarrar gardida, oqibati rioya nakardani in talabot peshbini karda shavad. Agar dar qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho chunin oqibat peshbini  nagardida boshad, pas oqibati rioya nakardani shakli oddii ahdi khatti istifoda meshavad.

  1. Hangomi bastani ahd istifodai aksi aynii imzo bo yorii vositahoi nuskhabardorii mekhaniki yo vositai digar, imzoi elektroniyu raqami yo shakli digari imzoi shakhsi dar holatho va muvofiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho roh doda meshavad.
  2. Agar dar qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho tartibi digare muqarrar nagardida boshad, mubodilai  maktub, barqiya (telegramma), telefonogramma, teletaypogramma,   faks va hujjathoi digari muayyankunandai subektho va mavzui ifodai irodaashon  ba shakli khattii anjomi ahdbandi barobar karda meshavad.
  3. Agar shahrvand bo sababi illati jismoni,  bemori yo besavodi shakhsan imzo guzoshta natavonad, bo khohishi u ahdro shahrvandi digar  imzo karda metavonad.

Imzoi in shahrvand boyad az jonibi notarius yo mansabdori digari baroi  anjomi chunin amali notariali haqdoshta bo zikri sababhoe, ki ahdkunanda bo dasti khud imzo karda natavonistaast, tasdiq karda shavad.

Vale hangomi bastani ahdi dar qismi 4, moddai 210 hamin  Kodeks zikrgardida va dodani  vakolatnoma baroi bastani onho imzoi shakhse, ki ahdro imzo mekunad,  inchunin mumkin ast az jonibi tashkilote, ki dar on shahrvandi bo dasti khud imzo karda nametavonista kor mekunad yo az jonibi mamuriyati muassisai tabobatii statsionarie,  ki u dar on  tabobat  meyobad,  tasdiq karda shavad.

 

Moddai 186. Ahde, ki dar shakli khattii oddi anjom doda meshavand
  1. Ahdhoi zerin ba istisnoi ahde, ki tasdiqi notarialiro talab mekunad, boyad dar shakli oddii khatti basta shavand:

a) ahdi shakhsi huquqi bayni khud va bo shahrvandon;

b) ahdi bayni shahrvandon ba mablage,  ki az andozai bo qonun muqarrargardidai nishondihanda baroi hisobho na kamtar az bist marotiba beshtar ast va dar  holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, – sarfi nazar az mablagi ahd. (QJT az 03.07.2012s., №850)

  1. Baroi ahde, ki mutobiqi moddai 184 hamin Kodeks  metavonad ba  tavri  shifohi basta shavad, rioyai shakli  oddii khatti talab karda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 187. Oqibati rioya nakardani shakli oddii ahdi khatti
  1. Rioya nakardani shakli  oddii  ahdi  khatti tarafhoro az huquqi  dar  mavridi  bahs  jihati tasdiqi ahd va sharthoi on az istinod ba bayonoti shohidon mahrum mesozad, vale onhoro az huquqi ovardani dalelhoi khatti  va dalelhoi digar  mahrum namesozad.
  2. Dar holathoi bevosita dar qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho zikrgardida rioya nakardani shakli oddii ahdi khatti on beetibor megardad.
  3. Rioya nakardani shakli oddii ahdi khattii robitai iqtisodii khoriji onro beetibor megardonad.

 

Moddai 188. Ahdi dar notarius tasdiqshuda
  1. Ahdhoi az jonibi notarius tasdiqgardida bo rohi dar hujjati ba talaboti moddai 185 hamin Kodeks  mutobiqatkunanda   az jonibi  notarius  yo  mansabdori  baroi anjomi  chunin amali  notariali huquqdoshta sabt  kardani  navishtajoti  tasdiqkunanda anjom doda meshavand.
  2. Tasdiqi notarialii ahd dar holati zayl hatmist:

a) dar holathoe, ki dar qonun zikr gardidaast;

b) bo talabi har yake az tarafho.

 

Moddai 189. Baqaydgirii davlatii ahdho
  1. Ahdho bo molu mulki gayrimanqul (begona kardan, ipoteka, ijorai darozmuddat, meros giriftan va gayra) boyad ba qaydi davlati girifta shavand.

Tartibi baqaydgirii ahdho bo molu mulki gayrimanqul  va tartib dodani fehrasti dakhldor bo qonun muayyan karda meshavad.

  1. Dar qonunho mumkin ast baqaydgirii davlatii ahdhoi vobasta bo namudhoi muayyani molu mulki manqula muqarrar karda shavad.

 

Moddai 190. Oqibati rioya nakardani shakli notarialii ahd va talaboti baqaydgirii on
  1. Rioya nakardani shakli notariali yo talaboti baqaydgirii davlatii ahd boisi beetiborii on   megardad. Chunin ahd beetibor donista meshavad.
  2. Agar yake az tarafho ahdero, ki tasdiqi notarialiro talab mekunad, purra yo qisman ijro karda,  tarafi digar az barrasmiyatdarorii ahd sarkashi namoyad, sud haq dorad, ki bo talabi tarafi  ijronamudai ahd chunin ahdro boetibor donad. Dar in holat barasmiyatdarorii minbadai ahd  zarur   nest.
  3. Agar ahde, ki baqaydgirii davlatiro talab mekunad, dar shakli dakhldor basta shuda boshad, vale yake az tarafho az baqaydgirii on sarkashi namoyad, sud haq dorad bo talabi tarafi digar dar khususi ba qayd giriftani on qaror qabul kunad. Dar in holat ahd mutobiqi qarori sud ba qayd girifta meshavad.
  4. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qismhoi 2 va 3 hamin modda tarafe, ki beasos az tasdiqi notariali yo ba qaydgirii davlatii ahd sarkashi menamoyad, boyad ba tarafi  digar ziyoni az takhiri bastani ahd va ba qaydgiri rasidaro jubron namoyad.

 

§ 2. AHDHOI BEETIBOR VA OQIBATHOI HUQUQII ONHO

 

Moddai 191. Ahdhoi bahsnok va beetibor
  1. Ahd az rui asoshoi muqarrarnamudai hamin Kodeks bo sababi onro beetibor donistani sud (ahdi mavridi bahs) yo sarfi nazar az chunin etirof (ahdi  beetibor) beetibor donista meshavad.
  2. Talabi beetibor donistani ahdi bahsnok metavonad ba shakhsi dar hamin Kodeks zikrgardida peshnihod karda shavad.

Istifodai oqibati ahdi beetiborro har shakhsi manfiatdor talab karda metavonad. Sud  haq dorad, ki chunin oqibatro bo tashabbusi khud istifoda namoyad.

 

Moddai 192. Muqarraroti umumi dar borai oqibati beetiborii ahd
  1. Ahdi beetibor, ba istisnoi oqibate, ki bo beetiborii on aloqamand ast, boisi oqibati huquqi namegardad va az lahzai basta shudanash beetibor meboshad.
  2. Dar surati beetiborii ahd, agar dar qonun oqibati digari beetibori peshbini nagardida boshand, har taraf vazifador ast, ki ba tarafi digar tamomi molu mulki az rui ahd giriftaashro bargardonad va agar dar shakli asl (natura) bargardonidani molu mulki giriftashuda imkonnopazir boshad (az jumla dar holate ki ashyoi girifta dar istifodai  molu mulk,  kori  ijroshuda yo  khizmatrasoni  ifoda gardida boshad),  arzishi onro bo pul jubron namoyad.
  3. Agar az mazmuni ahdi bahsnok malum gardad, ki on minbad metavonad qat karda shavad, sud ahdro beetibor donista, amali onro baroi davrai oyanda qat menamoyad.

 

Moddai 193. Beetiborii ahdi khilofi qonun

Ahde, ki  khilofi talaboti qonun ast, etibor nadorad ba sharte ki qonun bahsnok budani chunin ahdro muqarrar nanamoyad yo dar on oqibati digari   qonunshikani peshbini  nagardida boshad.

Moddai 194. Beetiborii ahdi bar khilofi asoshoi tartiboti huquqi va akhloq bastashuda

Ahde, ki oshkoro bar khilofi asoshoi tartiboti huquqi yo akhloq basta shudaast, etibor nadorad.

Dar surati niyati garaznok doshtani har du tarafi chunin ahd, agar ahdro har du taraf ijro karda boshand, tamomi daromadi az in ahd badastovardai onho ba hisobi daromadi davlat ruyonida meshavad va agar ahdro yak taraf ijro karda boshad, az tarafi  digar tamomi daromad va molu mulki giriftaash va tamomi molu mulke, ki on meboist bar ivazi daromad va molu mulki giriftashuda ba tarafi avval dihad, ba foidai davlat ruyonida meshavad.

Dar surati niyati garaznok doshtani tanho yak tarafi chunin ahd, on  boyad  tamomi daromadi az rui ahd giriftaashro ba tarafi digar bargardonad, ammo daromade, ki tarafi garaznok amal karda giriftaast  yo boyad muvofiqi ahdi ijroshuda megirift, ba on doda shavad,  ba foidai davlat ruyonida meshavad.

 

Moddai 195. Beetiborii ahdhoi ruyaki va qalbaki bastashuda
  1. Ahdi ruyaki, yane ahde, ki tanho ruyaki, biduni niyati baroi on bunyod namudani oqibati dakhldori huquqi basta shudaast, etibor nadorad.
  2. Ahdi qalbaki, yane ahde, ki bo maqsadi ruypush namudani ahdi digar basta shudaast, etibor nadorad. Nisbati ahde, ki tarafho voqean dar nazar  doshta  budand, bo nazardoshti khususiyati ahd,  qoidahoi  ba  on  dakhldor  istifoda meshavand.

 

Moddai 196. Beetiborii ahde, ki shahrvandi gayri qobili amal etirofgardida  bastaast
  1. Ahde, ki shahrvandi dar natijai bemorii ruhi gayri qobili amal etirofgardida bastaast, etibor nadorad.

Har yake az tarafhoi chunin ahd vazifador ast, ki ba tarafi digar tamomi  molu mulki giriftaashro dar shakli asl (natura) bargardonad va dar surati  imkonnopazirii dar shakli natura bargardonidani molu mulki giriftashuda  arzishi onro bo pul jubron namoyad.

Agar tarafi qobili amal gayri qobili amal budani tarafi digarro donista boshad yo  meboist donad, tarafi qobili amal gayr az in vazifador ast,  ki ba tarafi digar ziyoni voqeii ba on rasonidashudaro jubron namoyad.

  1. Ba manfiati shahrvande, ki bo sababi bemorii ruhi gayri qobili amal etirof gardidaast, ahdi bastai u bo talabi vasiash az tarafi sud boetibor etirof karda meshavad, agar chunin ahd ba foidai on basta shuda boshad.

 

Moddai 197. Beetiborii ahde, ki  noboligi to chordahsola bastaast
  1. Ahde, ki nobolig (khurdsol)-i to chordahsola narasida bastaast, etibor nadorad. Nisbati chunin ahd qoidahoi dar sarsatrhoi duyum va seyumi qismi 1, moddai 196 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida tatbiq meshavand.
  2. Agar ahdi bastai khurdsol ba manfiatash boshad, sud metavonad bo talabi volidayn, farzandkhondagon yo vasii u ahdi bastaashro, ki ba manfiati u ast, boetibor etirof namoyad.
  3. Qoidahoi hamin modda ba ahdhoi khurdi maishi va ahdhoi digari khurdsolon, ki onho mutobiqi moddai 29 hamin Kodeks ba mustaqilona bastani onho haq dorand, dakhl nadorad.

 

Moddai 198. Beetiborii ahdi shakhsi huquqi, ki berun az qobiliyati huquqdoriash basta ast

Ahdero, ki shakhsi huquqi khilofi maqsadi faoliyati dar hujjathoi tasisii on aniq mahdudgardida yo shakhsi huquqie bastaast, ki baroi mashgul shudan ba faoliyati dakhldor ijozatnoma (litsenziya) nadorad, agar isbot   shuda boshad,  ki tarafi digari ahd gayriqonuni budani onro medonist yo baralo meboist donad, bo davoi in shakhsi huquqi, muassis (ishtirokchi) on yo maqomi davlatii ba faoliyati shakhsi huquqi nazoratkunanda sud metavonad beetibor etirof namoyad.

 

Moddai 199. Oqibati mahdud kardani vakolat baroi bastani ahd

Agar vakolati shakhs baroi bastani ahd  bo shartnoma yo vakolati maqomi shakhsi  huquqi  bo hujjathoi tasisi on dar muqoisa bo vakolathoi dar vakolatnoma yo qonun muayyanshuda mahdud  gardida boshad yo vobasta ba sharoiti bastani ahdho tibqi qonun yaqin donistani on mumkin boshad va chunin shakhs yo maqom az doirai in mahdudiyatho baroyad, sud bo davoi shakhse, ki mahdudiyatho ba manfiati u muqarrar gardidaand,  tanho dar holate  metavonad  ahdro beetibor etirof namoyad, ki tarafi digari ahd  dar khususi  mahdudiyathoi  mazkur   baralo medonist yo  meboist donad.

 

Moddai 200. Beetiborii ahde, ki noboligi az chordah to hajdahsola  bastaast
  1. Ahde, ki noboligi az chordah to hajdahsola biduni rizoi volidayn, farzandkhondagon yo  parastoroni khud bastaast, agar chunin rizoyat mutobiqi moddai  27  hamin Kodeks zarur boshad, mumkin ast bo davoi volidayn, farzandkhondagon yo  parastoron az jonibi sud beetibor donista shavad.  Agar chunin ahd beetibor   donista  shavad,  mutobiqan qoidahoi dar sarsatrhoi duyum va seyumi qismi 1,  moddai  196  hamin  Kodeks  peshbinigardida tatbiq meshavand.
  2. Qoidahoi hamin modda ba ahdhoi noboligone, ki doroi qobiliyati purrai amal gardidaand (qismi 2,  moddai  22, moddai 28  hamin   Kodeks), dakhl nadorand.

 

Moddai 201. Beetiborii ahde, ki shahrvandi qobiliyati amalash az jonibi sud mahdudgardida bastaast

 

  1. Ahdi ikhtiyordorii molu mulkro, ki shahrvandi qobiliyati amalash dar natijai suiistemoli mashrubot, vositahoi nashador, moddahoi psikhotropi va prekursorho yo moddahoi digari madhushkunanda az jonibi sud mahdudgardida biduni rizoii parastorash bastaast, sud  metavonad  bo  davoi  parastor beetibor   etirof namoyad. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

Agar chunin ahd beetibor donista shavad, mutobiqan qoidahoi dar qismi 1, moddai 200 hamin  Kodeks peshbinigardida tatbiq meshavand.

  1. Qoidahoi hamin modda ba ahdhoi khurdi maishie, ki shahrvandi qobiliyati amalash mahdudkardashuda mutobiqi moddai 31 hamin Kodeks haq dorad, mustaqilona bandad, dakhl nadorand.

 

Moddai 202. Beetiborii  ahde,  ki  shahrvand  baroi  darki ahamiyati amali khud yo  idora kardani on qobiliat nadoshta bastaast
  1. Sud metavonad ahdi shahrvandero, ki qobili amal boshad ham, vale dar lahzai bastani on dar holate qaror dosht,  ki amalhoi khudro dark namekard yo ba idorai  onho qobiliyat nadosht, bo davoi in shahrvand yo shakhsi digare, ki huquq yo manfiati qonunan hifzshavandaashon dar natijai bastani on khalaldor gardidaand, beetibor donad.
  2. Agar isbot gardad,  ki  dar  lahzai  bastani  ahd shahrvand baroi darki ahamiyati amali khud yo idorai on qodir nabud, sud metavonad ahdi bastai shahrvandero, ki badan gayri qobili amal etirof gardidaast, bo davoi vasii u beetibor donad.
  3. Agar ahd dar asosi hamin modda beetibor donista shavad, mutobiqan qoidahoi bandhoi yakum va duyumi qismi 1, moddai 196 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida istifoda meshavand.

 

Moddai 203. Beetiborii ahde, ki dar natijai gumrohi  basta shudaast
  1. Sud metavonad ahdi  dar natijai gumrohi bastaro, ki ahamiyati muhim dorad, bo davoi tarafe, ki dar asari gumrohi amal kardaast, beetibor etirof namoyad.

Gumrohi doir ba tabiati ahd,  shabohat  yo chunin  sifathoi predmeti on doroi ahamiyati muhim meboshand, ki imkoniyathoi az rui tainot istifoda  namudani onro  khele kam mekunand. Gumrohi doir ba sababhoi ahd doroi ahamiyati muhim nameboshad.

  1. Agar ahd hamchun  ahdi bar asari gumrohi bastashuda beetibor  donista  shavad,  mutobiqan qoidahoi dar qismi 2, moddai 192 hamin  Kodeks peshbinigardida  tatbiq meshavand.

Gayr az in, tarafe,  ki  bo  davoi  on  ahd  beetibor   donista shudaast,  agar isbot kunad, ki gumrohi bo gunohi tarafi digar ruy dodaast,  haq dorad az tarafi digar  jubroni ziyoni voqeiro talab namoyad. Agar in isbot nashuda boshad, tarafe, ki bo davoi on ahd beetibor donista shudaast, hatto  agar gumrohi bar  asari vaziyate  rukh doda boshad,  ki ba tarafi  gumrohshuda vobasta nest,  vazifador ast,  bo talabi  tarafi  digar   ziyoni voqeii ba on rasidaro jubron namoyad.

 

Moddai 204. Beetiborii ahde, ki bo fireb, zurovari, tahdid, sozishi badqasdonai namoyandai yak taraf bo tarafi digar yo sharoiti vaznin basta shudaast
  1. Sud metavonad ahdero,  ki  bo  fireb, zurovari, tahdid, sozishi  badqasdonai  namoyandai  yak taraf bo tarafi digar basta shudaast,  inchunin ahdero, ki shakhs bo sababi sharoiti  vaznin  bo  sharthoi baroyash tamoman befoida,  majburan bastaast va  tarafi digar az on istifoda namudaast (ahdi asoratovar), bo davoi jabrdida beetibor donad.
  2. Agar ahd bo yake az asoshoi dar qismi 1 hamin modda zikrgardida beetibor donista shavad, tarafi digar ba jabrdida tamomi molu mulki az rui ahd giriftaashro barmegardonad va agar bargardonidani  molu mulk  imkonnopazir  boshad, arzishi onro bo pul jubron menamoyad.

Molu mulke, ki jabrdida az rui ahd az tarafi digar giriftaast, inchunin molu mulki ba tarafi digar dodai on, ki  boyad ba on  jubron karda shavad, ba foidai davlat ruyonida  meshavad. Dar surati imkonnopazirii dar shakli asl (natura) ba  foidai davlat  dodani  molu mulk  arzishi on  bo pul ruyonida meshavad. Gayr az in tarafi digar ba jabrdida ziyoni voqeii ba on rasonidashudaro jubron menamoyad.

 

Moddai 205. Oqibati beetiborii yak qismi ahd

Agar takhmin  kardan mumkin  boshad, ki ahd biduni dokhil kardani qismi beetibori on ham metavonist basta shavad, az in qismhoi digari ahd beetibor  namegardad.

 

Moddai 206. Muhlati davo az rui ahdhoi beetibor
  1. Davo dar mavridi istifodai oqibati beetiborii ahdi beetibor metavonad dar  davomi  se  soli pas az  ogozi ijroi on peshnihod karda shavad.
  2. Davo dar mavridi beetibor donistani ahdi bahsnok va istifodai oqibati beetiborii on dar davomi se soli pas az qat gardidani zurovari yo tahdide, ki ahd tahti tasiri  on  basta  shuda bud (qismi 1,  moddai 204) va yo az ruze, ki davogar dar khususi sharoiti digare, ki asosi beetibor donistani ahd meboshad, khabar yoftaast yo meboist khabar yobad, peshnihod karda  shudanash mumkin ast.

 

BOBI 8. NAMOYaNDAGI. VAKOLATNOMA

 

Moddai 207. Namoyandagi
  1. Ahde, ki yak  shakhs  (namoyanda) az nomi shakhsi digar  (vakilkunanda) dar asosi vakolati bo vakolatnoma, nishondodi qonun yo sanadi  maqomi vakolatdori davlati yo maqomi hokimiyati mahalli asosyofta basta shudaast, huququ uhdadorihoi grajdanii vakilkunandaro bevosita ba vujud meorad, tagyir  medihad yo qat megardonad.

Vakolat inchunin  metavonad  vobasta ba vaze  zohir  gardad,  ki  namoyanda dar on amal  mekunad  (furushanda dar  savdoi  chakana, khazinador (kassir) va gayra).

  1. Ashkhose, ki garchand ba manfiati digaron ast, vale az nomi khud amal mekunand (miyonaravoni tijorati, mudironi ozmun (tender) hangomi muflisi, vasiyon hangomi merosgiri va gayra), inchunin ashkhose, ki baroi anjomi guftushunid dar mavridi ahdhoi dar oyanda imkondoshta vakolatdor shudaand, namoyanda nameboshand (QJT az 23.07.16 s., №1334).
  2. Namoyanda az nomi vakolatdihanda ba manfiati  khud  ahd basta  nametavonad. U  chunin ahdhoro ba manfiati shakhsi digare, ki hamzamon namoyandai u niz meboshad, ba  istisnoi holathoi namoyandagii tijorati  basta nametavonad.
  3. Ba vositai namoyanda bastani ahde, ki bo khususiyati khud metavonad tanho shakhsan basta shavad, inchunin ahdhoi digari dar qonun zikrgardida roh doda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 208.  Ahd bastani shakhsi vakolat nadoshta
  1. Dar surati nabudani vakolati amal kardan az nomi shakhsi digar yo baromadan az doirai chunin vakolat, agar  shakhsi digar (vakolatdihanda)  minbad chunin  ahdro bevosita maqul donad, ahd az nomi shakhsi anjomdodai on va ba manfiati u suratgirifta etirof karda meshavad.
  2. Az jonibi shakhsi namoyandagikunanda minbad maqul donista shudani ahd baroi u huququ uhdadorihoi grajdaniro az rui in ahd az lahzai anjom doda shudanash ba vujud meorad, tagyir medihad va qat menamoyad.

 

Moddai 209. Namoyandagii tijorati
  1. Shakhse namoyandai tijorati meboshad, ki muntazam va mustaqilona az nomi sohibkoron hangomi bastani shartnoma dar sohai faoliyati sohibkori namoyandagi mekunad.
  2. Namoyandagii tijoratii tarafhoi mukhtalifi ahd hamzamon bo rizoyati in tarafho va dar holathoi digari dar qonun peshbinigardida roh doda meshavad. Zimnan namoyandai  tijorati vazifador ast, ki suporishi giriftaashro chun sohibkori muqarrari gamkhorona ijro kunad.

Namoyandai tijorati haq  dorad,  ki  az tarafhoi shartnoma ba hissahoi barobar pardokhtani mukofotpulii shartshuda va jubroni mablagi hangomi ijroi suporish kharjkardaashro, agar dar sozishnomai bayni onho tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, talab namoyad.

  1. Namoyandagii tijorati dar asosi shartnomae, ki dar shakli khatti basta  shuda,  nishondodhoro  ba vakolati namoyanda dar bar megirad va dar surati nabudani chunin nishondodho, inchunin dar  asosi vakolatnoma ba amal barovarda meshavad.

Namoyandai tijorati vazifador ast, ki malumoti baroyash malumgardidai ahdhoi tijoratiro pas az ijroi suporishi  giriftaash niz makhfi nigoh dorad.

  1. Khususiyathoi namoyandagii tijorati dar sohahoi alohidai faoliyati sohibkori bo qonun va sanadi digari huquqi muqarrar karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 210. Vakolatnoma
  1. Vakolatnoma az jonibi yak shakhs ba shakhsi digar dodani vakolati khatti baroi namoyandagi dar nazdi shakhsi seyum donista meshavad. Vakolatdihanda metavonad vakolatnomaro  baroi  ahd bastani namoyanda bevosita  ba shakhsi seyumi dakhldor dihad.
  2. Vakolatnoma baroi bastani ahde, ki shakli notarialiro talab mekunad, ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, boyad az jonibi notarius tasdiq karda shavad.
  3. Ba vakolatnomahoi tasdiqkardai notarius vakolatnomahoi zayl barobar karda meshavand:

a) vakolatnomai khizmatchiyoni harbi va shakhsi digari dar gospitalho, sanatoriyaho va muassisahoi digari harbii tabobati  muolijashavanda, ki az jonibi sardori chunin muassisa, muovini u oid ba qismi tibbi, sardukhtur yo dukhturi navbatdor tasdiq shudaast;

b) vakolatnomai khizmatchiyoni harbi va dar mahalhoi joygirshavii qismho, juzu tomho, muassisahoi harbi va talimgohhoi harbi, ki idorahoi notariali va maqomoti digari anjomdihandai amalhoi notariali nadorand, inchunin  vakolatnomai korgaronu khizmatchiyon, azoi oilahoi onho va azoi oilahoi khizmatchiyoni harbi, ki az jonibi komandiri (sardori)-i in qism, juzu tom, muassisa yo talimgoh tasdiq shudaand;

v) vakolatnomai shakhsi dar joyhoi az ozodi mahrumshudagon qarordoshta, ki  az  jonibi  sardori mahbaskhonai dakhldor  tasdiq kardaast;

g) vakolatnomai shahrvandoni boligi qobili amali dar muassisahoi hifzi  ijtimoii  aholi  qarordoshtae,  ki az jonibi mamuriyati in muassisa yo rohbari (muovini u)  maqomi  dakhldori hifzi ijtimoii aholi tasdiq gardidaast.

  1. Vakolatnoma baroi giriftani muzdi mehnat va pardokhthoi digari marbut ba munosibathoi mehnati, baroi giriftani mukofotpulii muallifonu ikhtirokoron,  nafaqayu yordampuli va stipendiyaho, pasandozi shahrvandon dar bonkho va baroi  giriftani murosilot, az jumla murosiloti puli va molu mulki az jonibi tashkilote, ki  vakolatdihanda dar on kor yo tahsil mekunad, tashkiloti istifodai manzilgohi  mahali zisti u va mamuriyati bemorkhonae,  ki dar on u muolija megardad, tasdiq shuda metavonad.

Vakolatnomae, ki bo telegraf va hamchunin az tariqi namudhoi digari aloqa irsol megardad,

ba sharte  ki hujjathoro kormandoni aloqa firistand, az tarafi maqomoti aloqa tasdiq karda meshavad.

  1. Vakolatnoma az nomi shakhsi huquqi bo imzoi rohbari on yo shakhsi digari tibqi hujjathoi tasisi ba in kor vakolatdori on va guzoshtani muhri in tashkilot doda meshavad.

Vakolatnoma az nomi shakhsi huquqii ba molikiyati davlati asosyofta baroi  giriftan  yo  dodani  pul  va  nemathoi digari molu mulki inchunin boyad az jonibi sarmuhosibi (muhosibi kalon) in tashkilot imzo karda shavad.

 

Moddai 211. Muhlati vakolatnoma
  1. Muhlati amali vakolatnoma ziyoda az se sol buda nametavonad. Agar dar vakolatnoma muhlat nishon doda nashuda boshad, on etibori khudro dar davomi yak soli pas az sanai  doda shudanash nigoh medorad.

Vakolatnomae, ki sanai  doda  shudanash  zikr nayoftaast, etibor nadorad.

  1. Vakolatnomai az jonibi notarius tasdiqshudae, ki baroi anjomi amalho dar khorija peshbini gardida, dar khususi muhlati etibori on ishorae nadorad, to az jonibi shakhsi vakolatnomaro doda bekor karda shudanash etibor dorad.

 

Moddai 212. Ba shakhsi digar voguzoshtani vakolat
  1. Shakhse, ki ba u vakolatnoma doda shudaast, amalhoero, ki baroi ijroyashon vakolatdor shudaast, boyad shakhsan anjom dihad. Agar dar vakolatnoma chunin vakolat doda shuda boshad yo shakhs baroi hifzi manfiati shakhsi vakolatnomaro doda ba in kor majbur boshad, u metavonad ijroi in amalhoro ba shakhsi digar voguzor namoyad.
  2. Shakhse, ki vakolatashro ba shakhsi digar voguzoshtaast, boyad dar in khusus shakhsi vakolatnoma dodaro ogoh sokhta, dar borai shakhse, ki ba u vakolatashro voguzoshtaast, malumoti zaruri peshnihod namoyad. Dar surati ijro nakardani in uhdadori shakhsi vakolatashro voguzorkarda baroi amalhoi shakhse, ki sohibi vakolat shudaast, hamchun amalhoi khud masuliyat bar dush megirad.
  3. Vakolatnomae, ki muvofiqi tartibi ba shakhsi digar voguzor namudani vakolat doda shudaast, ba istisnoi holathoi dar qismi 4, moddai 210 hamin Kodeks peshbinigardida boyad dar idorai  notarius tasdiq karda  shavad.
  4. Muhlati amali vakolatnomai muvofiqi tartibi ba shakhsi digar voguzor namudani vakolat dodashuda naboyad az muhlati amali vakolatnomae, ki dar asosi on doda shudaast, ziyodtar  boshad.

 

Moddai 213. Qati vakolatnoma
  1. Amali vakolatnoma dar holathoi zerin qat megardad:

a) ijroi amalhoe, ki dar vakolatnoma peshbini gardidaand;

b) guzashtani muhlati vakolatnoma;

v) vakolatnomaro bekor kardani shakhse, ki onro dodaast;

g) dast kashidani shakhse, ki ba u vakolatnoma doda shudaast;

d) kat gardidani faoliyati shakhsi huquqie, ki az nomi on vakolatnoma doda shudaast;

e) qat gardidani faoliyati shakhsi huquqie, ki ba on vakolatnoma doda shudaast;

j) vafot kardani shahrvande, ki vakolatnoma dodaast, gayri  qobili amal, doroi qobiliyati mahdudi amal yo bedarak etirof gardidani u;

z) vafot kardani shahrvande, ki ba u vakolatnoma doda shudaast, gayri qobili  amal, doroi qobiliyati mahdudi amal yo bedarak  etirof gardidani u.

  1. Shakhse, ki vakolatnoma dodaast, metavonad har vaqt vakolatnoma yo ba shakhsi digar voguzor namudani vakolatro bekor kunad va shakhse, ki ba u vakolatnoma doda shudaast, metavonad az on dast  kashad. Sozishnoma dar borai dast kashidan az in huquq etibor nadorad.
  2. Bo qati vakolatnoma ba shakhsi digar voguzor namudani vakolat niz beetibor megardad.

 

Moddai 214. Oqibati qati vakolatnoma
  1. Shakhse, ki vakolatnoma  doda,  minbad onro bekor  kardaast, vazifador ast dar khususi bekor kardani on ba shakhse,  ki vakolatnoma doda shudaast, inchunin ba shakhsi  seyumi ba u malume, ki  vakolatnoma  baroi  namoyandagi  dar nazdashon doda shudaast, malum sozad.  Dar surati bo sababhoi dar  zerbandhoi   j) va  z) qismi  1 moddai 213 hamin Kodeks zikrgardida qat  gardidani vakolatnoma, chunin  uhdadori ba zimmai  vorisoni  huquqii shakhse guzoshta meshavad, ki vakolatnomaro dodaast.
  2. Huququ uhdadorihoe, ki dar natijai amali shakhsi vakolatnoma girifta ba miyon omadaast, to lahzae ki in shakhs dar  khususi  qat gardidani on ogohi yoftaast yo  meboist ogohi yobad, baroi shakhsi vakolatnoma dodagi  va vorisoni huquqii u nisbati shakhsi seyum etibor dorand. Agar shakhsi seyum beetibor budani vakolatnomaro donista boshad yo boyad medonist, in qoidaho istifoda nameshavand.
  3. Pas az beetibor shudani vakolatnoma shakhse, ki onro giriftast yo vorisoni huquqii u, vazifadorand,   vakolatnomaro favran bargardonand.

 

ZERFASLI  4. MUHLAT. HISOB KARDANI MUHLAT. MUHLATI DAVO

 

BOBI 9. MAFHUM, NAVHO VA HISOB KARDANI MUHLAT

 

Moddai 215. Muayyan namudani muhlat

Muhlati dar qonun, sanadi digari huquqi yo ahd muqarrargardida yo az jonibi sud taingardida bo sanai taqvim yo guzashtani davrai vaqte muayyan megardad, ki bo sol, moh, hafta, ruz yo soat hisob karda meshavad.

Muhlat mumkin ast bo ishora ba hodisae, ki boyad hatman faro rasad, niz  muayyan karda  meshavad.

 

Moddai 216. Ogozi muhlati bo davrai vaqt muayyangardida

Jarayoni muhlati bo davrai vaqt muayyangardida dar ruzi digari pas az sanai taqvimi yo faro rasidani hodisae ogoz  meyobad, ki  bo on muayyan shudaaast.

 

Moddai 217. Khatmi muhlati bo davrai vaqt muayyangardida
  1. Muhlate, ki bo solho hisob karda meshavad, dar mohu sanai dakhldori soli okhiri muhlat khotima meyobad.

Nisbati muhlate, ki nim sol  muayyan  shudaast,  qoidahoi baroi muhlati bo mohho hisobshavanda istifoda  meshavand.

  1. Ba muhlate, ki  bo semohahoi sol hisob karda meshavad, qoidaho baroi muhlati bo mohho hisobshavanda istifoda burda meshavand. Dar  ayni  zamon hisobi semoha az avvali sol shuru meshavad.
  2. Muhlate, ki bo mohho hisob karda meshavad,  dar  sanai dakhldori mohi okhiri muhlat khatm meyobad.

Muhlate, ki nim moh muayyan shudaast, hamchun muhlati bo ruz hisobkardashavanda  shumorida  shuda,  barobar  ba  ponzdah  ruz  donista meshavad.

Agar khatmi  muhlati bo moh hisobshavanda ba mohe rost oyad,  ki sanai  dakhldor  nadorad,  pas  muhlat dar ruzi okhirini hamin moh khotima meyobad.

  1. Muhlate, ki bo hafta hisob karda meshavad, dar ruzi dakhldori haftai okhirini muhlat khotima meyobad.

 

Moddai 218. Khatmi muhlat dar ruzi gayrikori

Agar ruzi okhirini muhlat ba ruzi gayrikori rost oyad, ruzi khatmi muhlat ruzi nazdiktarini korii badi on faro rasida ba hisob meravad.

 

Moddai 219. Tartibi ijroi amal dar ruzi okhirini muhlat
  1. Agar baroi ijroi yagon amal muhlat muayyan shuda boshad, onro to soati bistu chori ruzi okhirini muhlat anjom dodan mumkin ast.

Vale agar in amal dar yagon tashkilot boyad anjom doda shavad, pas muhlat dar  hamon soate ba okhir merasad, ki ijroi amali dakhldor dar in tashkilot mutobiqi tartibi muqarrargardida qat karda meshavad.

  1. Arizahoi khatti va ogohinomahoe, ki ba tashkilothoi aloqa to soati bistu chori ruzi okhirini muhlat suporida shudaand, dar muhlati muayyan suporidashuda ba hisob meravand.

 

BOBI  10. MUHLATI  DAVO

 

Moddai 220. Mafhumi muhlati davo
  1. Muhlati davo muhlatest, ki dar davomi on talabi davoi az sababi vayron kardani huquqi shakhs yo manfiati qonunan hifzshudaash ba miyon omadaast, qone karda shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Muhlati davo va  tartibi hisobi on tibqi qonun peshbini gardida, onro  bo  shartnomai  bayni  tarafho tagyir  dodan mumkin nest.
  3. Asosi bozdosht yo tanaffusi muhlati davoro hamin Kodeks va digar qonunho muqarrar mekunand.

 

Moddai 221. Muhlati umumii davo

Muhlati umumii davo se sol muqarrar karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 222. Muhlati makhsusi davo
  1. Baroi navhoi alohidai davo qonun metavonad muhlathoi makhsusi davoi nisbat ba muhlati  umumi  kamtar  yo  beshtarro muqarrar namoyad.
  2. Qoidahoi moddahoi 220, 223-230 hamin Kodeks agar dar qonun tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, inchunin ba  muhlathoi makhsus  niz tatbiq megardad.

 

Moddai 223. Tatbiqi muhlati davo
  1. Darkhostro oidi hifzi huquqi vayrongardida sarfi nazar az guzashti muhlati davo sud jihati barrasi qabul mekunad.
  2. Muhlati davoro sud tanho tibqi arizai tarafi ishtirokchii bahs, ki to qabul gardidani qarori sud arz shudaast, tatbiq menamoyad.

Guzashti muhlati davo, ki az tatbiqi on tarafi ishtirokchii bahs arz kardaast, baroi raddi davo qaror qabul kardani sud asos shuda metavonad.

Bo guzashti  muhlati  davo oid ba talabi asosi  inchunin  muhlati davo oid ba talabi ilovagi (dar borai talab karda giriftani jarimai ahdshikani, oid ba masuliyati kafil va gayra)   niz  khotima meyobad.

 

Moddai 224. Bahisobgiri va ogozi jarayoni muhlati davo
  1. Tartibi bahisobgirii muhlati davo mutobiqi qoidahoi umumii bahisobgirii muhlati davo,  ki hamin Kodeks peshbini namudaast, muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Jarayoni muhlati davo az ruze, ki shakhs ogoh gardidaast yo meboist az vayron gardidani huquqash ogohi meyoft, ogoz megardad. Istisnoi in qoidaro hamin  Kodeks  va  digar qonunho muqarrar mekunand.
  3. Mutobiqi uhdadorihoi doroi muhlati ijro jarayoni muhlati ijroi davo badi khatmi muhlati  ijro ogoz meyobad.

Mutobqi uhdadorihoe, ki muhlati ijroi onho muayyan nashudaast yo bo lahzai pastalabkuni muayyan gardidaast, jarayoni muhlati davo az lahzae ogoz meyobad, ki qarzdihanda huquqi peshnihodi talaboti  ijroi uhdadoriro paydo mekunad va agar ba   qarzdor baroi ijroi  chunin talab muhlati imtiyoznok doda shavad, bahisobgirii muhlati  davo  pas az   khatmi ijroi muhlati mazkur ogoz meyobad.

  1. Dar mavridi uhdadorihoi aks (regressivi) jarayoni muhlati davo az lahzai ijroi uhdadorihoi asosi ogoz meyobad.

 

Moddai 225. Muhlati davo hangomi ivaz shudani shakhs dar uhdadori

Ivaz shudani shakhs dar uhdadori boisi tagyir yoftani muhlati davo va tartibi bahisobgirii on shuda nametavonad.

 

Moddai 226. Bozdoshti jarayoni muhlati davo
  1. Jarayoni muhlati davo dar  holathoi  zayl   bozdoshta meshavand:

a) agar baroi arzi  davo  dar  sharoiti  mavjuda holathoi faqulodda yo noguvor  (nerui  bartaraf karda nashavanda) khalal rasonida   boshad;

b) agar  davogar yo javobgar dar hayati Quvvahoi Musallah dokhil shuda boshad,  ki ba  holati  nizomi  (harbi)  guzaronida   shudaast;

v) dar holati dar asosi qonun Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston muayyan namudani  ba takhir guzoshtani muhlati ijroi uhdadori (moratoriy);

g) hangomi bozdoshti amali qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi, ki munosibathoi dakhldorro tanzim menamoyad;

d) agar shakhsi gayri  qobili  amal namoyandai qonuni nadoshta boshad;

e) dar digar holatho,  agar on bo qonunhoi makhsus  peshbini  gardida boshand.

  1. Jarayoni muhlati davo ba sharte bozdoshta meshavad, ki agar holathoi dar hamin modda zikrshuda dar shash mohi okhiri muhlati davo ba miyon omadaand yo idoma doshtand va agar in muhlat ba shash moh barobar yo az shash  moh  kamtar  boshad,  dar jarayoni muhlati davo bozdoshta meshavad.
  2. Az ruzi khotima yoftani holate, ki baroi bozdoshti muhlati davo sabab gardidaast, jarayoni muhlati on idoma meyobad. Qismi boqimondai muhlat to shash moh daroz karda meshavad va agar muhlati davo barobari shash moh yo az in kamtar boshad, on goh to muhlati davo daroz karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 227.  Kanda shudani jarayoni muhlati davo

Jarayoni muhlati davo hangomi tartibi muqarrargardida peshnihod kardani davo, inchunin hangomi az jonibi shakhsi  uhdador anjom dodani amale,  ki oid ba etirofi qarz yo digar uhdadoriho dalolat mekunad, kanda meshavad.

Pas az  kanda shudani muhlati davo jarayoni on az nav ogoz meyobad; vaqte, ki to kanda shudani muhlat guzashtaast, ba  muhlati nav hisob karda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 228. Jarayoni muhlati davo dar mavridi barrasi qaror nadodani davo

Agar sud davoro be muhokima  monda  boshad,  pas jarayoni muhlati davo, ki  to arzi davo ogoz yofta bud,  tibqi tartibi umumi idoma meyobad.

Agar sud davoro, ki ba parvandai jinoyati arz shudaast, biduni muhokima  monda boshad,  pas jarayoni muhlati davo, ki to arzi davo ogoz shuda bud, to  etibori qonuni paydo kardani hukm, ki mutobiqi on davo mavridi muhokima qaror nagiriftaast, bozdoshta meshavad;  vaqte, ki dar davomi  on  muhlati davo bozdoshta  shuda  bud,  ba  muhlati davo hisob karda nameshavad. Dar ayni zamon agar qismi boqimondai muhlat kamtar az shash moh boshad, on to shash moh daroz karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 229. Barqaror namudani muhlati davo
  1. Dar holathoe ki sud sababi guzaronidani muhlati davoro vobasta ba shakhsiyati davogar (bemorii vaznin, holati ojizona, besavodi  va  gayra) uzrnok  etirof  kunad,  huquqi vayrongardidai shahrvand boyad hifz gardad. Sababhoi guzaronidani muhlati davoro hangome  uzrnok  etirof kardan  mumkin ast,  ki agar onho dar shash mohi okhiri muhlati davo joy doshtand va  agar in muhlat barobar  ba shash moh yo az shash moh kamtar boshad, dar jarayoni muhlati davo.

 

Moddai 230. Ijroi uhdadori pas az guzashti muhlati davo

Qarzdor yo digar shakhsi uhdador,  ki uhdadoriashro badi khatmi muhlati davo ijro kardaast,  haq  nadorad uhdadorii  ijrokardaashro  pas  talab namoyad,  harchand dar lahzai ijro shakhsi mazkur az guzashti muhlati davo ogoh naboshad.

 

Moddai 231. Talabote, ki ba onho muhlati davo tatbiq namegardad

Ba talaboti zerin muhlati davo tatbiq namegardad:

a) talabot oid ba himoyai huquqi shakhsii gayrimolu mulki va digar nemathoi gayrimoddi,  ba gayr  az holathoi peshbininamudai qonun;

b) talaboti amonatguzaron ba bonk oidi  pardokhti amonat;

v) talabot  dar  mavridi  tovoni  ziyone, ki ba hayot  yo salomatii shahrvand rasonida  shudaast.  Ammo  talabote,  ki  bo guzashti se  sol  az lahzai paydo kardani huquq ba tovoni chunin ziyon arz shudaast, baroi muhlati guzashta, vale na beshtar az se soli az ruzi arzi  davo qone karda meshavad;

g) talaboti molik  yo  digar  sohibi  molu mulk oid ba rafi hama guna vayronkunii   huquqi u, harchand in vayronkuniho bo mahrum kardan az sohibiyat aloqamand  nameboshand   (moddai 325);

d) talaboti  molik  yo digar  ashkhos dar borai beetibor donistani sanadi maqomoti idorai davlati va hokimiyati mahalli, ki huquqi shakhsi zikrshudaro ba sohibiyat istifoda va ikhtiyordorii molu mulki marbuti onho vayron mekunad;

e) digar talabot dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun.

 

FASLI  II. HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT. DIGAR HUQUQHOI MOLU MULKI

 

BOBI 11. MUQARRAROTI  UMUMI

 

Moddai 232. Mafhum va  mazmuni huquqi molikiyat
  1. Huquqi molikiyat huquqi qonunan etirofgardida va hifzshavandai subekt oid ba tibqi salohdidi khud sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori namudani molu mulkash meboshad.
  2. Molik huquq dorad molu mulki khudro sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori namoyad. Huquqi sohibiyat az imkoniyati huquqii taminshudaro haqiqatan tatbiq gardidani molikiyati huquqi molu mulk iborat meboshad.

Huquqi istifodai molu mulk imkoniyati qonunan az molu mulk ba dast ovardani  khosiyathoi tabiii foidanoki on va hamchunin az on foida giriftan ast. Foida metavonad ba  tariqi daromad, afzoishi samar, nasl yo shaklhoi digar ba dast oyad.

Huquqi ikhtiyordori – in imkoniyati az jihati huquqi taminshudai muayyan namudani taqdiri huquqii molu mulk iborat meboshad.

  1. Molik haq dorad  mutobiqi  salohdidi khud nisbati molu mulkash hama guna amalro ravo binad,  az jumla onro ba digar ashkhos furushad, khud molik monadu huquqhoyashro dar mavridi sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori kardani molu mulk ba onho voguzorad, molu mulkro ba ijora dihad va az on bo usuli digar istifoda barad yo onro ba tarzi digar ikhtiyordori kunad.
  2. Az jonibi molik tatbiq namudani huquqhoyash naboyad huquq va manfiathoi qonunan hifzshudai digar ashkhosro vayron kunad. Vayronkunii huquq va manfiathoi qonunan hifzshudai molik metavonad hamzamon bo digar shaklho dar suiistifoda az vaziyati inhisori va bartaridoshtai molik inikos gardad.

Molik vazifador ast  baroi peshgirii ziyone voqeie, ki hangomi tatbiqi huquqhoyash  ba salomatii shahrvandon va muhiti atrof rasida metavonad, tadbirho andeshad.

  1. Huquqi molikiyat bemuhlat meboshad. Huquqi molikiyati molu mulk tanho dar asosi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks majburan qat shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Tibqi holatho, shart va haddi peshbininamudai sanadi qonuni molik vazifador ast ba digar ashkhos ikhtiyoran istifodai mahdudi molu mulki khudro voguzorad.

 

Moddai 233. Masuliyati nigohdoshti molu mulk
  1. Molik , agar dar sanadi qonuni yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, masuliyati nigohdoshti molu mulki  khudro  ba uhda dorad va nametavonad  yakjoniba  in  masuliyatro  ba zimai shakhsi seyum voguzorad.
  2. Agar molu mulk haqqoni dar nazdi shakhsi seyum qaror doshta boshad, pas kharojoti onho baroi nigohdoshti molu mulki gayr boyad az jonibi molik pardokhta shavad, ba sharte ki dar shartnoma yo qonun tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad.

Ba shakhse, ki molu mulkro bevijdonona yo gayriqonuni sohibi kardaast, kharojoti nigohdoshti  on  pardokhta nameshavad (moddai   324 hamin Kodeks).

 

Moddai 234. Tavakkali tasodufan nobud yo vayron shudani molu mulk
  1. Tavakkali tasodufan nobud yo vayron shudani molu mulk, agar dar sanadi qonuni yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, ba zimai molik guzoshta meshavad.
  2. Tavakkali tasodufan nobudshavii tasodufi yo nogahon vayron shudani molu mulki begona karda shuda, agar dar sanadi qonuni yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, hamzamon bo huquqdorii molikiyat shudan ba kharidor meguzarad.
  3. Agar shakhsi az tasarruf barovaranda gunahkorona muhlati dodani molu mulkro guzaronida boshad yo badastovaranda gunahkorona muhlati qabuli onro guzaronida boshad, tavakkali tasodufan nobud  yo vayron shudani molu mulk ba zimai tarafe guzoshta meshavad, ki  muhlatro guzaronidaast.

 

Moddai 235. Subekthoi huquqi molikiyat
  1. Subekti huquqi molikiyat dar Jumhurii Tojikiston davlat, shahrvandoni Jumhurii Tojikiston, ittihodiyahoi jamiyati, tashkilothoi dini, digar ittihodiyahoi shahrvandon va kollektivho, vohidhoi marziyu mamuri, davlathoi khoriji, tashkilothoi baynalmilali, digar shakhsi huquqi va voqeii khoriji meboshand. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)
  2. Jumhurii Tojikiston dakhlnopazirii molu mulk va imkonoti tatbiqi huquqi molikiyati har yak molikro tamin menamoyad.
  3. Qonun navhoi molu mulkero, ki tanho dar molikiyati davlati buda metavonand, muayyan menamoyad.

 

Moddai 236. Shaklhoi molikiyat
  1. Molikiyat dar Jumhurii Tojikiston dar shakli khususi va ommavi (davlati) mavjud meboshad.

Dar Jumhurii Tojikiston molikiyati davlathoi khoriji, tashkilothoi baynalmilali, shakhsoni voqei va huquqii khoriji metavonad vujud doshta boshad, ba sharte ki dar qonun tartibi digar muqarrar nashuda boshad.

  1. Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi rushdi shaklhoi mukhtalifi molikiyat sharoiti zarurii barobar

faroham meovarad va himoyai onhoro tamin mekunad.

 

Moddai 237. Mafhum va shaklhoi molikiyati khususi
  1. Molikiyati khususi molikiyati shahrvandon yo shakhsi huquqii gayridavlati yo ittihodiyahoi onho meboshad.

Molikiyati jamiyati, az jumla tashkilothoi dini, shakli  makhsusi molikiyati khususi ast. (QJT az 18.03.15 s., № 1178)

  1. Ba molikiyati khususi metavonad hama guna molu mulk, ba gayr az shaklhoi alohidai molu mulk, ki mutobiqi sanadi qonuni nametavonand marbut ba shahrvandon yo shakhsi huquqi boshand, dokhil shavad.

Tedod va arzishi molu mulke, ki molikiyati khususi meboshad, mahdud karda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 238. Huquqi molikiyati davlati
  1. Molikiyati davlati dar shakli molikiyati jumhuriyavi va kommunali baromad mekunad.
  2. Molikiyati jumhuriyavi az khazinai jumhuriyavi va molu mulke, ki mutobiqi sanadi qonuni ba shakhsi huquqii davlatii jumhuriyavi vobasta karda shudaast, iborat meboshad.

Mablaghoi bujeti jumhuri, zakhirai tilloiyu asor va khazinai almos,  obekthoi molikiyati istisnoi (mutlaq)-i davlati va digar molu mulki davlati, ki ba shakhsi huquqii davlati vobasta karda nashudaand, khazinai davlatii Jumhurii Tojikistonro tashkil medihand.

  1. Molikiyati kommunali az khazinai mahalli va molu mulke, ki mutobiqi sanadi qonuni ba shakhsi huquqii kommunali vobasta karda shudaand, iborat meboshad.

Mablaghoi molu mulki bujeti mahalli va digar molu mulki kommunali, ki ba shakhsi  huquqii kommunali vobasta karda nashudaand, khazinai mahalliro tashkil medihand.

  1. Molu mulkero, ki tahti molikiyati davlat qaror dorad, ba shakhsi huquqii davlati dar asosi huquqi khojagidori yo idorai operativi vobasta kardan mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 239. Molikiyati istisnoi davlati
  1. Zamin, sarvathoi zerizamini, ob, fazoi havoi va olami nabototu hayvonot, digar boigarii tabii  molikiyati istisnoi davlati meboshand.
  2. Khususiyati tatbiqi huquqi molikiyat ba zamin va digar zakhirahoi tabiiro hamin Kodeks, qonuni zamin va digar qonunho muqarrar menamoyand.

 

Moddai 240. Huquqi molikiyat va digar huquqhoi molu mulki ba manzil

Khususiyati tatbiqi huquqi molikiyat va digar huquqhoi molu mulkiro ba manzil Kodeksi manzili Jumhurii Tojikiston tanzim mekunad.

 

Moddai 241. Huquqi molu mulkii ashkhose, ki molik nameboshand
  1. Ba huquqi molu mulki dar barobari huquqi molikiyat inho dokhil meshavand:

a) huquqi istifodai zamin;

b) huquqi khojagidori;

v) huquqi idorai operativi;

g) digar huquqhoi molu mulki.

  1. Huquqi istifodai zamin imkoniyati qonunii shakhsi voqei yo huquqi, yane istifodabarandai zamin jihati istifodai khosiyathoi foidabakhshi on vobasta ba maqsadi tainoti on meboshad.  Istifodabarandai zamin inchunin ba moliki qitai zamin, ki tahti istifodaash meboshad, huquq dorad.

Asos va  tartibi huquqdor shudan, tagyir yo qat yoftani huquqi istifodai zamin, huququ uhdadorihoi istifodabarandagoni zamin, az jumla ba shakhsi digar voguzor kardani huquqi  istifodai zaminro Kodeksi zamini Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrar menamoyand.

 

BOBI  12. BA DAST OVARDANI HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT

 

Moddai 242.  Asoshoi ba dast ovardani huquqi molikiyat
  1. Huquqi molikiyatro ba moli nave, ki shakhs baroi khud, bo rioyai qonun va digar sanadi huquqi tayyor kardaast yo sokhtaast, az jonibi hamin shakhs ba dast ovarda meshavad.

Huquqi  molikiyat ba  samara, mahsulot, daromadero, ki az istifodai molu mulk ba dast omadaast, dar  asosi  moddai 149 hamin Kodeks sohib shudan mumkin ast.

  1. Huquqi sohibi ba molu mulkero, ki molik dorad, shakhsi digar dar asosi shartnomai kharidu furush, ivaz, tuhfa kardan yo digar ahdhoi az ikhtiyordori barovardani molu mulk ba dast ovardanash mumkin ast.

Dar surati favti shahrvand huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulki u tibqi vasiyatnoma yo qonun chun meros ba digar ashkhos meguzarad.

Dar surati aznavtashkilshavii shakhsi huquqi huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulkash ba shakhsi huquqii on – vorisoni huquqii shakhsi huquqii aznavtashkilshavanda meguzarad.

Biduni ikhtiyori  molik tahti ikhtiyordorii digar shakhs qaror dodani molu mulki u ba gayr  az holathoi  peshbininamudai  hamin Kodeks  man ast.

  1. Shakhs tibqi holatho va tartibi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks metavonad ba molu mulke, ki sohib nadorad, ba molu mulke, ki sohibash nomalum ast yo ba molu mulke, ki  sohibash az on dast kashidaast yo bo digar asoshoi peshbininamudai qonun huquqi molikiyatro az dast dodaast, huquq paydo kunad.
  2. Azoi kooperativi manzil, sokhtmonu manzil, bustonsaro, garaj yo digar kooperativi gayritijorati digar ashkhose, ki ba sahmguzori haq doshta, sahmi khudro baroi manzil, bustonsaro, garaj yo digar binoi az tarafi hamin kooperativ ba onho judokarda purra pardokhtaand, ba molu mulki zikrgardida huquq paydo mekunand.

 

Moddai 243. Ba miyon omadani huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulki gayrimanquli az nav tasisdodashavanda

Huquqi molikiyat ba bino, inshoot va digar molu mulki gayrimanquli az nav tasisyobanda, ki boyad az qaydi  davlati guzarad, az lahzai chunin baqaydgiri ba miyon meoyad.

 

Moddai 244. Korkard
  1. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulki navi manqul, ki shakhs bo rohi korkard az masolehi begonabuda tayyor kardaast,  az  tarafi  sohibi masoleh ba dast ovarda meshavad.

Vale dar surati az arzishi masoleh khele baland  budani arzishi korkard  huquqi molikii uro ba molu mulki nav shakhse paydo mekunad, ki sofdilona amal karda,   korkardro ba manfiati khud anjom dodaast.

  1. Agar dar sozishnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, sohibi masoleh, ki ba mahsuloti az on tayyorkardashuda huquqi molikiyat paydo kardaast, vazifador ast arzishi korkardro ba shakhsi in amalro anjomdoda pardozad, dar holati huquqdor shudani shakhs ba moli nav boshad, shakhsi korkardro anjomdoda vazifador ast ba sohibi masoleh arzishi onro pardozad.
  2. Moliki masoleh, ki dar natijai amali bevijdononai shakhsi korkardro anjomdoda az on mahrum shudaast, haq dorad masolehi nav va jubroni ziyoni rasidaro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 245. Sohibi kardani mole, ki jamovarii on dastrasi umum meboshad

Dar holathoe ki mutobiqi qonun, bo ijozati umumie, ki molik dodaast yo mutobiqi ananahoi mahalli dar jangalzor, obanbor yo digar mintaqa jamovarii hosili mevajot, saydi mohi, saydi hayvonot, jamovarii digar  chizho dastrasi umum   va digar  amal  ijozat doda shudaast, huquqi molikiyatro ba moli dakhldor shakhse paydo mekunad,  ki  onro jamovari  yo  shikor kardaast.

 

Moddai 246. Sokhtmoni khudsarona
  1. Sokhtmoni khudsarona – sokhtmoni khonai istiqomati, binoyu inshoot yo digar molu mulki gayrimanqule meboshad, ki dar qitai zamini mutobiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun va digar  sanadi huquqi baroi chunin maqsad judonashuda yo biduni giriftani ijozati zaruri yo ba tavri  nazarras vayron kardani meyoru   qoidahoi shahrsozi bunyod shudaast.
  2. Shakhse, ki sokhtmoni  khudsaronaro anjom dodaast, ba on huquqi moliki paydo namekunad. U huquq nadorad chunin binoro ikhtiyordori kunad, tuhfa namoyad, ba ijora  suporad  va digar  ahdhoro anjom dihad.

Imorat boyad az tarafi shakhsi onro sokhta yo az hisobi u ba gayr az holathoi peshbininamudai qismi 3   moddai mazkur, vayron karda meshavad.

  1. Huquqi molikii shakhsi sokhtmoni khudsaronaro anjomdoda az jonibi sud ba sharte etirof karda meshavad, agar qitai zamin mutobiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston ba in shakhs baroi sokhtmoni imorat doda shuda boshad.
    Agar nigoh doshtani sokhtmoni khudsarona huquq va manfiathoi qonunan hifzshavandai digar shakhsonro vayron kunad yo ba hayot va salomatii onho yo bekhatarii inshooti dar atrofi in sokhtmon joygirshuda tahdid namoyad, huquqi molikii in shakhs etirof karda nameshavad.(QJT az 22.07.2013s. №976)

 

         Moddai 247. Lahzai bavujudoii huquqi sohibmulkii badastovaranda tibqi shartnoma
  1. Huquqi sohibmulkii ashyoi tibqi shartnoma badastovardashuda az lahzai dodani on paydo meshavad,

agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare  peshbini nashuda boshad.

  1. Agar shartnoma oid ba begona kardani molu mulkro ba qaydi davlati giriftan darkor boshad,

huquqi sohibmulki ba badastovarandai on  az lahzai baqaydgirii on ba vujud meoyad.

 

Moddai 248. Suporidani ashyoho
  1. Suporidan, yane ba badastdarovaranda dodani ashyoho, hamchunin ba borkashonanda suporidani ashyoho baroi firistonidan yo ba tashkiloti aloqa baroi badastdarovaranda irsol dodan, firistonidani ashyohoi dur karda shuda biduni uhdadorii burdarasoni etirof karda meshavad.

Ashyo az lahzai haqiqatan vorid shudan ba ikhtiyori badastdarovaranda yo shakhsi tain kardai u ba badastdarovaranda supurdashuda hisob megardad.

  1. Agar dar lahzai bastani shartnoma oidi dur kardani ashyoho on dar ikhtiyori badastdarovaranda qaror doshta boshad, az hamin lahza ashyo ba u suporidashuda etirof megardad.
  2. Dodani konosament yo digar hujjati ikhtiyordori namudani mol bo suporidani ashyo barobar donista meshavad.

 

Moddai 249. Ashyoi besohib
  1. Ashyoe, ki sohib nadorad yo sohibash nomalum ast yo ashyoe, ki sohibash az molikii on  dast kashidaast, besohib donista meshavad.
  2. Agar on mutobiqi qoidahoi ba dast ovardani huquqi molikiyat ba ashyoe, ki  az on  molik dast kashidaast (moddai 250), dar borai yoftan (moddahoi 251-252),  dar borai hayvonoti benazorat (moddahoi  254-255)  va ganjina (257) mustasno naboshad,   huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulki besohibi manqul mumkin ast  mutobiqi  etibor (amr)-i   davomnokii  muhlati ba dast ovardani ashyo  (moddai 258) paydo karda shavad.
  3. Ashyoi gayrimanquli besohib az jonibi maqome, ki molu mulki gayrimanqulro ba qaydi davlati megirad, tibqi arizai  maqomi  dakhldori  davlati ba hisob girifta   meshavad.

Pas az guzashtani du sol az ruzi ba hisob giriftani ashyoi gayrimanquli besohib, maqomi vakolatdori idorai molu mulki davlati metavonad ba sud bo talabot dar mavridi ba  molikiyati  davlati dokhilshuda etirof kardani in ashyo murojiat kunad.

Ashyoi gayrimanquli besohib, ki bo qarori sud ba molikiyati davlati qabulgardida etirof nashudaast, metavonad az tarafi moliki onro guzoshta az nav baroi sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori qabul gardad va yo tibqi etibori davomnokii muhlati ba dast ovardani ashyo (moddai 258) sohibi karda shavad.

 

Moddai 250. Ashyoi manqule, ki molik az onho dast kashidaast
  1. Ashyoi manqule, ki molik partoftaast yo ba tarzi digar bo maqsadi dast kashidan az huquqi moliki ba onho voguzoshtaast (ashyoi partoftashuda), shakhsi digar metavonad mutobiqi tartibi peshbininamudai qismi 2 moddai mazkur molikiyati khud gardonad.
  2. Shakhse, ki molik va istifodabarandai qitai zamin, obanbor yo digar obekt meboshad va dar on ashyoi partoftashudai  doroi arzishi na kamtar az dah nishondihanda baroi hisobho yo in ki partovhoi partoftashudai metall, mahsuloti nuqsondor, boqimondahoi khula, khoktudahoi kon yo partove, ki hangomi istikhroji kandanihoi foidanok ba vujud omadaand, partovi istehsolot yo digar partovho mavjud ast, huquq dorad sohibmulki ashyo boshad, ba istifodai on shuru namoyad yo digar amalro anjom dihad, ki az tabdilyobii ashyo ba molikiyati shakhsi guvohi medihad. (QJT az 03.07.2012s., №850)

Agar mutobiqi arizai shakhs digar ashyoi partoftashuda az jonibi sud besohib etirof shuda boshad, on molikiyati shakhsii ashyoro sohibi karda megardad.

 

Moddai 251. Bozyoft
  1. Shakhse, ki ashyoi gumshudaro yoftaast,  vazifador  ast,  shakhsi gumkardai ashyo yo digar shakhsi  ba  u shinosro, ki huquqi giriftani molro dorand, ogoh sozad va ba in shakhs ashyoro bargardonad.

Agar ashyo  dar  bino  yo naqliyot yoft shuda boshad,  on boyad ba namoyandai sohibi in bino  yo  vositai  naqliyot  supurda  shavad. Shakhse, ki  ba  u  ashyoi yoftshuda supurda  shudaast,  huquq  va uhdadorii shakhsi ashyoyoftaro paydo mekunad.

  1. Agar shakhse, ki  doroi  huquqi  talab   kardani   ashyoi yoftashudaro dorad, nomalum  yo mahalli budu boshash aniq naboshad,  shakhsi ashyoyofta vazifador ast, ba militsiya yo  maqomi  dakhldori davlat khabar dihad.
  2. Shakhsi ashyoyofta haq dorad, onro khudash nigoh dorad, baroi nigohdosht ba militsiya, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati yo shakhsi muayyannamudai onho suporad.

Ashyoi zud vayronshavanda yo ashyoero,  ki kharojoti nigohdoshtash nisbat ba  arzishi on khele garontar ast, shakhsi ashyoyofta metavonad furushad va oid  ba mablagi  furush daleli khattii tasdiqkunanda girad. Mablage,  ki  az furushi ashyoi yoftashuda ba dast omadaast, boyad ba shakhse,  ki ba  giriftani  on   haq dorad, bargardonida shavad.

  1. Shakhsi ashyoyofta baroi gum kardan yo illatnok kardani ashyo tanho dar holathoi garaznok yo beehtiyotii dagal va ba andozai arzishi ashyo masuliyat dorad.

 

Moddai 252. Paydo kardani huquqi moliki ba ashyoi yoftashuda
  1. Agar dar tuli  shash  mohi  arz kardan ba militsiya yo maqomi  dakhldori  davlati  (qismi  2,  moddai 251) oidi yoftani ashyo shakhsi  ba giriftani  ashyo  haqdoshta  muayyan nagardad va az huquqi khud  ba ashyo ba  shakhsi  ashyoro yofta  yo   militsiya yo  maqomi dakhldor arz nakunad, shakhsi ashyoyofta ba on huquqi moliki paydo mekunad.
  2. Agar shakhsi ashyoyofta onro sohibi kardan nakhohad, on ba molikiyati davlat meguzarad.

 

Moddai 253. Jubroni kharojoti bozyoft va podoshi yobandai ashyo
  1. Shakhse, ki ashyoro yofta ba shakhsi ba giriftani on vakolatdor suporidaast, baroi az u va dar holati ba  molikiyati davlat guzashtani ashyo az maqomi dakhldori  davlati ba jubroni kharojoti zarurii vobasta ba nigohdosht, bargardonidan yo furushi   ashyo, hamchunin jubroni kharojoti yoftani shakhsi ba  giriftani mol vakolatdor haq dorad.
  2. Shakhsi ashyo yofta haq dorad az shakhse, ki ba giriftani ashyo vakolatdor shudaast, baroi  bozyoft  to andozai bist foizi   arzishi ashyo podosh talab kunad.

Agar hujjat yo ashyoi digari yoftashuda tanho baroi shakhsi ba giriftani on vakolatdor doroi arzish boshad, andozai podosh tibqi sozishnomai bayni onho, dar  holati ba sozish naomadan – az jonibi sud muayyan karda meshavad. Agar shakhsi ba talab karda giriftani ashyo vakolatdorshuda ba tavri ommavi baroi bargardonidani ashyoi gumshuda mukofot elon  karda boshad, podosh mutobiqi sharti ba tavri ommavi elonshuda pardokhta meshavad.

Shakhsi ashyoro yofta haq dorad, to lahzai pardokhti  podosh ba gayr az hujjate, ki tanho az jonibi shakhsi ba talab karda giriftani on vakolatdor istifoda shudanash mumkin  ast,  ashyoi   yoftaashro nigoh dorad (moddai 388).

Agar shakhsi ashyoro yofta az bozyofti on ittilo nadoda boshad yo baroi pinhon doshtanash kushish karda boshad,  masalai huquq ba podosh ba miyon nameoyad.

 

Moddai 254. Hayvonoti benazorat
  1. Shakhse, ki hayvonoti benazorat yo besohib yo digar hayvonoti khonagii besohibro bozdoshtaast, vazifador ast onhoro ba sohibash bargardonad va agar hayvonot sohib nadoshta boshad yo joi budu boshi u malum naboshad, dar davomi na dertar az se ruzi bozdoshti onho ba militsiya yo maqomi dakhldori davlati, ki baroi koftukovi sohibash tadbirho meandeshand, ittilo dihad.
  2. Dar tuli koftukovi sohibi hayvonot onro shakhsi bozdoranda metavonad khudash nigohboni kunad va istifoda barad yo baroi nigohboni ba digar shakhse, ki baroi in sharoiti musoid dorad, suporad. Muvofiqi khohishi shakhse, ki hayvonoti  benazoratro bozdoshtaast, justujui shakhsi baroi nigohdoshti on sharoiti zaruri doshtaro va ba u suporidani hayvonotro militsiya yo digar maqomi dakhldori davlati justuju mekunad va mesuporad.
  3. Shakhse, ki hayvonoti benazoratro bozdoshtaast va shakhse, ki ba u in hayvonot baroi nigohboni va istifoda suporida shudaast, vazifadorand onhoro durust  nigohboni  kunand  va hangomi bo gunohi onho murdan va illatnok shudani hayvonot arzishi onro hayvonotro medihand.

 

Moddai 255. Ba dast ovardani huquqi moliki ba hayvonoti benazorat
  1. Agar dar davomi shash mohi az arz kardan az bozdoshti hayvonoti benazorati khonagi sohibi on paydo nashavad va az huquqi khud ba onho arz nakunad, huquqi moliki in hayvonot ba shakhse meguzarad, ki on tahti nigohboni va istifodaash qaror dorad.

Dar surati  az sohibi dast kashidani shakhse, ki hayvonot tahti nigohboniash  qaror dorad, on  ba  molikiyati davlat meguzarad va tibqi tartibi muayyannamudai  maqomi dakhldori davlati istifoda meshavad.

  1. Dar surati badi ba molikiyati shakhsi digar guzashtani hayvonot hozir  shudani sohibi avvalini onho molik haq dorad, hangomi ehsosi mehri hayvonot nisbat ba u yo ogoh shudan  az munosibati berahmona va bevijdononai moliki nav ba hayvonot dar asosi sharthoi dar sozishnomai bo moliki nav bastashuda  bargardonidani hayvonot va agar ba muvofiqa narasand, az tariqi sud bargardonidani onhoro talab kunad.

 

Moddai 256. Jubroni kharojoti nigohbonii hayvonoti benazorat va podosh  baroi onho
  1. Dar surati bargardonidani hayvonoti benazorati khonagi ba molik, shakhse,  ki hayvonotro  bozdoshtaast  va shakhse, ki hayvonot tahti nigohboni va istifodaash  qaror  dosht, bo nazardoshti foidai az  istifodai  hayvonot  ba dastovarda vobasta ba nigohbonii hayvonot ba  jubroni kharojoti zaruri az jonibi molik haq dorand.
  2. Shakhse, ki hayvonoti khonagii benazoratro bozdoshtaast, haq dorad, mutobiqi muqarraroti qismi 2, moddai 253 hamin Kodeks az moliki onho podosh talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 257. Ganjina
  1. Ganj yane pul, yo chizu chorai qimatnoke, ki ba zamin gur yo ba shakli digar pinhon karda shudaand, hisob karda meshavad. Dar surati paydo kardani on yo yodgorihoi tarikhi va farhangi az tarafi istifodabarandai qitai zamin, sohibi imorat va gayra, ki ba u marbutand va inchunin ashkhose, ki ganj va yodgorihoi tarikhi va farhangiro yoftaand, uhdadorand ba davlat suporand.

Dar ayni zamon istifodabarandai qitai zamin yo sohibmulki molu mulke digar, ki dar on ganjina pinhon karda shudaast va shakhse, ki onro yoftaast, ba giriftani podosh ba andozai panjoh foizi arzishi on huquq dorad. Podosh bayni onho mutobiqi sozishnomai tarafho va dar surati ba muvofiqa naomadanashon az tarafi sud taqsim karda meshavad.

  1. Shakhse, ki ganjinai ba yodgorihoi tarikhi va farhangi aloqamandro yoftaast, huquq dorad to pardokhti podosh in molu mulkro nigoj dorad (moddai 388).

 

Moddai 258. Davomnokii muhlati ba dast ovardan
  1. Shakhs – shahrvand yo shakhsi huquqi, ki moliki ashyo nameboshad, vale sofdilona, kushodu ozod va ba tavri davomdor ba misli molu mulki khud molu mulki gayrimanqulro dar tuli ponzdah sol sohibi kardaast yo digar molu mulkro dar  tuli  panj  sol nigoh doshtaast, ba in ashyo huquqi moliki paydo mekunad.  (Davomnokii muhlati ba dast ovardan).

Huquqi moliki ba ashyoi gayrimanqul yo digar ashyoe,  ki   boyad ba  qaydi  davlati  girifta shavad, az lahzai chunin baqaydguzori az jonibi shakhse, ki in molu mulkro ba  hukmi  davomnokii ba dast ovardan sohib shudaast, ba miyon meoyad.

  1. To paydo kardani huquqi moliki ba molu mulki bo hukmi davomnokii muhlat badastovardashuda shakhse, ki molu mulkro chun molikiyati shakhsi dar ikhtiyor dosht, huquq   dorad, molikiyati marbutaashro az shakhsi seyum, ki sohibi molu mulk nameboshand,   inchunin ba in molu mulk ba hukmi digar asoshoi peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma huquq nadorand, hifz namoyad.
  2. Shakhse, ki bo mururi sohibiash havola mekunad, metavonad ba muhlati sohibii khud tamomi muhlati sohibii shakhsero, ki u vorisi huquqii on meboshad, niz hamroh kunad.
  3. Jarayoni muhlati davomnokii ba dast ovardan nisbat ba molu mulki dar nazdi shakhsi qarordoshta, ki mutobiqi moddahoi 322 va 326 hamin Kodeks onhoro az sohibii u talab karda giriftanashon mumkin bud, az lahzai na barvaqttar az guzashti muhlati davo mutobiqi talaboti dakhldor ogoz meyobad.

 

BOBI  13. QATI HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT

 

Moddai 259. Asosho baroi qati huquqi molikiyat
  1. Huquqi molikiyat hangomi az jonibi sohibmulk ba shakhsi digar dodani molu mulk, rad kardani  huquqi  molikiyat az jonibi molik, nobud  yo vayron  shudani molu mulk va az dast dodani huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulk va digar holathoi peshbininamudai sanadi qonuni qat megardad.
  2. Majburan giriftani molu mulki molik ba gayr az holathoi zayl man ast:

a) az hisobi molu mulk sitonidani pardokht mutobiqi uhdadorihoi molik;

b) majburan giriftani molumulke, ki dar asosi sanadi  qonunguzori ba shakhsi mazkur taalluq nadorad;

v) rekvizitsiya;

g) musodira;

d) giriftani molu mulki gayrimanqul vobasta ba kashida giriftani qitai zamin;

e) kharidorii sarvathoi farhangi yo  tarikhii besarusomon nigohdoshtashavanda;

j) dar digar holathoi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks.

  1. Tibqi holatho, shart va tartibi peshbininamudai sanadi qonuni oid ba khususigardoni, molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati davlati meboshand, ba molikiyati khususii shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi doda meshavand.
  2. Dar holati qabuli Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston dar khususi ba molikiyati davlati gardonidani molu mulki khususii shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi (millikunoni) ziyoni rasida mutobiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunho pardokhta meshavad.

 

Moddai 260. Dast kashidan az huquqi molikiyat

Shahrvand yo shakhsi huquqi az huquqi sohibi namudani molu mulki khud bo elon kardani in yo bo amali  digar, ki az oshkoro barkanor gardidani u az sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordorii molu mulk biduni niyati nigoh doshtani yagon huquq ba molu mulk guvohi medihad, metavonad dast kashad.

Dast kashidan az moliki to lahzai ba in molu mulk huquqdor gashtani shakhsi dakhldor boisi qati huququ uhdadorihoi molik nisbat ba molu mulki dakhldor namegardad.

 

Moddai 261. Az hisobi molu mulk sitonidani qarzi molik
  1. Qarzi molik, agar dar qonun va shartnoma tartibi digar peshbini nashuda boshad, dar asosi qarori sud az molu mulki u ruyonida meshavad.
  2. Huquqi molike, ki qarzash az molu mulki u ruyonida meshavad, az lahzai ba in molu mulk huquqdor gashtani shakhsi digar, barham mekhurad.

 

Moddai 262. Qati huquqi molikii shakhs ba molu mulke, ki az oni u buda nametavonad
  1. Agar dar asoshoi ijozatdodai qonun shakhs sohibi molu mulke shuda boshad, ki az rui qonun az oni u buda nametavonad, in molu mulk dar davomi yak soli huquqdor gashtani u ba molu mulk, agar qonun muhlati digarero muqarrar nakarda boshad, boyad az on dast kashad.
  2. Agar molik dar muhlati muayyannamudai qismi 1 hamin modda az molu mulk dast kashad, on bo nazardoshti khususiyat va tainotash bo qarori sud, ki mutobiqi arizai dakhldori maqomi davlati barovarda shudaast, boyad ba tavri majburi furukhta, mablagi on ba molik doda shavad yo molu mulk ba molikiyati davlat guzaronida arzishi muayyannamudai sud ba moliki avval pardokhta shavad. Dar in surat kharojoti vobasta ba giriftani molu mulk ruyonida meshavad.
  3. Agar tahti molikiyati shahrvand yo shakhsi yuridiki dar asosi ijozati qonun molu mulke qaror girad, ki baroi kharidanash ijozati makhsus zarur ast, vale baroi dodani on ba molik rad shudaast, in molu mulk mutobiqi tartibi baroi molu mulk muqarrarshuda, ki nametavonad ba moliki mazkur taalluq doshta boshad, az u girifta meshavad.

 

Moddai 263. Qati huquqi moliki ba molu mulki gayrimanqul binobar giriftani zamin va  digar zakhirahoi tabii
  1. Huquqi moliki ba molu mulki gayrimanqul vobasta ba qarori maqomi davlati, ki maqsadi bevosita giriftani molu mulkro az molik nadorad, az jumla qarori giriftani zamin, ki dar on khonai molik, digar imoratu inshoot va darakhtzor voqe ast, tanho tibqi holati tartibi muqarrarnamudai sanadi qonuni qat gardida, ba molik molu mulki barobararzish doda, digar kharojoti  u jubron karda yo tamomi ziyone ki vobasta ba qati huquqi molikiash ba u rasidaast purra bargardonida meshavad.
  2. Hangomi norozi budani molik az qarore, ki boisi qati huquqi molikiash megardad, on to zamoni bo tartibi sudi yaktarafa shudani bakhs tatbiq karda nameshavad. Hangomi barrasii bahs inchunin hamai masalahoi pardokhtani tovoni ziyoni  rasonidashuda ba molik hallu fasl megardand.
  3. Qoidahoi moddai mazkur muvofiqan hangomi qati huquqqi moliki ba molu mulki gayrimanqul vobasta ba halu fasli qarori maqomi davlati dar mavridi giriftani qitai kuhi, qitahoi akvatori va digar qitaho, ki dar on molu mulk voqe ast, tatbiq megardad.

 

Moddai 264. Kharidorii sarvathoi farhangii benizom nigohbonishuda

Agar moliki sarvathoi farhangie, ki mutobiqi qonunho ba jumlai sarvathoi khele purarzish va az tarafi qonun hifzshuda dokhil gardidaand in sarvathoro benizom nigohboni  kunad va az in ba onho havfi beahamiyat shudan tahdid namoyad, chunin sarvathoro davlat tibqi qarori sud metavonad az u kharida girad yo dar savdoi ommavi ba furush monad.

Hangomi kharida giriftani sarvathoi farhangi ba molik arzishi  on ba andozai muqarrarnamudai sozishnomai tarafho va  dar surati bahs ba andozai muayyannamudai sud pardokhta  meshavad. Hangomi furush az tariqi savdoi ommavi ba furush raftani onho ba molik ba juz kharojoti savdoi ommavi tamomi mablagi boqimonda pardokhta meshavad.

 

Moddai 265. Narkhguzorii molu mulk hangomi qati huquqi moliki

Hangomi qati huquqi moliki molu mulk bo nazardoshti arzishi bozorii on narkhguzori meshavad.

 

Moddai 266. Rekvizitsiya
  1. Dar holathoi ofati tabii, sadama, kasalihoi siroyati (epidemiya), muromurii hayvonot (epizootiya) va digar holathoi mustasno favquloda molu mulk tibqi qarori maqomoti vakolatdori davlati metavonad az molik mutobiqi tartib va sharthoi muqarrarnamudai qonun ba manfiati jomea rekvizitsiya karda ba u arzishi molu mulk pardokhta shavad.
  2. Oidi narkhe, ki mutobiqi on ba molik arzishi molu mulki rekvizitsiyashuda pardokhta meshavad, ba sud etiroz kardan mumkin ast.
  3. Shakhse, ki molu mulki u rekvizitsiya shudaast, haq dorad, badi qati holat, ki vobasta ba on molu mulkash rekvizitsiya anjom doda shuda bud, bargardonidani molu mulki oseb nadidaashro talab namoyad va dar holati raddi on ba sud murojiat kunad.

 

Moddai 267. Musodira
  1. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun molu mulki molikro mutobiqi qarori sud hamchun chorai jazo baroi sodir namudani gunoh yo digar huquqvayronkuni musodira kardan mumkin ast.
  2. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun, musodiraro tibqi tartibi mamuri anjom dodan mumkin ast. Oid ba qaror dar mavridi musodira, ki tibqi tartibi mamuri qabul shudaast, ba sud etiroz kardan mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 268. Millikunoni

Bo rohi millikunoni az molikii shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi ba molikiyati davlat darovardani molu mulk tanho dar asosi qonunhoi mutobiqi Konstitutsiya qabulgardida oid ba millikunonii in molu mulk va pardokhti arzishi molu mulk va jubroni  digar ziyone, ki vobasta ba milli kunondan ba molik vorid gardidaast, ijozat doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 269. Qati huquqi molu mulk, ki ba molik taalluq nadorad

Huquqi molu mulki, ki ba molik taalluq nadorand, mutobiqi tartibi muayyannamudai qismhoi 1, 2 moddai 259 hamin Kodeks, inchunin bo qarori molik va bo tartibi muqarrarnamudai sanadi qonuni, oinnomai shakhsi huquqi yo shartnomai molik bo sohibi molu mulk qat megardad.

 

BOBI 14. MOLIKIYaTI ShAHRVANDON (khorij karda shud bo QJT az 12. 05. 2007s,  № 247).

 

Moddai 270. Muqarraroti umumi oid ba molikiyati shahrvandon
Moddai 271. Obekthoi huquqi molikiyat
Moddai 272. Molikiyati khojagii  mehnati
Moddai 273. Molikiyati dehqoni va khojagii yorirason

 

BOBI  15. MOLIKIYaTI  KOLLEKTIVI  (khorij karda shud bo QJT az 12. 05. 2007s,  № 247).

(molikiyati shakhsi huquqi)

 

Moddai 274. Muqarraroti umumi oid ba molikiyati kollektivi (shakhsi huquqi)
Moddai 275. Molikiyati korkhonahoi  kollektivi
Moddai 276. Molikiyati korkhonai ijoravi
Moddai 277. Molikiyati kooperativ
Moddai 278. Molikiyati jamiyat va shirkati khojagidori
Moddai 279.  Molikiyati jamiyati sahhomi
Moddai 280.  Molikiyati assotsiatsiya va khojagidori (ittihodiyaho)
Moddai 281. Molikiyati tashkilothoi jamiyati va fondho
Moddai 282. Molikiyati mahalla
Moddai 283. Molikiyati tashkilothoi dini

 

BOBI 16. MOLIKIYaTI DAVLAT VA VOHIDHOI MARZIYu MAMURI (khorij karda shud bo  QJT az 12. 05. 2007s, № 247).

 

  1. Molikiyati Jumhurii Tojikiston

 

Moddai 284. Muqarraroti umumi oid ba molikiyati davlati
Moddai 285. Obekthoi molikiyati Jumhurii Tojikiston
Moddai 286. Molikiyati korkhonai davlati
Moddai 287. Molikiyati azoi kollektivi mehnatii korkhonai davlati
Moddai 288. Molu mulki muassisahoi  davlati
Moddai 289. Molikiyat ba zamin va digar zakhirahoi tabii

 

  1. Molikiyati Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon va vohidhoi marziyu mamuri

 

Moddai 290. Molikiyati Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon
Moddai 291. Molikiyati vohidhoi marziyu mamuri

 

BOBI 17. MOLIKIYaTI UMUMI VA NAVHOI  ON

 

Moddai 292. Mafhum va asoshoi paydoishi molikiyati umumi
  1. Molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati du yo yakchand shakhs qaror dorad, huquqi molikiyati umumii onho meboshad.
  2. Molu mulk metavonad bo muayyan namudani sahmi har yake az molik ba huquqi molikiyat (molikiyati hissagi) yo biduni muayyan namudani chunin sahm (molikiyati yakjoya) tahti molikiyati umumi qaror girad.
  3. Molikiyati umumi ba molu mulk hissagi meboshad, ba istisnoi holathoe, ki qonun ba in molu mulk tashkil namudani molikiyati umumiro ijozat medihad.
  4. Molu mulk dar surati molikiyati du yo chand shakhs shudani on biduni tagyir dodani tainot taqsim kardani on imkonnopazir ast (chizi taqsimnashavanda) yo az rui qonun onro taqsim kardan mumkin nameboshad, umumi megardad.

Molu mulki taqsimshavanda dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma molikiyati umumi meshavad.

  1. Mutobiqi sozishnomai ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati yakjoya, dar surati ba muvofiqa narasidan boshad, bo qarori sud doir ba molu mulki umumi molikiyati hissagi doshtani in shakhsan muqarrar kardan mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 293. Muayyan namudani hissa dar  huquqi molikiyati hissagi
  1. Agar andozai hissai ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati sahmi dar asosi qonun muqarrar va bo sozishnomai hamai ishtirokchiyoni on muayyan nashuda boshad, hissa barobar hisobida meshavad.
  2. Bo sozishnomai bayni hamai ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi tartibi muqarrar kardan va tagyir dodani hissai har kadomi onho dar tashkil, kharidori va afzun gardonidani molu mulki umumi muayyan kardan mumkin ast.
  3. Ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi, ki az hisobi khud, bo rioyai tartibi muqarrargardidai istifodai molikiyati umumi onro ba tavri judonashavanda behbud bakhshidaast, ba andozai dakhldor ziyod kardani hissai khud haq dorad.

Behbudi judoshavandai molu mulki umumi, agar dar sozishnomai  ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, ba molikiyati ishtirokchie meguzarad, ki in  behbudiro anjom dodaast.

 

Moddai 294. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati hissagi qaror dorad
  1. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki tahti molikiyati hissagi qarordoshta mutobiqi shartnomai bayni hamai ishtirokchiyoni on ba amal barovarda meshavad.
  2. Ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi haq dorad, mutobiqi salohdidi khud hissai khudro furushad, tuhfa namoyad, vasiyat kunad, hissai khudro ba garav monad yo bo rioyai qoidahoi bamuzd, ki moddai 298 hamin Kodeks peshbini namudaast, begona kunad, yo bo tarzi digar  munosibat namoyad.

 

Moddai 295. Sohibi va istifoda kardani molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati hissagi qaror dorad
  1. Molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati hissagi qaror dorad, tibqi sozishi hamai ishtirokchiyon va dar surati muyassar nagardidani sozish bo tartibi muayyannamudai sud sohibi va istifoda karda meshavad.
  2. Ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi haq dorad, az qismi molu mulki umumi ba andozai hissaash baroi sohibi va istifoda ba ikhtiyorash voguzoshta shudan va dar holati imkonnopazirii on az digar ishtirokchiyon, ki hissai marbutaashro sohibi va istifoda mebarand, jubronpulii dakhldorro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 296. Samara, mahsulot va daromadi istifodai molu mulki  molikiyati hissagii badastomada

Samara, mahsulot va daromad az istifodai molu mulki molikiyati hissagi ba tarkibi molu mulki umumi dokhil  meshavand. Taqsimoti badii samara, mahsulot va daromad bayni  ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi, agar sozishnomai bayni onho tartibi digarero peshbini nakarda boshad, barobar ba andozai  sahm surat megirad.

 

Moddai 297. Kharojoti nigahdoshti molu mulki tahti molikiyati hissagi qarordoshta
  1. Har yak ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi vazifador ast ba andozai hissai khud dar pardokhti andoz, boju khiroj va digar pardokhtho oid ba molu mulki umumi, inchunin oid ba kharojoti nigahdosht va muhofizati onho, agar dar qonun yo shartnomaho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, ishtirok namoyad.
  2. Kharojote, ki zaruri nameboshand va az jonibi yake az ishtirokchiyon biduni rizoiyati digaron masraf shudaast, ba hisobi khudi u voguzoshta meshavad. Bahshoe, ki zimni on ba miyon  meoyand, bo tartibi sudi hal karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 298. Huquqi afzaliyatnoki kharidi hissa dar  doirai huquqi molikiyati umumi
  1. Hangomi furushi hissagi dar doirai huquqi molikiyati umumi ba shakhsi gayr ishtirokchiyoni boqimondai molikiyati hissagi baroi kharidani hissai furush mutobiqi narkhe, ki on furukhta meshavad va digar sharthoi barobar, ba gayr az furush dar savdoi ommavi, huquqi afzaliyatnok dorand.

Savdoi ommavi baroi furushi hissa dar doirai huquqi molikiyati umumi, hangomi rozi nabudani hamai ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi metavonad dar holathoi  peshbininamudai qismi 2, moddai 303 hamin Kodeks va digar holathoi peshbininamudai Qonun doir karda shavad.

  1. Furushandai hissa vazifador ast, digar ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagiro az niyati khud, ki hissaashro ba shakhsi gayr furukhtanist, khatti ogoh sokhta, narkh va digar sharthoi furushro ishora namoyad. Agar digar ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi az kharidori dast kashand yo hissai  furukhtashavandaro dar doirai molikiyat ba molu mulki gayrimanqul dar davomi yak moh va dar munosibat bo digar molu mulk  dar davomi  dah ruz az lahzai ogohi ba dast naorand, furushanda haq  dorad, hissai khudro ba har  kadom shakhse furushad.
  2. Hangomi furushi hissa bo vayron kardani huquqi afzaliyatnok har kadom ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi haq dorad, dar davomi se moh ba sud dar mavridi ba u guzaronidani huquq va uhdadorihoi kharidor talabot arz namoyad.

4.Qoidahoi moddai mazkur, inchunin hangomi ba kasi digar dodani hissa az rui  shartnomai

mubodila niz tatbiq megardad.

 

Moddai 299. Lahzai guzashtani hissai huquqi molikiyati umumi ba shakhse, ki onro tibqi shartnoma kharidaast

Agar dar  shartnomai bayni tarafho tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, hissai huquqi molikiyati umumi tibqi shartnoma az lahzai bastani shartnoma ba kharidor meguzarad.

Lahzai guzarishi hissai huquqi molikiyati umumi tibqi shartnoma, ki boyad ba qaydi davlati girifta shavad, mutobiqi qismi 2, moddai 247 hamin Kodeks muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 300. Taqsimi molu mulki molikiyati hissagi va az on judo namudani hissa
  1. Molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati hissagi qaror dorad, mutobiqi shartnoma bayni ishtirokchiyoni on taqsim shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi haq dorad az molu mulki umumi judo kardani hissai khudro talab namoyad.
  3. Hangomi ba muvofiqa naomadani ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi oid ba usul va sharthoi taqsimi molu mulki umumi yo judo kardani hissai yake az onho ishtirokchii molu mulki hissagi haq dorad dar shakli asl (natura) judo kardani hissai khudro az tariqi sud talab namoyad.

Agar dar shakli asl (natura) judo kardani hissaro qonun ijozat nadihad yo az sababi rasidani ziyoni voqeii beandoza ba molu mulk  imkonnopazir boshad, moliki judoshavanda  haq dorad, ki arzishi hissai u az jonibi digar  ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagi  pardokhta shavad.

  1. Farqi arzishi molu mulke, ki dar shakli asl (natura) dar asosi hamin modda ba ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi ba ivazi  hissai u dar doirai huquqi molikiyati hissagi doda meshavad, boyad bo mablagi muayyan pushonida yo bo rohi digar jubron karda shavad.

Jubronpuli ba ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi ba ivazi judo kardani hissa dar shakli asl (natura) az  jonibi digar molikon bo dodani rozigii u doda meshavad. Dar holate ki hissai molik nochiz buda, onro ba tavri voqei dar asl judo kardan imkonnopazir  ast, baroi istifodai molu mulki umumi doroi manfiati nazarras nameboshad, sud metavonad biduni rozigii in molik niz digar  ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati hissagiro   vazifador namoyad, ki haqqi uro jubron kunand.

  1. Molik badi giriftani jubronpuli mutobiqi hamin modda huquqi khudro ba hissai molikiyati umumi gum mekunad.

 

Moddai 301. Sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordorii molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati yakjoya qaror  dorad
  1. Ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati yakjoya, agar dar shartnomai bayni onho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, molu mulki umumiro ahlona sohibi va istifoda mekunand.
  2. Molu mulki tahti molikiyati yakjoya qarordoshta bo rozigii hamai ishtirokchiyon, sarfi nazar az on ki kadome az ishtirokchiyon oidi ikhtiyordorii molu mulk ahdho anjom dodaast, ikhtiyordori karda meshavad.
  3. Har yak ishtirokchii molu mulki yakjoya haq dorad oid ba ikhtiyordorii molu mulki umumi, agar dar shartnomai hamai ishtirokchiyon tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad,  ahdhoro anjom dihad. Ahdi ikhtiyordori kardani molu mulki umumi, ki yake az ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati yakjoya anjom dodaast, metavonad bo talabi ishtirokchiyoni digar binobar vakolati zaruri nadoshtani ishtirokchie, ki ahdhoro anjom dodaast, tanho dar  surati isbot gardidani on, ki tarafi  digari ahd medonist yo boyad peshaki az  in  ogoh mebud, gayriqonuni hisobida  shavad (moddai 199).
  4. Qismhoi 1-3 hamin modda hangome tatbiq megardand, ki agar Kodeksi mazkur va digar qonunho baroi navhoi alohidai molikiyati yakjoya tartibi digare muqarrar nakarda boshand.

 

Moddai 302. Taqsimi molu mulki  molikiyati yakjoya va az on judo  namudani hissa
  1. Molu mulki umumiro bayni ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati yakjoya taqsim kardan, inchunin az on judo kardani hissai yake az onho bo sharte mumkin ast, ki peshaki hissai har yak ishtirokchi  dar huquq ba molu mulki umumi muayyan karda shavad.
  2. Hangomi taqsimi molu mulki umumi va az on judo kardani hissa, agar bo qonun yo shartnomai tarafho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, hissai onho barobar donista meshavad.
  3. Asos va tartibi taqsimi molu mulki umumi va az on judo kardani hissa mutobiqi  qoidahoi muayyannamudai moddai 300  hamin Kodeks muqarrar megardad, zero baroi namudhoi alohidai  molikiyati umumi Kodeksi mazkur, digar qonunho tartibi digare peshbini nakardaand va on  az mohiyati munosibati  ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati umumi barnameoyad.

 

Moddai 303. Az hissai sahm dar molu mulki umumi nigaronidani ruyonish
  1. Kreditori ishtirokchii molikiyati hissagi yo umumi hangomi nokifoya budani digar molu mulki on haq dorad oidi judo kardani hissai qarzdor az molu mulki umumi baroi nigaronidani ruyonish az on, talabot peshnihod kunad.
  2. Agar dar chunin holatho judo kardani hissa dar shakli asl (natura) gayriimkon boshad yo azoyoni digari molikiyati hissagi yo umumi ba on etiroz kunand, kreditor haq dorad az qarzdor talab namoyad, ki hissai khudro ba digar ishtirokchiyoni molikiyati umumi bo narkhi barobar ba arzishi bozorii in sahm furushad va mablagi az furush badastomadaro baroi adoi qarz suporad.

Dar  surati az kharidani sahmi qarzdor rad namudani azoyoni  digari molikiyati umumi kreditor haq dorad tibqi tartibi sudi talab namoyad, ki ba sahmi kreditor dar   molikiyati umumi ruyonish nigaronida shavad.

 

Moddai 304. Molikiyati umumii yakjoyai zanu shavhar (hamsaron)
  1. Molu mulke, ki zanu shavhar dar davomi hamzisti jam ovardaand, agar qonun yo shartnomai bayni onho tartibi digari nizomi in molu mulkro muayyan nakarda boshad, molikiyati umumii yakjoyai onho ba hisob meravad.
  2. Molu mulke, ki qabl az nikoh ba har kadome az onho taalluq dosht, inchunin molu mulke, ki yake az onho hangomi nikoh chun tuhfa yo chun meros giriftaast, molikiyati shakhsii u ba shumor meravad.

Molu mulki istifodai shakhsi (libos, poyafzol va gayra), ba  gayr az javohirot va digar asbobu anjomi zebu zinat, harchand dar davrai zanoshui az hisobi mablagi umumii onho kharidori shudaand, molikiyati on hamsare ba hisob meravad, ki onro istifoda burdaast.

Molu mulki har yak hamsar, agar muayyan karda shavad, ki dar  davomi  hamsari az hisobi molu mulki umumii onho yo molu mulki shakhsii hamsari digar mablaguzori  shudaast, ki arzishi onro khele baland kardaast (tamiri asosi, aznavsozi, aznavtajhizoni va gayra), molikiyati   umumii yakjoyai onho etirof karda shavad. Agar dar shartnomai bayni zanu shavhar tartibi digare peshbini gardida boshad, in qoida tatbiq namegardad.

  1. Mutobiqi uhdadorihoi yake az hamsaron ba molu mulke, ki dar molikiyati u meboshad, inchunin ba sahmi u dar molu mulki umumii zanu shavhar, ki hangomi taqsim az oni u shudanash mumkin ast, ruyonish nigaronida meshavad.
  2. Tartibi muayyan namudani sahmi hamsaron dar molu mulki umumi hangomi taqsimi on va tartibi chunin taqsimotro Kodeksi oilai Jumhurii Tojikiston va digar qonunho muqarrar menamoyand.

 

Moddai 305. Molikiyati khojagii dehqoni (fermeri)
  1. Molu mulki khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) dar doirai huquqi molikiyati yakjoyai azoyoni on meboshad, agar tibqi qonun yo shartnomai bayni onho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad.
  2. Niholzori qitai zamin, imorathoi khojagi va digar imorat, inshoothoi meliorativi va digar inshootho, hayvonoti mahsuldihanda va kori, parranda, tekhnikai kishovarzi va digar tekhnikayu tajhizot, vositahoi naqliyot, asbobu anjom va digar molu mulk, ki az mablagi umumii azoyoni on ba dast ovarda shudaast, tahti molikiyati yakjoyai azoyoni khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) ba hisob meravand.
  3. Samara, mahsulot va daromade, ki dar natijai faoliyati khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) ba dast omadaast, molu mulki umumii azoyoni khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) buda, mutobiqi sozishnomai bayni onho istifoda megardad.

 

Moddai  306. Taqsimi molu mulki khojagii dehqoni (fermeri)
  1. Hangomi qati faoliyati khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) vobasta ba khorij shudani hama azoyoni on yo bo asoshoi digar molu mulki umumi boyad tibqi tartibi peshbininamudai moddahoi 300 va 302 hamin Kodeks taqsim karda shavad.
  2. Vositahoi istehsolot, ki marbuti khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) ast, hangomi az khojagi khorij shudani yake az uzvi on taqsim karda nameshavad.

Shakhse, ki az khojagi baromadaast, baroi giriftani jubronpulii barobar ba sahmi u dar molikiyati umumi ba in molu mulk huquq dorad.

  1. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qismhoi 1 va 2 hamin modda, agar mutobiqi sozishnomai bayni onho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, sahmi azoyoni khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) dar huquqi molikiyati yakjoyai molu mulki chunin khojagi barobar hisobida meshavad.

 

Moddai 307. Nizomi huquqii molu mulk hangomi aznavtashkilkunii khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) va shirkati khojagidori yo kooperativi
  1. Azoyoni khojagihoi dehqoni (fermeri) dar zaminai molu mulki khojagi metavonand shirkati khojagidori yo kooperativ tasis dihand. Chunin khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) aznavtashkilshuda chun shakhsi huquqi ba molu mulke, ki onro hamchun sahm va digar pardokht azoyoni khojagihoi dehqoni dodaast, inchunin molu mulke, ki dar natijai faoliyati on va dar asoshoi digare, ki khilofi qonun nameboshand, ba dast ovarda shudaast, dar huquqi molikyati on meboshad.
  2. Andozai sahmi azoi khojagii dehqoni (fermeri), ki ishtirokchii shirkati khojagidori yo uzvi kooperativ meboshand, bo nazardoshti sahmi onho dar doirai huquqi molikiyati umumi ba molu mulki khojagii dehqoni (fermeri) tibqi tartibi peshbininamudai qismi 3 moddai 306 hamin Kodeks muqarrar karda meshavad.

 

BOBI 18. HUQUQI  MAHDUDI  MOLU  MULK

 

§1. Huquqi peshburdi khojagidori

 

Moddai 308. Huquqi peshburdi khojagidori

Korkhonai vohidi davlatii jumhuriyavi yo kommunali, ki ba on molu mulk ba huquqi peshburdi

khojagidori taalluq dorad, in molu mulkro dar doirai muayyannamudai Kodeksi mazkur sohibi,

istifoda va ikhtiyordori menamoyad.

 

Moddai 309. Obekti huquqi peshburdi khojagidori

Obekti huquqi peshburdi khojagidori, agar qonunho tartibi digarero peshbini nakarda boshand, hama guna  molu mulk buda metavonad.

 

Moddai 310. Ba  dast ovardan  va qati huquqi peshburdi khojagidori
  1. Huquqi peshburdi khojagidori ba molu mulke, ki molikash dar mavridi ba ikhtiyori korkhonai qablan tasisyoftai davlati dodani on qaror qabul kardaast, agar dar qonunho yo qarori molik tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, az jonibi in korkhona, az lahzai ba balansi mustaqimash guzaronidani molu mulk paydo meshavad.
  2. Samara, makhsulot va daromad az istifodai molu mulk, ki korkhona mutobiqi shartnoma yo dar asoshoi digar ba dast ovardaast, muvofiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunho baroi ba dast ovardani huquqi molikiyat ba khojagidorii korkhona dokhil meshavad.
  3. Huquqi peshburdi khojagidori ba molu mulk bo asos va tartibi peshbininamudai qonunho baroi qati huquqi molikiyat, inchunin dar holati qonunan musodira namudani molu mulkii korkhona bo qarori molik qat megardad.

 

Moddai 311. Huquqi molik nisbati molu mulki tahti peshburdi khojagidori qaror doshta
  1. Moliki molu mulki tahti peshburdi khojagidori qarordoshta, mutobiqi qonun masalahoi tasisi korkhona, muayyan namudani maqsadu maromi faoliyati on, aznavtashkilkuni va barham dodani onro hal namuda, rohbari korkhonaro tain menamoyad, mutobiqi maqsad istifoda va hifz shudani molu mulki marbuti korkhonaro tahti nazorat megirad.
  2. Molik ba giriftani yak qismi foida az istifodai molu mulki tahti peshburdi khojagidorii korkhona qarordoshta huquq dorad.

 

Moddai 312. Sharthoi amali gardonidani huquqhoi molu mulki korkhonai  vohidi davlati
  1. Korkhonai vohidi davlati, ki dar asosi huquqi khojagidori faoliyat mekunad, haq  nadorad biduni rozigii molik yo maqomi davlatii  az jonibi on vakolatdorshuda shaklhoi zerini faoliyati sohibkoriro anjom dihad:

a) binoyu inshoot, tajhizot va digar fondhoi asosii korkhonaro furushad yo ba ikhtiyori digar ashkhos suporad, ivaz namoyad, ba ijorai darozmuddat (besh az se sol), muvaqqatan ba istifodai bepul  dihad. Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston metavonad ruykhati binoyu inshoot, tajkhizot va digar fondhoi asosii korkhonahoi vohidi davlatiro, ki ijoraashon novobasta az muhlati ijora  dar muvofiqa bo maqomoti  vakolatdori davlati  amali  megardad, muayyan namoyad;

b) filialho va korkhonahoi fari sozad, yakjoya bo sohibkoroni khususi korkhonaho va istehsoloti mushtarak tasis  dihad, sarmoyai tijorati va pulii khudro  dar onho guzorad;

v) ba sohibkoroni khususi qarz dihad, ki foizi on az andozai foizi krediti tasdiqnamudai Bonki millii Tojikiston pointar boshad.

  1. Korkhonai vohidi davlati, agar dar qonunho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, metavonad mustaqilona molu mulki manquli dar asosi huquqi khojagidori ba on vobasta shudaro ikhtiyordori kunad.

 

§ 2.  Huquqi idorai operativi

 

Moddai 313. Huquqi idorai operativi
  1. Korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati, inchunin muassisa ba molu mulki dar ikhtiyorash guzoshtashuda dar doirai muayyannamudai qonun, mutobiqi maqsadi faoliyati khesh suporishhoi molik va tainoti molu mulk huquqi sohibi istifoda va ikhtiyordoriro dorand.
  2. Moliki molu mulke, ki ba ikhtiyori korkhonai davlati yo muassisa doda shudaast, haq dorad molu mulki ziyodati, tahti istifoda qaror nadoshta va yo mutobiqi maqsad istifodanashudaro pas girad va mutobiqi salohdidi khud istifoda barad.

 

Moddai 314. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki korkhonai makhsusi davlati
  1. Korkhonai makhsusi davlati tanho bo rozigii moliki in molu mulk haq dorad molu mulkro begona kunad yo bo molu mulki marbutaash bo usuli digar munosibat kunad.

Korkhonai makhsusi davlati makhsuloti istehsolkardaashro, agar qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi tartibi digare peshbini nakarda  boshand, mustaqilona mefurushad.

  1. Tartibi taqsimi daromadi korkhonai makhsusi davlatiro moliki molu mulki on muayyan mekunad.

 

Moddai 315. Ikhtiyordorii molu mulki muassisa
  1. Muassisa haq nadorad molu mulki ba ikhtiyorash guzoshtashuda yo az hisobi mablagi mutobiqi kharjnomai (smetai) baroi kharidanash judokardashudaro, furushad, yo onro bo usuli digar sohibi namoyad.
  2. Agar mutobiqi sanadi tasisoti ba muassisa ijozat doda shuda boshad, ki bo faoliyati daromadnok mashgul shavad, dar on surat daromad va molu mulki az in daromad badastovardashuda purra ba ikhtiyori muassisa guzashta, dar balansi alohida ba hisob girifta meshavad.

 

Moddai 316. Ba dast ovardan va qat namudani huquqi idorai operativii molu mulk
  1. Huquqi idorai operativii molu mulke, ki sohibmulk onhoro ba korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii)

davlati yo muassisa vobasta namudaast, agar dar qonun yo sanadi digari meyorii huquqi yo qarori

sohibmulk tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, az lahzai ba in korkhona yo muassisa suporidani

on ba miyon meoyad.

  1. Samara, mahsulot va daromad az istifodai molu mulki tahti idorai operativi qarordoshta,

inchunin molu mulke, ki korkhonai makhsusi (kazonii) davlati yo muassisa muvofiqi shartnoma yo digar

asosho ba dast ovardaast, tibqi tartibi muayyankardai hamin Kodeks va digar sanadhoi meyorii

huquqi oid ba dast ovardani molikiyat ba huquqi operativii idorakunii korkhona dokhil meshavad.

3.Huquqi idorai operativii molu mulk mutobiqi asos va tartibi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks

va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqi oid ba qat namudani huquqi molikiyat, inchunin dar holathoi

bo qarori sohibmulk ba tavri qonuni pas giriftani molu mulk az korkhonai makhsusi davlati yo

muassisa qat megardad.

 

Moddai 317. Huquqi  molik  ba pas giriftan va aznavtaqsimkunii molu mulke, ki ba idorai operativi doda shudaast

Molike, ki molu mulki ba ikhtiyori muassisa yo korkhonai makhsusi davlati dodaast, haq dorad onro pas girad yo bayni digar shakhsi huquqii tasisdodaash, agar dar sanadi qonuni tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, bo salohdidi khud az nav taqsim kunad.

 

Moddai 318. Ba molu mulki ba idorai operativi dodashuda nigaronidani ruyonish
  1. Ruyonish az molu mulke, ki tahti idorai operativii muassisa yo korkhonai makhsusi davlati qaror dorad, dar asosi tartibi umumi mutobiqi qonunho, agar hamin Kodeks va sanadi qonuni tartibi digarero peshbini nakarda boshand, anjom doda meshavad.
  2. Agar muassisa az faoliyati khojagi daromad ba dast ovarda boshad, ruyonish az molu mulki vobastakardai molik, ki tahti idorai operativi qaror dorad, pas az sitonidani pardokht az daromade, ki az faoliyati khojagi giriftaast va molu mulke, ki az  hisobi daromad ba dast ovardaast, anjom doda meshavad.
  3. Muassisa va korkhonai makhsusi davlati mutobiqi uhdadorihoyashon oidi mablagi dar ikhtiyorashon qarordoshta javobgar meboshand.

Dar surati nokifoya budani mablagi muassisa yo korkhonai makhsusi davlati masuliyati uhdadoriho  ba zimmai moliki  muassisa yo korkhonai makhsusi davlati guzoshta meshavad.

 

Moddai 319. Nigoh doshtani huquq ba molu mulk hangomi ba digar molik guzashtani korkhona yo muassisa
  1. Hangomi chun kompleksi molumulki guzoshtani huquqi sohibmulkii korkhonai vohidi

davlatii jumhuriyavi yo kommunali ba sohibmulkii digari davlati yo kommunali, chunin korkhona

huquqi peshburdi  khojagidoriro ba molu mulki khud nigoh medorad.

  1. Hangomi ba digar shakhs guzashtani huquqi molikiyat ba muassisa in muassisa huquqi idorai operativiro ba molu mulki khud nigoh medorad.

 

  1. Huquqhoi digari ashyoi

 

Moddai 320. Huquqhoi mahdudi ashyoi ba sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori  kardani ashyo

Huquqhoi mahdudi ashyoi ba sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori kardani ashyo, inchunin dar natijai uhdadorihoi shartnomavi, ba monandi shartnomai kiroi ashyo, ijora, qarz va digar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun ba miyon meoyand.

 

BOBI 19. HIFZI HUQUQI MOLIKIYaT VA DIGAR HUQUQHOI AShYOI

 

Moddai 321. Etirofi huquqi molikiyat

Molik haq dorad etirofi huquqi molikiyatashro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 322. Talab karda giriftani molu mulk az ba dastovarandai gayriqonuni

Molik huquq dorad az ba dastovarandai  gayriqonuni molu mulkashro talab karda girad.

 

Moddai 323. Talab karda giriftani molu mulk az badastovarandai bovijdon
  1. Agar molu mulki muzdnok az shakhse ba dast ovarda shuda boshad, ki huquqi begona kardani onro nadosht va ba dastdarovaranda az in ogoh nabud va ogoh buda ham nametavonist (badastovarandai bovijdon), in molu mulkro  molik yo shakhse, ki molik baroi sohibi doda gum karda boshad yo az yaki onho duzdida shuda boshad yo bo usuli digar, biduni  ikhtiyori onho az tasarrufashon baromada boshad, molik haq dorad onro az badastovaranda talab karda girad.
  2. Agar molu mulk az shakhse, ki ba begona kardani on huquq nadosht, be pul girifta shuda boshad, molik dar hama holat ba talab karda giriftani molu mulk haq dorad.
  3. Az badastdarovarandai bovijdon talab karda giriftani pul, inchunin kogazhoi qimatnoki manzuri mumkin nest.

 

Moddai 324. Hisobbarobarkuni hangomi bargardonidani molu mulk az badastdarovarandai gayriqonuni

Hangomi talab karda giriftani molu mulk az ba dastdarovarandai  gayriqonunii gayr molik inchunin haq dorad az shakhse, ki  medonist yo boyad medonist, ki sohibii u gayriqonuni meboshad (ba dastdarovarandai bevijdon) bargardonidan yo jubroni hamai daromadero, ki  in shakhs ba dast ovardaast yo meboist dar tamomi davrai sohibiash ba dast orad, talab namoyad; badastdarovarandai bovijdon boshad, tamomi  daromadero, ki u ba dast ovardaast yo meboist az lahzae, ki u ogoh gardid yo meboist az sohibiyati gayriqonuniash yo dar mavridi davoi molik dar mavridi bargardonidani molu mulk ogohinoma  girifta bud,  talab namoyad.

Ba dastdarovarandai bovijdon dar  navbati khud haq dorad az molik jubroni  kharojoti  zaruriashro nisbati  molu mulk az vaqte, ki ba molik pardokhtani  daromad az molu mulk ba hisob raftaast, talab namoyad.

Ba dastdarovarandai bovijdon inchunin haq dorad behbudihoi anjomdodaashro, agar judo karda giriftan onho biduni vorid namudani ziyon ba molu mulk imkonpazir boshad, dar ikhtiyori khud nigoh dorad. Agar chunin tarzi judo karda giriftani behbudiho imkonnopazir boshad, sohibi bovijdon haq dorad jubroni kharojoti  baroi behbudi masrafshudaro, vale na beshtar az arzishi az narkhi ziyodkardashudai molu mulk talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 325. Hifzi huquqi molik az vayronkunihoe, ki ba mahrum kardan az sohibi aloqamand nameboshand

Molik metavonad rafi hama guna vayronkunihoi huquqashro talab namoyad, harchand in vayronkuniho ba mahrum kardan az huquqi sohibi aloqamand nameboshand.

 

Moddai 326. Hifzi huquqi sohibe, ki molik  nameboshad

Huquqhoi peshbininamudai moddahoi 322-325 hamin Kodeks inchunin ba shakhse taalluq dorand, ki harchand molik naboshad ham, dar asosi sohibiyati umrbodi merosi, peshburdi khojagidori, idorai operativi yo digar asoshoi peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma   molu mulkro sohibi mekunad.

In shakhs huquq dorad molu mulki dar ikhtiyorash budaro az molik niz hifz kunad.

 

Moddai 327. Beetiborii sanadi maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli va shakhsoni mansabdore, ki huquqi sohibmulk va digar huquqhoi ashyoiro vayron mekunand
  1. Agar dar natijai az jonibi maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli yo shakhsi mansabdor barovardani sanadi meyori yo infirodi , ki ba qonunho mutobiq nestand va  huquqi molik va digar shakhsro oid ba sohibi, istifoda va ikhtiyordori kardani  molu mulki marbutaashon vayron mekunand, chunin sanad tibqi  tartibi sudi mutobiqi etirozi molik yo shakhse, ki huquqash vayron shudaast, beetibor donista meshavad.
  2. Tovoni ziyone, ki dar natijai qabuli chunin asnod ba molik rasidaast, az jonibi maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, maqomoti mahallii hokimiyati davlati va maqomoti khudidorakunii mahalli boyad az hisobi bujeti dakhldor purra pardokhta shavad.

 

FASLI  III. HUQUQI UHDADORI

 

ZERFASLI 1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI OID BA UHDADORIHO

 

BOBI 20. MAFHUM, ASOSHOI BA MIYON OMADANI UHDADORI VA TARAFHOI UHDADORI

 

Moddai 328. Mafhumi uhdadori va asoshoi ba miyon omadani on
  1. Az rui uhdadori yak shakhs (qarzdor) boyad ba foidai shakhsi digar (kreditor) amali muayyanero anjom dihad. Masalan, molu mulkashro ba u dihad, korro ijro kunad, pul suporad va gayra yo az ijroi yagon amal khuddori namoyad. Kreditor boshad, haq dorad az qarzdor ijroi uhdadorihoyashro talab namoyad.
  2. Uhdadori az shartnomaho, dar natijai rasonidani zarar va dar asoshoi digari dar sanadhoi qonuni nishondodashuda, barmeoyad.

 

Moddai 329. Tarafhoi uhdadori
  1. Dar uhdadori ba sifati har kadom tarafi on – kreditor yo qarzdor – metavonand yak yo hamzamon yakchand shakhs ishtirok namoyand.

Talaboti kreditor ba yake az ashkhose, ki  dar uhdadori az jonibi qarzdor ishtirok mekunad, ba monandi guzashti muhlati davo mutobiqi talab vobasta ba on shakhs beetibor ast, khud az khud talaboti u ba shakhsi digar dakhl nadorand.

  1. Agar har kadome az tarafho mutobiqi shartnoma ba manfiati jonibi digar uhdador boshand, on taraf baroyashon qarzdori tarafi digar hisobida shuda vazifador ast ba manfiati tarafi digar amale anjom dihad va hamzamon kreditori on hisob meyobad, ki huquq dorad az tarafi digar  talab namoyad.
  2. Uhdadori baroi ashkhose, ki dar on hamchun tarafho ishtirok nadorand (shakhsi seyum) masuliyate ba vujud nameovarad.

Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi yo sozishnomai tarafho uhdadori metavonad baroi shakhsi seyum dar  munosibat ba yak yo har du taraf huquqi uhdadori ba vujud orad.

 

BOBI 21. IJROI  UHDADORIHO

 

Moddai 330. Muqarraroti umumi

Uhdadoriho boyad ba tavri dakhldor mutobiqi sharthoi uhdadori va talaboti qonun, digar sanadi huquqi ijro karda shavand va hangomi nabudani chunin shart va talabot mutobiqi ananahoi muomiloti kori yo talaboti muqarrarii peshnihodgardida anjom doda shavand.

 

Moddai 331. Nomumkin budani raddi yaktarafai ijroi uhdadori

Raddi yaktarafai ijroi uhdadori va yaktarafa tagyir dodani sharthoi on, ba gayr az holathoi peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma ijozat doda nameshavad. Raddi yaktarafai ijroi uhdadori, ki ba ba amal barovardani faoliyati sohibkorii tarafho aloqamand ast, inchunin yaktarafa tagyir dodani sharthoi chunin uhdadori tanho dar holathoi  peshbininamudai shartnoma, agar dar qonun yo mohiyati uhdadori tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, ijozat doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 332. Ijroi qism ba qismi uhdadori

Kreditor haq dorad ijroi qism ba qismi uhdadoriro qabul  nakunad, ba sharte ki dar qonun, sanadi digari huquqi, sharthoi uhdadori tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad va az ananahoi  muomiloti kori va yo az mohiyati uhdadori barnaoyad.

 

Moddai 333. Ijroi uhdadori ba shakhsi matlub

Agar dar sozishnomai tarafho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad yo az ananahoi muomiloti kori yo mohiyati uhdadori barnaoyad, qarzdor hangomi ijroi uhdadori haq dorad dar mavridi on, ki uhdadoriro mahz kreditor yo shakhsi  vakolatdori u qabul mekunad, dalel talab namoyad va baroi peshnihod nakardani chunin talabot tavakkali oqibati onro ba uhda dorad.

 

Moddai 334. Ijroi uhdadori az jonibi  shakhsi seyum
  1. Agar az qonun, digar sanadi huquqi, sharti uhdadori yo mohiyati on az jonibi qarzdor vazifai shakhsan ijro namudani uhdadori barnaoyad qarzdor ijroi uhdadoriro ba zimmai shakhsi seyum voguzoshta metavonad. Dar in holat kreditor ijroi uhdadoriro, ki ba joi qarzdor shakhsi seyum peshnihod  kardaast, boyad qabul kunad.
  2. Shakhsi seyum, tahti khatari az dast dodani huquqi khud ba molu mulki qarzdor (huquqi ijora, garav va gayra) bo sababi talab namudani ruyonish az jonibi kreditor az in molu mulk metavonad az hisobi khud biduni ijozati qarzdor talabi kreditorro qone gardonad. Dar in holat mutobiqi moddahoi 411-416 hamin Kodeks huquqi kreditor oid ba uhdadori ba shakhsi seyum meguzarad.

 

Moddai 335. Muhlati ijroi uhdadori
  1. Agar uhdadori ruzi ijro yo davrai muhlatero, ki dar jarayoni on uhdadori boyad ijro shavad, peshbini namuda boshad yo imkon medihad, ki muayyan karda shavad, uhdadori boyad dar hamon ruz yo dar har davrai hamon muhlat ijro karda shavad.
  2. Dar holathoe, ki uhdadori muhlati ijroro peshbini nakunad va dar on sharti muayyan kardani in muhlat gayriimkon boshad boyad dar muhlati oqilonai badi ba miyon omadani uhdadori, ijro karda shavad.

Uhdadorie, ki dar muhlati munosib ijro karda nashudaast, hamchunin uhdadorie, ki muhlati ijroi on bo lahzai pastalabi muayyan shudaast, agar dar muhlati digar ijro kardani uhdadori az qonun, sanadi huquqii digar, sharti uhdadori, ananahoi muomiloti kori yo mohiyati uhdadori barnaoyad, qarzdor vazifador ast dar davomi haft ruz ijroi uhdadoriro talab kardani kreditor ijro namoyad.

 

Moddai 336. Talabi ijroi muntazam

Uhdadorie, ki ijroyash dar muhlati tuloni  peshbini shudaast, agar dar qonunho yo sharthoi uhdadori tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad yo az ananahoi muomiloti kori yo mohiyati uhdadori barnaoyad, boyad ba tavri muntazam, bo  nazardoshti davrai baroi ijroi chunin uhdadori muvofiq (ruz, daha, moh, semoha va gayra) ijro karda shavand.

 

Moddai 337. Ijroi uhdadori pesh az muhlat

Agar dar qonun, sanadi digari huquqi, yo sharthoi uhdadori tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad yo az mohiyati on barnaoyad, qarzdor haq dorad uhdadorii khudro to faro rasidani muhlat  ijro namoyad. Vale ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadori, ki bo faoliyati sohibkorii tarafhoi on aloqamand meboshad, tanho dar surate ijozat doda meshavad, ki imkoniyati pesh az muhlat ijro namudani uhdadoriro qonun, digar sanadi huquqi yo sharti uhdadori peshbini namuda boshand yo az ananahoi muomiloti kori yo mohiyati uhdadori barmeoyad.

 

Moddai 338. Ittiloot oid ba jarayoni ijroi uhdadori

Dar qonunho yo sharthoi uhdadori vazifai qarzdor dar mavridi ijroi uhdadori ba kreditor yo  shakhsi muayyannamudai u khabar dodan mumkin ast, peshbini karda shavad.

 

Moddai 339.  Joi ijroi uhdadori
  1. Uhdadori boyad dar joe, ki bo sozishnomai tarafho muayyan karda shudaast yo az ananai muomiloti kori yo mohiyati uhdadori barmeoyad, ijro karda shavad.
  2. Agar joi ijroi uhdadori muayyan nagardida boshad, on boyad ba tariqi zayl ijro karda shavad:

a)  az rui uhdadorii dodani molu mulki gayrimanqul – dar  joi mavjudiyati molu mulk;

b) az rui uhdadorii dodani mol yo digar molu mulke, ki  intiqoli onro peshbini mekunad – dar joi suporidani molu mulk ba  borkashoni yakum jihati rasonidani on ba kreditor;

v) az rui digar uhdadorihoi qarzdor jihati dodani mol yo digar molu mulk – dar joi tayyor namudani on yo nigohdoshti molu mulk, ba sharte, ki in mahal dar ruzi uhdadorshudan ba  kreditor malum boshad;

g) az rui uhdadorii puli – dar joi istiqomati  kreditor yo agar kreditor shakhsi huquqi boshad,  dar joi joygirshavii on dar lahzai ba miyon omadani uhdadori; agar kreditor to lahzai ijroi uhdadori joi istiqomat yo budu boshashro ivaz karda, qarzdorro az in ogohonida boshad, pas dar joi navi istiqomat yo budu boshi kreditor va az hisobi kreditor barovardani hamai kharojoti vobasta ba  ivazi joi ijro;

d)  az rui uhdadorihoi digar – dar joi zisti  qarzdor va agar qarzdor shakhsi huquqi boshad – dar joi budu boshi on.

 

Moddai 340. Ijroi uhdadorihoi puli
  1. Istifodai asori khoriji, inchunin hujjati pardokht bo asori khoriji hangomi anjom dodani hisobbarobarkuni dar qalamravi Jumhurii Tojikiston mutobiqi uhdadoriho muvofiqi holat, tartib va sharthoi muayyannamudai qonun ijozat doda meshavad.
  2. Uhdadorii puli boyad bo puli milli ifoda va pardokht karda shavad.
  3. Dar holati mavjud budani shubha oid ba mahalli ijroi uhdadorii puli, uhdadori boyad dar mahalli joygirshavii kreditor (mahalli zisti shakhsi voqei yo mahalli joygirshavii shakhsi huquqi) ba ijro rasad.
  4. Agar dar mahal yo mamlakate, ki mablag pardokhta meshavad, kreditor surathisobi bonki baroi guzaronidani mablag doshta boshad, qarzdor haq dorad dar mavridi etiroz nadoshtani kreditor uhdadorii pulii khudro bo rohi ba in surathisob guzaronidani mablag ijro namoyad.
  5. Agar to faro rasidani muhlati pardokht arzishi (qurbi) vohidii pul bolo rafta yo past shuda yo in ki asor tagyir yofta boshad, qarzdor az rui narkhe (qurbe) mablagro pardokht menamoyad, ki ba muhlati ba vujud omadani uhdadori muvofiq boshad, agar dar Kodeksi mazkur yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad. Hangomi digar shudani asor munosibathoi mubodilavi boyad bo narkhi (qurbi) dar ruzi tagyiryobii asor mavjudbudai vohidhoi puli anjom doda shavand.

 

Moddai 341. Ziyod kardani mablage, ki baroi taminoti shahrvand pardokhta meshavad

Mablage, ki az rui uhdadorii puli bevosita baroi tamini  shahrvand jihati jubroni ziyoni ba hayot va salomatiash rasida pardokhta meshavad, tibqi shartnomai taminoti umrbod va digar holatho bo ziyod shudani nishondihanda baroi  hisobhoi muqarrarnamudai qonun mutanosiban meafzoyad. (QJT az 03.07.2012s., №850)

 

Moddai 342. Navbati pardokhti talab az rui uhdadorii puli

Mablagi pardokhtshuda, ki baroi ijroi purrai uhdadorii puli nokifoya meboshad, hangomi mavjud nabudani sozishnomai digar, pesh az hama baroi pushonidani kharojoti kreditor oidi giriftani ijro, sipas baroi pushonidani mablagi asosii qarz, sipas –  foizi on ravona karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 343. Ijroi uhdadorii alternativi

Qarzdore, ki vazifador ast ba kreditor in yo on molu mulkro dihad, az du yo yakchand amal yakero anjom dihad, agar az qonun, sanadi digari huquqi yo sharti uhdadori tartibi digare barnaoyad, huquqi  intikhob kardanro dorad.

 

Moddai 344. Ijroi uhdadorie, ki dar on yakchand kreditor yo yakchand qarzdor ishtirok  dorand

Agar dar uhdadori yakchand kreditor yo yakchand qarzdor ishtirok namoyand, pas har yake az kreditor haq dorad ijroi uhdadoriro talab namoyad va har kadome az qarzdor vazifador ast uhdadoriro barobar ba sahmi digaron ba andozae ijro kunad, ki az qonun, digar sanadi huquqi yo sharti uhdadori tartibi  digare barnaoyad.

 

Moddai 345. Uhdadorihoi mushtarak
  1. Uhdadorii (javobgarii) mushtarak yo talabi mushtarak hangome ba miyon meoyad, ki agar uhdadorii mushtarak yo talabi mushtarak dar sozishnoma yo dar qonun, az jumla dar qismati taqsimnopazirii predmeti uhdadori muqarrar shuda boshad.
  2. Uhdadorii yakchand qarzdor oid ba uhdadorie, ki ba faoliyati sohibkori aloqamand ast, hamchunin talabi yakchand kreditoron dar chunin uhdadori, agar dar qonun, sanadi digari meyori yo sharthoi uhdadori tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, uhdadorii mushtarak meboshad.

 

Moddai 346. Huquqi kreditor hangomi uhdadorii mushtarak
  1. Hangomi uhdadorii mushtaraki qarzdoron kreditor haq dorad ijroi onro az hamai qarzdoron dar yakjoyagi yo az har kadomi onho dar alohidagi, az jumla ba tavri purra yo oid ba yak qismi qarz, talab namoyad.
  2. Kreditore, ki az jonibi yake az qarzdoroni mushtarak talabi khudro purra qone nakardaast, haq dorad ijroi qismi qonenashudaro az digar qarzdoroni mushtarak talab namoyad. Qarzdoroni mushtarak to lahzai purra ijro namudani uhdadori masul boqi memonand.

 

Moddai 347. Etiroz muqobili talaboti kreditor hangomi uhdadorii  mushtarak

Dar holati uhdadorii mushtarak qarzdor huquq nadorad ba muqobili talabi kreditor, ki  chunin munosibat  bayni digar qarzdoron bo kreditor asos yoftaast va qarzdori mazkur dar on ishtirok nadorad, etiroz bayon kunad.

 

Moddai 348. Ijroi uhdadorii mushtarak az jonibi yake az qarzdoron
  1. Az jonibi yake az qarzdoron purra ijro namudani uhdadorii mushtarak qarzdoroni digarro az ijroi uhdadori dar nazdi kreditor ozod mekunad.
  2. Agar az munosibati bayni qarzdoroni mushtarak tartibi digare barnaoyad:

a) qarzdore, ki uhdadorii mushtarakro ijro kardaast haq  dorad nisbat ba digar qarzdoron talabi pastdosht regressi,  bo hissai barobar, bo az hisob barovardani hissai khud, peshnihod namoyad.

b) qismi napardokhtai yake az qarzdoroni mushtarak ba qarzdore, ki uhdadorii mushtarakro ijro kardaast, ba tavri barobar ba zimmai hamon qarzdor va qarzdoroni digar guzoshta meshavad.

  1. Qoidahoi hamin modda mutanosiban hangomi qati uhdadorii mushtarak bo bahisobgirii davoi mutaqobilai yake az qarzdoron tatbiq megardand.

 

Moddai 349. Talaboti mushtarak
  1. Hangomi talabi mushtarak har kadome az kreditoroni mushtarak haq dorad ba qarzdor dar hajmi purra talab peshnihod kunad.

To peshnihod gardidani talab az jonibi yake az kreditoroni mushtarak qarzdor haq dorad mutobiqi salohdidi khud uhdadorii har kadome az onhoro ijro kunad.

  1. Qarzdor haq nadorad ba muqobili talabi yake az kreditoroni mushtarak, ki ba chunin munosibati qarzdor bo digar kreditoroni mushtarak asos yoftaast va dar on kreditori mazkur  ishtirok nadorad, etiroz namoyad.
  2. Az jonibi qarzdor purra ijro namudani uhdadorii yake az kreditoroni mushtarak uro az ijroi uhdadorii kreditoroni boqimonda ozod mekunad.
  3. Kreditori mushtarak, ki ijroi uhdadorii qarzdorro qabul kardaast, vazifador ast qarzi ba digar kreditoron taalluqdoshtaro, agar az  munosibati bayni onho tartibi digare barnaoyad, ba andozai barobar jubron namoyad.

 

Moddai 350. Ijroi uhdadorihoi ilovagi

Mutobiqi sanadi qonuni yo sharthoi uhdadorii bayni  kreditoru qarzdor peshbini shudanash mumkin ast, ki hangomi az tarafi qarzdori asosi qone nanamudani talabi kreditor oid ba  ijroi uhdadori, chunin talabi dar qismati ijronashuda ba  qarzdori digar (qarzdori ilovagi) arz karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 351. Tasdiqi ijroi uhdadori
  1. Kreditor ijroi uhdadoriro qabul namuda, vazifador ast bo talabi qarzdor ba u oid ba purra yo qisman ijro shudani uhdadori zabonkhat dihad.

Agar qarzdor ba kreditor baroi tasdiqi uhdadori hujjati qarzdoriro doda boshad, pas kreditor ijroi uhdadoriro qabul namuda, boyad hujjatro ba qarzdor bargardonad. Hangomi imkonnopazirii  bargardonidani on kreditor vazifador ast dar mavrid dar  zabonkhati dodaash ba on ishora kunad.

Zabonkhatro bo sabt dar hujjati qarzdori, ki ba qarzdor bargardonida   meshavad, ivaz namudan mumkin ast.

  1. Dar ikhtiyori qarzdor qaror doshtani hujjati qarzdori qati uhdadoriro, to lahzai isbot nagardidani tartibi digar, tasdiq mekunad.
  2. Hangomi az tarafi kreditor nadodani zabonkhati ijroi uhdadorii anjomdodashuda, bargardonidani hujjat yo sabti imkonnopazirii bargardonidani on dar zabonkhat qarzdor haq dorad ijroro ba takhir guzorad. Dar in holat kreditor muhlatro guzaronida  hisobida  meshavad.

 

Moddai 352. Ijroi uhdadori bo usuli ba depozit guzaronidani qarz
  1. Qarzdor haq dorad puli qarz giriftaash yo kogazhoi qimatnokashro ba depoziti notarius va dar holathoi muqarrarnamudai sud ba depoziti sud guzaronad, ba sharte ki qarzdor bo sababhoi zayl uhdadoriro ijro karda natavonad:

a) agar dar mahalle, ki uhdadori ijro megardad, kreditor yo shakhsi ba qabuli ijroi uhdadori vakolatdorshudai on huzur nadoshta boshad;

b) gayri qobili amal budani kreditor va nabudani  namoyandai on;

v) baralo ayon nabudani on, ki kadom shakhs oid ba uhdadori kreditor meboshad, az jumla vobasta ba  bahsi bayni kreditor va digar ashkhos dar hamin mavrid;

g) sarkashi namudani kreditor az qabuli ijroi uhdadori yo ba tarzi digar guzaronidani muhlat az jonibi on.

  1. Ba depoziti notarius yo sud guzaronidani mablag yo kogazhoi qimatnok ijroi uhdadori hisobida meshavad.

Notarius yo sude, ki ba depozitashon mablagi puli yo kogazhoi qimatnok guzaronida shudaast, dar in ibora kreditorro ogoh  menamoyand.

 

Moddai 353. Ijroi mutaqobilai uhdadori
  1. Ijroi mutaqobila az jonibi yake az tarafho ijro namudani uhdadorie ba hisob meravad, ki mutobiqi shartnoma sharti ijroi uhdadori az jonibi tarafi digar guzoshta shudaast.
  2. Dar holati az tarafi vazifadorshuda peshnihod nagardidani ijroi uhdadorii shartshuda yo mavjud budani uhdadorie, ki oshkoro az ijro nashudani on dar muhlati muayyan guvohi medihad, tarafi mutaqobila ijroi uhdadoriro ba zimadoshta haq dorad ijroi uhdadorii khudro bozdorad yo az ijroi on dast kashad va tovoni ziyonro talab namoyad.

Agar sharti ijroi uhdadorii dar shartnoma zikrshuda dar  hajmi purra  ijro nashuda boshad, tarafi mutaqobilai ijroi uhdadori ba zimma doshta haq dorad ijroi uhdadoriashro bozdorad yo az ijroi qismi on rad kunad, ki barobar ba hajmi ijroi  peshnihodnashudai on ast.

  1. Agar ijroi mutaqobilai uhdadori joy doshta boshad, sarfi nazar az peshnihod nakardani sharti ijroi uhdadorii dar shartnoma zikrgardida az tarafi digar, tarafi digar  vazifador ast chunin ijroi uhdadoriro peshnihod kunad.
  2. Agar dar shartnoma yo qonun tartibi digare muayyan nashuda boshad, qoidahoi peshbininamudai qismi 2 va 3 hamin modda tatbiq karda meshavad.

 

BOBI 22. TAMINI IJROI UHDADORI

 

§1. MUQARRAROTI UMUMI

 

Moddai 354. Usulhoi tamini ijroi uhdadori
  1. Ijroi uhdadori ba vositai noustuvorona, garav, nigoh doshtani  molu mulki qarzdor, zamonat, kafolati bonki, bayona va digar usulhoi peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma tamin  karda shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Beetiborii sozishnoma oid ba tamini ijroi uhdadori boisi beetibor gardidani in uhdadori (uhdadorii asosi) shuda nametavonad.
  3. Agar dar qonun tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, beetibori uhdadorii asosi boisi beetibor gardidani uhdadorii taminkunandai on megardad.

 

§ 2. NOUSTUVORONA

 

Moddai 355. Mafhumi noustuvorona
  1. Noustuvorona (jarima, penya) mablage meboshad, ki tibqi qonun yo shartnoma muayyan gardidaast va qarzdor vazifador ast hangomi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori, az jumla dar holati guzaronidani muhlati ijro, onro ba kreditor pardozad. Tibqi talabi   pardokhti noustuvorona kreditor ba isboti ziyoni ba u rasonidashuda vazifador  nameboshad.
  2. Andozai noustuvorona dar mablagi puli aniq yo dar foiz ba mablagi ijrokardanashuda yo in ki

ba tavri nomatlub ijrokardashuda muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 356. Shakli sozishnoma oid ba noustuvorona

Sozishnoma oidi ba noustuvorona sarfi nazar az  shakli uhdadorii asosi, boyad ba tarzi khatti basta shavad.

Rioya nakardani in talab boisi gayriqonuni shudani sozishnoma oid ba noustuvorona megardad.

 

Moddai 357. Noustuvoronai qonuni
  1. Kreditor haq dorad pardokhti noustuvoronai muayyannamudai qonun (noustuvoronai qonuni) –ro sarfi nazar  az on ki dar sozishnoma uhdadorii pardokhti on peshbini shudaast yo na, talab  namoyad.
  2. Andozai noustuvoronai qonuni, agar qonun onro man nakunad, bo sozishnomai tarafho ziyod karda shudanash mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 358. Kam kardani noustuvorona

Agar noustuvoronai pardokhtshavanda oshkoro ba oqibati vayron kardani uhdadori barobar naboshad, sud haq  dorad noustuvoronaro kam kunad.

Qoidahoi hamin modda ba huquqi qarzdor jihati kam kardani andozai masuliyati u dar asosi moddai 435 hamin Kodeks va  huquqi kreditor baroi ruyonidani tovoni ziyon dar holathoi peshbininamudai moddai 424 hamin Kodeks dakhl nadorand.

 

§ 3. GARAV

 

Moddai 359. Mafhum va asoshoi ba miyon omadani garav
  1. Vobasta ba garav kreditor mutobiqi uhdadorii bo garav tamingardida (dorandai garav) dar holati ijro nashudani in uhdadori az jonibi qarzdor baroi az arzishi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudai shakhse, ki in molu mulk ba u marbut ast (garavdeh) jihati qone namudani talabotash nisbat ba digar kreditoron huquqi afzaliyatnok dorad, ba gayr az holathoi dar qonun muqarrar kardashuda.

Dorandai garav huquq dorad dar hamon asos baroi qone namudani  talabotashro az tovoni sugurta baroi gum yo vayron kardani molu mulki guzoshtashuda qone namoyad, sarfi nazar az on, ki az kadom shakhs va ba manfiati ki on sugurta shudaast,  ba  sharte, ki gum yo vayron kardan bo sababhoe rukh doda boshand, ki dorandai garav  baroyashon javobgar nest.

  1. Ba garav guzoshtani korkhona, bino, inshoot, manzil (kvartira) va digar molu mulki gayri manqul (ipoteka) bo qonuni ipoteka tanzim karda meshavad. Qoidahoi umumi oid ba garav, ki dar hamin Kodeks zikr shudaand, dar holate tatbiq karda meshavand, ki dar hamin Kodeks yo qonun dar borai ipoteka va qoidahoi digare muqarrar nagardida boshand.
  2. Garav dar asosi shartnoma ba miyon meoyad. Garav inchunin dar asosi qonun, hangomi farorasidani holathoi  muayyannamudai on ba miyon meoyad, ba sharte ki agar dar qonun peshbini gardida boshad, ki  kadom molu mulk va  baroi tamini ijroi kadom uhdadori ba garav monda shudani on peshbini shuda boshad.

Qoidahoi hamin Kodeks oid ba garav, ki dar asosi  shartnoma ba miyon meoyand, muvofiqan nisbat ba garave tatbiq megardad, ki  dar asosi qonun ba miyon omadaast, ba sharte ki  dar qonun tartibi digare muayyan nashuda boshad.

 

Moddai 360. Predmeti garav
  1. Predmeti garav hama guna molu mulk, az jumla mol va huquqi molu mulki (talabot), ba istisnoi molu mulke, ki az muomilot barvarda shudaand (qismi 2 moddai 141 hamin Kodeks) talabote, ki bo shakhsiyati qarzdor sakht aloqamand ast, az jumla talabot oid ba aliment, tovoni ziyone, ki ba hayot va salomati rasonida shudaast va digar huquqhoe buda metavonad, ki guzasht kardani onho ba  digar  ashkhos tibqi sanadi qonuni man shudaast.
  2. Huquqi garavro bo shartnoma ba molu mulke, ki minbad ba molikiyati garavdeh yo khojagidorii u vorid meshavad, niz tatbiq kardan mumkin ast.
  3. Garavi navhoi alohidai molu mulk, az jumla molu mulki shahrvandone, ki az hisobi on sitonidan ijozat doda nameshavad, tibqi sanadi qonuni man yo mahdud karda shudanashon mumkin ast.
  4. Garavi qogazhoi qimatnoki jamiyathoi sahhomi, az jumla bonkho, digar subekthoi khojagi bo nazardoshti sanadi qonuni oid ba qogazhoi qimatnok doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 361. Talabote, ki bo garav tamin  karda meshavad
  1. Agar dar shartnoma yo sanadi qonuni tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, garav talabotro tanho dar hajme tamin mekunad, ki on dar lahzai voqean qone namudani on mavjud ast, az jumla foizho, jubroni ziyone, ki az guzaronidani muhlat rasidaast, noustuvorona (jarima, penya), kharojoti zaruri baroi nigahdoshti molu mulki ba garav guzoshta shuda,  inchunin tovoni ziyone, ki sitonida meshavad.
  2. Garav nisbati talabote, ki metavonad dar oyanda pesh oyad muqarrar shudanash mumkin ast, ba sharte, ki tarafho oidi andozai ba garav tamin namudani chunin uhdadori ba muvofiqa rasand.

 

Moddai 362. Navhoi garav
  1. Garav mumkin ast dar navhoi ipoteka, garavi dodashuda (zaklad), garavi huquq, garavi vositahoi

puli va garavi molu mulk dar garavkhona (lombard) baromad namoyad.»;

  1. Ipoteka – navi garavest, ki molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda tasarrufi va istifodai garavdeh yo shakhsi seyum boqi memonad.

Predmeti ipoteka korkhonaho, imoratho, bino, inshoot, manzil  (kvartira) – hoi dar binohoi bisyorhujragi, obekthoi kayhoni, va digar molu mulkie, ki  az muomiloti grajdani girifta nashudaast, buda metavonand.

Samarai judoshavanda tanho dar holathoe predmeti ipoteka buda metavonad, ki on az lahzai judo namudan obekti huquqii shakhsi seyum nagardad. Ipotekai korkhona, imorat, bino, inshoot, manzil (kvartira)-hoi dar binoi bisyorhujra, vositahoi naqliyot va  obekthoi kayhoni boyad dar maqomoti dakhldor obektho ba qayd girifta shavand.

  1. Garavi dodashuda (zaklad) – navi garave meboshad, ki hangomi on molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda az jonibi garavdeh ba sohibii garavgir doda meshavad.

Bo rozigii garavgir predmeti garav metavonad dar ikhtiyori garavdeh tahti qulf va muhri garavgir voguzoshta shavad. Predmeti garavro dar ikhtiyori garavdeh bo sabti alomate, ki tahti garav budani onro tasdiq mekunad (garavi ustuvor) voguzoshtan mumkin ast.

  1. Hangomi garavi huquq predmeti garav huquqi molu mulkie meboshad, ki metavonad az sohibi barovarda shavad, az jumla huquqi ijorai korkhona, imorat, bino, inshoot, huquqi sahm dar molu mulki shirkati khojagidori, talabi qarzi, huquqhoi molu mulkii muallifi, ikhtirokori va  digar huquqhoi molu mulki.

Huquqi ba muhlat tanho to lahzai guzashtani muhlati amali on predmeti garav buda metavonad.

Qarzdori garav boyad az garav ogoh karda shavad. Agar huqyqi ba garav guzoshtashuda bo hujjat tasdiq karda  shavad, shartnomai garav mumkin ast bo dodani hujjati muqarrarkunandai huquq ba rasmiyat darovarda shavad.

  1. Hangomi ba garav guzoshtani huquqi molu mulke, ki bo qogazi qimatnok tasdiq karda shudaast, on ba garavgir supurda meshavad yo agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, ba depoziti bonk yo idorai notariali guzaronda meshavad.

Mablagi pulie, ki predmeti garav ast, dar hisobi depoziti bonk yo idorai notariali nigoh doshta meshavad. Foize, ki ba in mablag zam megardad, ba garavdeh taalluq dorad.

  1. Garavi mablaghoi puli bo rohi ba sohibii garavgir dodani onho surat megirad, agar dar

qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad.

 

 

Moddai 363. Garavi molu mulke, ki tahti molikiyati umumi qaror dorad

Molu mulke, ki molikiyati umumi meboshad, tanho bo  rozigii hamai molikon ba garav guzoshta shudanash mumkin ast. Huquq ba hissa dar molu mulki umumi metavonad predmeti mustaqili garav  boshad.

 

Moddai 364. Garavdeh
  1. Garavdeh metavonad ham khudi qarzdor va ham shakhsi seyum boshad.
  2. Garavdehi ashyo moliki on yo shakhse buda metavonand, ki huquqi khojagidorii ashyoro dorad.

Shakhse, ki ashyo tibqi huquqi   khojagidori ba u taalluq  dorad, dar holathoi peshbininamudai qismi 2 moddai 312 hamin Kodeks haq dorad onro biduni rozigii molik ba garav guzorad.

  1. Ba garavdehi huquq shakhse buda metavonad, ki huquqi ba garav guzoranda ba u taalluq dorad.

Ba garav guzoshtani huquqi ijora yo digar huqyq ba molu mulki  begona biduni ijozati moliki on yo shakhse, ki huquqi khojagidoriro dorad, roh doda nameshavad, agar dar qonun yo shartnoma  begona kardani  in huquq be rozigii in ashkhos man karda shuda boshad.

 

Moddai 365. Garavgir

Mutobiqi hamin Kodeks, ki munosibati garavro tanzim menamoyad, ham shahrvandon va ham shakhsi huquqi garavgir buda metavonand.

 

Moddai 366. Sugurtai molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Mutobiqi shartnoma yo qonun vazifai sugurta kardani molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudaro ba zimmai shakhsoni zerin voguzoshtan mumkin ast:

– ba zimmai garavgir, ba sharte ki molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda ba ikhtiyorash doda shuda boshad;

– ba zimmai garavdeh, ba sharte ki molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda tahti istifodai u qaror doshta boshad.

  1. Agar shartnomai garav ba zimmai garavdeh vazifai sugurtai molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudaro voguzorad, garav ba hama guna huquqi garavdeh az rui hamin sugurtanoma pahn megardad va nigohdorandai garav baroi qone gardonidani talaboti taminshudaash az hama guna mablagi minbadai ruyonidani sugurta, novobasta ba sugurtakunanda va be rozigii garavdeh huquqi imtiyoznok dorad.
  2. Hangomi faro rasidani hodisai sugurta huquqi talabkuni az rui shartnomai sugurtai molu mulki ba garavguzoshtai garavdeh tanho dar surati az huquqi khud mutobiqi qismi 2 hamin modda dast kashidani garavgir ba miyon meoyad.

Agar mablagi pardokhti sugurta az mablagi uhdadorie, ki bo garav tamin gardidaast, beshtar boshad, nigohdorandai garav uhdador ast dar davomi se ruzi bonki az lahzai giriftani on farqiyati mablagro ba hisobi garavdeh guzaronad.

  1. Agar molu mulk bo gunohi nigohdorandai garav gum shuda yo oseb dida boshad, u az huquqi az hisobi pardokhti sugurta qone namudani talaboti khud mahrum megardad.

 

Moddai 367. Garavi nasuporidan va suporidani molu mulk ba garavgir
  1. Molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda, dar nazdi garavdeh boqi memonad.

Molu mulke, ki tahti ipoteka qaror dorad, ba garavgir doda nameshavad.

  1. Predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda mumkin ast dar nazdi garavdeh boyad zeri qulf va muhri garavgir voguzoshta shavad.

Predmeti ba garav guzoshtashudaro  metavon dar nazdi garavgir bo sabti nishona guzosht, ki ba garav guzoshtani molu mulk dalolat mekunad (garavi qati).

  1. Predmeti garav, ki az tarafi garavdeh muvaqqatan baroi sohibi yo istifoda ba shakhsi seyum doda shudaast, dar nazdi garavdeh qarordoshta ba hisob meravad.
  2. Hangomi ba garav guzoshtani huquqi molu mulke, ki bo qogazi qimatnok sobit shudaast, agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, ba garavgir yo depoziti notarius doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 368. Shartnomai garav, shakl va baqaydgirii on

1.Dar shartnomai garav boyad predmeti garav, mohiyat, andoza va muhlati ijpoi uhdadori, ki bo garav tamin shudaast, bayon gardad. Dar on inchunin boyad ifoda gardad, ki molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda dar nazdi kadome az tarafho qaror dorad.

  1. Shartnomai garav boyad dar shakli khatti basta shavad. Shartnomahoi omekhtae, ki mutobiqi qismi 3 moddai 453 Kodeksi mazkur basta shudaand va unsurhoi shartnomai garavro dar bar giriftaand, boyad ba talaboti moddai mazkur muvofiqat namoyand.

Shartnoma oid ba ipoteka, inchunin shartnoma dar borai garavi molu mulki manqul yo huquq ba molu mulk jihati tamini uhdadori az rui shartnoma, ki dar idorai notariali tasdiq shudanash zarur ast, boyad az jonibi idorai notariali tasdiq karda shavad.

  1. Shartnomai ipoteka boyad mutobiqi tartibi ba qayd giriftani ahdhoi baroi molu mulki dakhldor muqarrargardida ba qayd girifta shavad. Tartibi ba qayd giriftani garavi molu mulki manqulro qonun muqarrar menamoyad.
  2. Rioya nakardani qoidahoi dar qismhoi 2 va 3 hamin modda zikrshuda shartnomai garavro beetibor megardonad.

 

Moddai 369. Molu mulke, ki ba on huquqi garavgir  pahn megardad
  1. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, huquqi garavgir (huquqi garav) ba ashyoe, ki predmeti garav qaror dorad, ba marbutiyati on pahn megardad, agar dar shartnoma tarzi digar peshbini nashuda boshad.

Dar natijai istifodai molu mulki ba garav guzoshta shuda ba samarai badastovardashuda, mahsulot va daromadi on huquqi garav dar holathoi peshbininamudai shartnoma pahn megardad.

  1. Hangomi ipotekai korkhona yo digar kompleksi molu mulki dar majmu huquqi garav ba tamomi molu mulki ba on dokhilshavanda molu mulki manqul va gayrimanqul, masalan huquqi talab va huquqi istisno, az jumla huquqe, ki dar davrai ipoteka ba dast ovarda shudaast, agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, pahn megardad.
  2. Mutobiqi shartnomai garav va nisbat ba garave, ki az asosi qonun barmeoyad, mumkin ast garavi ashyo va huquqi molu mulkiro, ki garavdeh dar oyanda ba dast meorad, dar qonun  peshbini karda shavad.

 

       Moddai 370. Ba miyon omadani huquqi garav
  1. Huquqi garav hangomi dar yak vaqt mavjud budani sharthoi zerin ba miyon meoyad:

– mavjud budani shartnoma dar borai garav mutobiqi talaboti moddai 368 Kodeksi mazkur;

– sohib budani garavdeh ba huquqi molikiyat yo digar huquqi ashyoi ba predmeti garav va yo huquqi digari molumulki.

  1. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, huquqi garav nisbati garavi molu mulke, ki boyad ba garavgir supurda shavad, az lahzai supurdani in molu mulk ba miyon meoyad.
  2. Huquqi garav ba moli dar muomilotbuda mutobiqi qoidahoi qismi 2 moddai 386 Kodeksi mazkur ba miyon meoyad.

 

Moddai 371. Garavi minbada va muayyan kardani navbati garavgiron
  1. Molu mulke, ki az rui shartnomai garav jihati tamini ijroi boz yak uhdadori (garavi ibtidoi) ba garav guzoshta shudaast, metavonad baroi tamini ijroi uhdadorii digar (garavi minbada) ba garav guzoshta shavad.
  2. Garavi minbada ijozat doda meshavad, ba sharte ki on bo shartnomahoi ibtidoii garavi hamon molu mulk man nashuda boshad. Agar shartnomai ibtidoii garav sharthoi bastani shartnomai garavi minbadaro peshbini namoyad, garavi minbada boyad bo rioyai in shartho basta shavad.
  3. Navbatdorii nigohdorandai garav ba hamon yak molu mulki predmeti garav az rui sanai dar maqomoti adliya ba qayd girifta shudani garav (garavi ba qayd giriftashuda) muqarrar karda meshavad. Ba navbat guzoshtani garavgironi molu mulki manqul bo qonun muayyan karda meshavad.
  4. Garavgire, ki dar navbatdori bartari dorad, garavgiri ibtidoi nomida meshavad. Garavgironi digar garavgironi minbada meboshand.
  5. Kreditore, ki ba qarzdor baroi tahti garav kharidani molu mulk qarzi maqsadnok medihad, jihati qone gardonidani talaboti khud az hisobi hamin molu mulk huquqi istisnoi (gayrinavbati) dorad, ba sharte ki u in garavro qayd kunonida boshad.
  6. Garavdeh uhdador ast ba har yak garavgiri minbada oid ba hamai garavhoi molu mulki mazkur, ki dar qismi 1 moddai 368 hamin Kodeks peshbini shudaast, malumot dihad va u baroi ziyone, ki ba garavgiron binobar ijro nakardani in uhdadori rasonidaast, javobgar meboshad.
  7. Talaboti garavgiri minbada az arzishi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda badi qone gardonidani talaboti garavgiri ibtidoi qone karda meshavad.

Navbati qone gardonidani talabotro bo rozigii khattii garavgiron tagyir dodan mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 372. Nigohubin va ehtiyoti molu mulki  ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Garavdeh yo garavgir vobasta ba on ki molu mulki garav dar dasti kadomi az onho qaror dorad (moddai 367), agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, vazifador ast:

a) molu mulki garavro az hisobi garavdeh bo arzishi purraash az khavfi gum shudan yo oseb didan sugurta namoyad va agar arzishi purrai molu mulk az andozai talaboti bo garav tamingardida ziyod shavad, ba mablagi na kamtar az andozai talab sugurta kunad;

b) baroi ehtiyot kardani molu mulk ki ba garav guzoshtaashro, az jumla baroi himoyai on az suiqasd va talabhoi jonibi shakhsi seyum tadbirhoi zaruri andeshad;

v) tarafi digarro dar mavridi omadani khavfi gumshavi yo oseb didani molu mulki ba garav guzoshta shuda favran ogoh sozad.

  1. Garavgir va garavdeh haq dorand tibqi hujjat va voqean mavjud budani molu mulk, miqdor, vaz va sharoiti nigahdoshti molu mulki ba garav guzoshtaashro, ki dar ikhtiyori tarafi digar ast, taftish kunand.
  2. Hangomi az jonibi garavgir dagalona vayron kardani uhdadorihoe, ki dar qismi 1 hamin modda zikr yoftaand va in ba molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda khavfi gumshavi yo oseb tahdid mekunad, garavdeh haq dorad qati pesh az muhlati garavro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 373. Oqibathoi gum kardan yo oseb didani molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Garavdeh, agar dar shartnomai garav tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, tavakkali nogahon nobud gardidan yo nogahon oseb didani molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudaro ba uhda dorad.
  2. Agar garavgir mutobiqi moddai 432 hamin Kodeks az javobgari ozod shudanashro isbot karda natavonad, baroi purra yo qisman gum shudan yo oseb didani molu mulki hamchun predmeti garav ba u suporidashuda, javobgar meboshad.

Garavgir baroi gum kardani molu mulki garav ba andozai arzishi voqeii on va baroi oseb rasidan ba andozai mablage, ki arzishi on poin faromadaast, sarfi nazar az on ki hangomi suporidani on ba garavdeh chi qadar  narkhguzori shuda bud, javobgar meboshad.

Agar dar natijai oseb predmeti garav on qadar tagyir yofta boshad, ki mutobiqi tainoti asliash istifoda burdani on imkonnopazir ast, garavdeh haq dorad az on dast kashad va baroi az dast dodani on tovon talab kunad.

Dar shartnoma uhdadorii garavgir oid ba jubroni digar ziyone, ki dar natijai gum shudan yo oseb didani molu mulki garav ba garavdeh vorid megardad, peshbini shudanash mumkin ast.

Garavdihanda, ki doir ba uhdadorie, ki bo garav tamin shudaast qarzdor meboshad, haq dorad talabi garavgirro oid ba pardokhti tovoni ziyone, ki az sababi gum shudan yo oseb didani  predmeti garav rasonida shudaast, ba hisobi uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda ba hisob girad.

 

Moddai 374. Ivaz va barqaror namudani predmeti garav
  1. Ivaz namudani predmeti garav, agar dar shartnoma yo qonun tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, bo rozigii garavgir ijozat doda meshavad.
  2. Agar predmeti garav nobud shuda yo oseb dida boshad yo huquqi molikiyat ba on yo huquqi peshburdi khojagidorii on dar asosi peshbininamudai qonun qat gardida boshad, garavdeh haq dorad dar muhlati musoid predmeti garavro barqaror kunad yo, onro bo molu mulki barobararzish ivaz namoyad, ba sharte ki dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad.

 

Moddai 375. Istifoda va ikhtiyordorii predmeti garav
  1. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad yo az mohiyati garav barnaoyad, garavdeh haq dorad predmeti garavro tibqi tainotash istifoda barad, az jumla az samara va daromadi on bahravar gardad.
  2. Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad va az mohiyati garav barnaoyad, garavdeh tanho bo rozigii garavgiranda haq dorad predmeti garavro begona kunad, onro ba ijora dihad yo ba digar shakhs ba istifodai bemuzd suporad yo onro bo usuli digar ikhtiyordori namoyad.

Shartnomae, ki huquqi garavdihandaro baroi vasiyat namudani  molu mulki garav guzoshtashudaash mahdud mesozad,  tamoman etibor nadorad.

  1. Garavgir haq dorad tanho dar holathoi peshbininamudai shartnoma az molu mulki ba garav supurdashuda istifoda barad va muntazam ba garavdihanda oid ba istifodai on hisobot dihad. Mutobiqi shartnoma garavdeh mumkin ast vazifador karda shavad, ki samara va daromad az molu mulki garav guzoshtashudaro ba maqsadi ijroi uhdadorii asosi yo ba manfiati garavdeh istifoda namoyad.

 

Moddai 376. Az jonibi garavgir hifz namudani huquqhoi khud oidi predmeti  garav
  1. Garavgir, ki molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudaro dar ikhtiyor dorad yo meboist dar ikhtiyorash qaror doshta boshad, ba talab karda giriftani on az tasarrufi gayriqonunii shakhsi begona, az jumla az sohibii garavdeh (moddahoi 322, 323, 326), huquq dorad
  2. Dar holate, ki tibqi sharthoi shartnoma ba garavgir huquq doda shudaast az molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudai dar ikhtiyorash qaror doshta istifoda barad, u metavonad az shakhsi digar, az jumla az garavdeh rafi hama guna vayron kardani huquqhoyashro talab namoyad, harchand in vayronkuniho bo mahrum sokhtan az sohibiyati molu mulki aloqamand naboshand ham (moddahoi 325, 326).

 

Moddai 377. Asosi ruyonish az molu mulki  ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Ruyonish az molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda jihati qone namudani talaboti garavgir (kreditor) dar surati ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda az tarafi garavdeh vobasta ba holathoe, ki baroi onho u javobgar nameboshad, sitonidan mumkin ast.
  2. Agar khatoi rohdodai qarzdor oidi uhdadorii ba garav taminshuda khele nochiz boshad va andozai talabi garavgir dar natijai on ba arzishi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda tamoman nomutanosib gardad, talabi sitonidan molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda rad karda shudanash mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 378. Tartib va sharthoi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda metavonad ham bo tartibi sudi va ham gayrisudi surat girad.
  2. Agar dar shartnomai garav imkoniyati ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda bo tartibi gayrisudi peshbini nashuda boshad, ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda, dar mavridhoi zerin metavonad bo tartibi sudi anjom doda shavad:

-agar baroi bastani shartnomai garav rozigi yo ijozati shakhs yo maqomoti digar lozim boshadu lekin az onho chunin rozigiyu ijozat naomada boshad;

– agar predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda baroi jamiyat arzishi ziyodi tarikhi, badei va arzishhoi digari farhangi doshta boshad;

– agar garavdeh goib va mahalli zisti uro muqarrar kardan imkonnopazir boshad.

  1. Agar dar qonun tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda bo tartibi gayrisudi dar asosi shartnomai garav yo sozishnomai doroi sharthoi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda bo tartibi gayrisudi surat megirad.

Agar bayni tarafho doir ba ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda baroi bahs asose naboshad, hej yake az onho nametavonand az jonibi khud tartibi gayrisudii ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashudaro tagyir dihand va yo bo usuli digar az tartibi bo shartnoma (sozishnoma) muqarrargardidai ruyonidan az predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda dast kashand.

Dar barobari in tarafho haq dorand badi ba miyon omadani asosi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda bo sozishnomai ilovagi tartibi digari gayrisudii ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashudaro, ki az tartibi qablan muayyannamudai shartnoma yo sozishnomai garav farq dorad, peshbini namoyand.

  1. Hatto agar tartibi gayrisudii ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda bo shartnomai garav yo sozishnomai alohida muqarrar karda shuda boshad, qarzdor haq dorad ba sud dar borai mavridi bahs qaror dodani asosi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda davo namoyad.

Hangomi barrasi namudani bahsi bayni garavdeh va garavgir oid ba asoshoi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda, sud dar borai asosnokii ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda qaror qabul mekunad. Sud qaror qabul namuda, haq nadorad tartibi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashudaro, ki bo sozishnomai tarafho muqarrar shudaast, tagyir dihad.

  1. Baroi sar kardani murofiai ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda bo tartibi gayrisudi yo sudi garavgir uhdador ast, ki:

– dar borai ogozi murofiai ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda ogohnoma tartib dihad;

– ogohnomaro bo rioyai rasmiyot ba qarzdor (garavdeh) suporad;

– nuskhai ogohnomaro ba garavgironi ibtidoi va minbada ravon kunad.

Qarzdor (garavdeh) hangomi giriftani ogohnoma haq dorad, ki:

– peshnihodi garavgirro oid ba ijroi ikhtiyorii uhdadori qone gardonad;

– dar borai mavridi bahs qaror dodani asosi ruyonidan az hisobi predmeti ba garav guzoshtashuda ba sud davo namoyad.

 

Moddai 379. Furushi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Furushi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda, ki mutobiqi moddai 378 hamin Kodeks ba on ruyonish nigaronida shudaast, tibqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonunhoi murofiavi, agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, bo usuli furush dar savdoi ommavi anjom doda meshavad.
  2. Bo khohishi garavdeh sud haq dorad dar qaror oid ba ruyonish az molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda muhlati furushi molu mulki gayrimanqulro dar savdoi ommavi to yak sol daroz kunad. Daroz kardani muhlat ba huquq va uhdadorihoi tarafho oid ba uhdadorii tamini garav bo molu mulk tasir namerasonad va qarzdorro az pardokhti ziyoni dar davrai guzaronidani muhlat rasonidashuda va noustovorona ba garavdeh ozod namekunad.
  3. Arzishi ibtidoii molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda, ki bo on savdo shuru meshavad, dar holati tibqi tartibi sudi muayyan kardani ruyonish az molu mulk bo qarori sud yo dar holathoi digar mutobiqi sozishnomai bayni garavdihanda va garavgir muqarrar karda meshavad.

Molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda ba shakhse furukhta meshavad, ki dar savdo narkhi balandtarro peshnihod kardaast.

  1. Hangomi barguzornashuda elon kardani savdo garavgir haq dorad tibqi sozishnoma bo garavdeh molu mulki garavro ba dast orad va onro ba hisobi mablagi arzishi talabotash, ki bo garav tamin shudaast, dokhil kunad. Oid ba chunin sozishnoma qoidahoi kharidu furush tatbiq megardand.

Hangomi barguzor nashudani savdoi takrori garavgir haq dorad predmeti garavro dar ikhtiyori khud guzoshta arzishi onro az narkhi  savdoi takrori muayyangardida,  to 10 foiz kam kunad.

Agar garavgir dar tuli yak mohi barguzor nashudani savdoi takrori az huquqi khud dar mavridi tahti ikhtiyorash qaror doshtani predmeti garav istifoda nabarad, shartnomai garav qat megardad.

  1. Agar mablagi az furushi molu mulki garav badastomada baroi pushonidani talaboti garavgir nokifoya boshad, hangomi dar qonun yo shartnoma mavjud nabudani tartibi digar, u huquq dorad mablagi nokifoyaro biduni istifodai afzaliyati bo garav asosyofta az molu mulki digari garavdeh girad.
  2. Agar mablagi az furushi molu mulki garav badastomada az mablagi baroi bo molu mulk tamin namudani talaboti garavgir beshtar boshad, farqiyati on ba garavdeh bargardonida meshavad.
  3. Qarzdor va garavdeh, ki shakhsi seyum meboshad, haq dorad dar har lahzai to furushi predmeti garav ruyonish va furushi onro qat namuda uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda yo on qismero, ki muhlati ijroyash guzashtaast, ijro kunad. Sozishnomae, ki in huquqro mahdud mesozad beetibor ast.

 

Moddai 380. Pesh az muhlati ijro namudani uhdadorie, ki bo garav tamin shudaast va ruyonish az molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Garavgir dar holathoi zayl baroi pesh az muhlat ijro namudani uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda haq dorad:

a) agar predmeti garav az ikhtiyori garavdeh baromada boshad, ki dar on jo monda shuda bud, khilofi sharthoi shartnoma boshad;

b) az jonibi garavdeh vayron karda shudani qoidahoi ivaz namudani predmeti garav (moddai 374);

v) gum kardani predmeti garav, mutobiqi holathoe, ki baroi on garavgir javobgar nameboshad, agar garavdeh az huquqi peshbininamudai qismi 2 moddai 374 hamin Kodeks istifoda naburda boshad;

g) agar garavdeh uhdadoriashro oid ba ogohonidani garavgir az huquqi shakhsoni seyumi ba predmeti garav rioya nakarda boshad (qismi 6 moddai 371);

d) agar arzishi predmeti garav khele past shavad va garavdeh talaboti ivaz namudani predmeti garavro ijro nakunad;

e) dar  holathoi digari peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma.

  1. Garavgir haq dorad ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadorii bo garav taminshudaro talab kunad va agar talabi u qone karda nashavad, dar holathoi zayl ruyonishro az predmeti garav istifoda barad:

a) dar holati az jonibi garavdeh vayron kardani qoidahoi garavi minbada (moddai 371);

b) hangomi az jonibi garavdeh ijro nashudani vazifahoi peshbininamudai zerbandhoi a) va b) qismi 1 va qismi 2 moddai 372 hamin Kodeks;

v) dar surati az jonibi garavdeh vayron kardani qoidahoi ikhtiyordorii molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda (qismi 2 moddai 375).

 

Moddai 381. Qati garav
  1. Garav dar holathoi zayl qat megardad:

a) bo qati uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda;

b) tibqi talabi garavdeh, hangomi mavjud budani holathoi peshbininamudai hismi 3 moddai 372 hamin Kodeks;

v) dar surati nobud shudani ashyoi ba garav guzoshtashuda yo qati huquqi ba garav, agar garavdeh az huquqhoi peshbininamudai qismi 2 moddai 374 hamin Kodeks istifoda naburda boshad;

g) hangomi dar savdoi ommavi furukhtani molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda, inchunin dar holathoe, ki furushi on imkonnopazir gardidaast (qismi 4 moddai 379);

d) bo asoshoi digari peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma.

  1. Qati garav boyad dar fehraste sabt gardad, ki dar on shartnomai garav ba qayd girifta shuda bud.
  2. Hangomi qati garav dar natijai ijro namudani uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda yo muvofiqi talabi garavdeh (qismi 3 moddai 372) garavgir, ki ashyoi ba garav guzoshtashuda dar ikhtiyorash bud, boyad favran onro ba garavdeh bargardonad.

 

Moddai 382. Nigoh doshtani garav hangomi ba shakhsi  digar guzashtani huquqi ba garav guzoshtashuda
  1. Dar surati guzashtani huquqi molikiyat ba molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda yo huquqi khojagidorii on az garavdeh ba shakhsi digar dar natijai ba muzd yo bemuzd begona kardani in molu mulk yo tibqi tartibi huquqi merosi umumi (universali) – huquqi garav qobili etibor ast.

Vorisi garavdeh joi garavdehro ishgol namuda, agar dar shartnomai bayni u va garavgir tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, tamomi uhdadorihoi garavdehro ba zima megirad.

  1. Agar molu mulki garavdeh, ki predmeti garav meboshad, tibqi tartibi vorisi huquqi ba yakchand shakhs guzashta boshad, har yak voris (badastovarandagoni molu mulk) oqibathoero, ki az natijai bo garav tamin namudani uhdadori barmeoyand, ba andozai barobar ba misli molu mulki zikrgardidai ba onho guzashta, ba zimma dorand. Ammo hangome, ki mavzui garav taqsimnashavanda ast yo bo asoshoi digar tahti molikiyati umumii vorisoni umumi meboshad, onho ba garavdehoni mushtarak tabdil meyoband.

 

Moddai 383. Oqibati majburan giriftani molu mulki ba garav  guzoshtashuda
  1. Agar huquqi molikiyati garavdeh ba molu mulke, ki predmeti garav qaror dorad dar natijai giriftan (kharida giriftan) baroi ehtiyojoti davlati, rekvizitsiya yo millikunoni tibqi tartibi peshbininamudai qonun qat gardad va ba garavdeh molu mulki digar doda shavad yo jubroni dakhldor surat girad, huquqi garav ba molu mulke, ki ba ivazi on doda meshavad tatbiq gardida, muvofiqan garavgir baroi qone namudani talaboti khud az mablagi baroi jubroni garavdeh dodashavanda huquqi afzaliyatnok paydo mekunad. Garavgir inchunin haq dorad ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadorii bo garav taminshudaaro talab namoyad.
  2. Dar holathoe ki molu mulki tahti predmeti garav qarordoshtai garavdeh mutobiqi tartibi muqarrarnamudai qonun dar asosi on, ki moliki in molu mulk shakhsi voqeii digar meboshad (moddai 322) yo hamchun jazo baroi sodir namudani jinoyat yo digar huquqvayronkuni (moddai 267) girifta shavad, garav nisbat ba in molu mulk qat megardad. Dar chunin holat garavgir haq dorad ijroi pesh az muhlati uhdadorii bo garav yo in ki ivazi predmeti garavro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 384. Guzasht kardani huquq oid ba shartnomai garav
  1. Garavgir haq dorad huquqi khudro oid ba shartnomai garav bo rioyai qoidahoi dodani huquqi kreditor, bo rohi guzashti talabot (moddahoi 411-419) ba digar shakhs dihad.

2.Az jonibi garavgir guzasht kardani huquqi khud oid ba shartnomai garav ba shakhsi digar hangome qobili etibor ast, ki agar ba hamon shakhs huquqi talabot ba qarzdor oid ba uhdadorii asosii bo garav taminshuda niz guzasht karda shuda boshad.

3.Agar amali digare isbot nashuda boshad, guzashti huquq oid ba shartnoma dar mavridi ipoteka inchunin manoi guzashti huquq ba uhdadorii bo ipoteka taminshudaro dorad.

 

Moddai 385. Guzaronidani qarzi uhdadorie, ki bo garav tamin shudaast

Bo guzaronidani qarzi uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda ba shakhsi digar, agar garavdeh ba kreditor dar mavridi ba zimma giriftani masuliyati qarzdori nav rozigi nadoda boshad, garav qat megardad.

 

Moddai 386. Ba garav guzoshtani moli dar  muomilot buda
  1. Moli dar muomilotbudai ba garav guzoshtashuda mole etirof karda meshavad, ki dar ikhtiyori garavdeh buda, ba u huquq doda shudaast tarkib va shakli tabii molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashudaro (zakhirahoi mol, ashyo, mavod, mahsuloti nimtayyor, mahsuloti tayyor va gayra) tagyir dihad ba sharte, ki arzishi umumii onho az arzishi dar shartnoma muayyanshudai in molu mulki garav kamtar nagardad.

Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, arzishi moli ba muomilot guzoshtashudaro, barobari andozai qismi uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda kam kardan mumkin ast.

  1. Moli dar muomilotbuda, ki az jonibi garavdeh begona karda shudaast, az lahzai ba sohibmulki, peshburdi khojagidori yo idorai operativii badastovaranda guzashtanash digar predmeti garav shuda nametavonad. To ruzi purra kardani predmeti garav, ki moli dar muomilotbuda az jumlai on ast, mablagi az furushi in mol ba dastomada ba sifati predmeti garav hisob karda meshavad.

Moli dar muomilotbudae, ki garavdeh onro az rui sharthoi shartnomai garavi moli dar muomilotbuda kharidaast, az lahzai bo huquqi molikiyat yo huquqi digari ashyoi ba ikhtiyori garavdeh guzashtanash predmeti garav qaror megirad.

  1. Garavdehi moli dar muomilotbuda boyad daftari sabti garavhoero doshta boshad, ki dar on sharti ba garav guzoshtani mol, digar amale, ki boisi tagyir dodani tarkib va yo shakli tabiii moli ba garav guzoshtashuda gardidaand, az jumla korkardi onro dar ruzi okhirini amaliyot inikos namoyad.
  2. Hangomi az jonibi garavdeh vayron karda shudani sharti ba garav guzoshtani moli dar muomilotbuda garavgir haq dorad ba rui on nishonavu muhri khudro guzoshta, to bartaraf namudani norasoiho, amaliyotro bo in molu mulk bozdorad.

 

Moddai 387. Ba garav guzoshtani mol dar garavkhona (lombard)
  1. Az shahrvandon ba garav qabul kardani molu mulki manqule, ki baroi istemoli shakhsi, kandani qarzi kutohmuddat tain shudaand, ba sifati faoliyati sohibkori az jonibi tashkilothoi makhsusgardonidashuda – garavkhona (lombard)-ho, ki ba in faoliyat ijozatnoma (lisenziya) dorand, anjom doda shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Shartnomai ba garav guzoshtani mol dar garavkhona (lombard) bo dodani chipta (bilet) -i garav az tarafi garavkhona (lombard) ba rasmiyat darovarda meshavad.
  3. Molhoi bagaravguzoshta ba garavkhona (lombard) suporida meshavand. Garavkhona (lombard) vazifador ast moli ba garav giriftaashro ba manfiati garavdeh az hisobi khud, bo arzishi purraash mutobiqi narkhi chunin mol va chunin sifat, ki odatan dar muassisahoi savdo hangomi ba garav giriftan muayyan karda meshavad, sugurta namoyad.

Garavkhona (lombard) haq nadorad moli ba garav guzoshtashudaro istifoda va ikhtiyordori namoyad.

  1. Garavkhona (lombard) baroi gum yo oseb didani moli ba garav guzoshtashuda, agar isbot karda natavonad, ki gum yo oseb yoftani mol ba quvvai rafnopazir vobasta ast, masuliyat dorad.
  2. Hangomi dar muhlati muayyanshuda barnagardonidani qarzi moli ba garavkhona (lombard) supurda, garavi on ast, ki garavkhona (lombard) haq dorad dar asosi ijrovaraqai notarius bo guzashtani yak mohi imtiyoznok, in molro bo tartibi baroi furushi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtashuda (qismhoi 3, 4, 6 va 7 moddai 379) muqarrargardida furushad. Pas az in talaboti garavkhona (lombard) nisbati garavdeh (qarzdor), harchand mablagi furushi moli ba garav guzoshtashuda baroi purra qone namudani talabot nokifoya boshad ham qone gashta hisob meshavad.
  3. Qoidahoi ba shahrvandon muvofiqi molu mulki ba garav guzoshtaashon qarzdodani garavkhona (lombard) -ro mutobiqi hamin Kodeks qonun muayyan mekunand.
  4. Sharthoi shartnomai dar garavkhona (lombard) garav guzoshtani mol, ki huquqi garavdehro dar muqoisa ba huquqhoi dodai hamin Kodeks yo digar qonunho mahdud mesozad, etibor nadorand. Bar ivazi chunin shartho muqarraroti dakhldori qonun tatbiq karda meshavand.

 

§ 4. NIGOH  DOShTAN

 

Moddai 388. Asosho baroi nigoh doshtan
  1. Kreditor molu mulkero, ki dar ikhtiyor dorad va onro boyad ba qarzdor va yo shakhsi muayyannamudai qarzdor suporad, dar surati az jonibi qarzdor dar muhlati muayyanshuda ijro nakardani uhdadorii pardokhti haqqi mol yo jubroni kharojoti qarzho vobasta ba in yo ziyoni digar haq dorad to ijro gardidani uhdadorihoi dakhldor, onro nigoh dorad.

Bo nigoh doshtani mol hamchunin talabote qone gardonida meshavad, ki bo pardokhti mol yo jubroni kharojoti on va ziyonhoi digari az uhdadori baroyandae, ki tarafhoi in uhdadori hamchun sohibkor baromad mekunand, aloqamand nestand.

  1. Kreditor, sarfi nazar az on, ki badi sohib shudanash ba in mol shakhsi seyum ba on huquq paydo kardaast, molro nigoh doshta metavonad.
  2. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, qoidahoi moddai mazkur tatbiq megardand.

 

Moddai 389. Qone namudani talabot az hisobi molu mulki nigohdoshtashuda

Talaboti kreditori nigohdorandai mol az hisobi arzishi on barobari hajm va mutobiqi tartibe qone gardonida meshavad, ki baroi qone namudani uhdadorii bo garav taminshuda, peshbini shudaast.

 

§ 5. ZAMONAT

 

Moddai 390. Shartnomai zamonat
  1. Tibqi shartnomai zamonat zomin uhdador meshavad, ki dar nazdi kreditori digar shakhs baroi purra yo qisman ijro namudani uhdadorihoi on javobgar boshad.
  2. Shartnomai zamonat inchunin jihati tamini uhdadorii minbada, niz basta shudanash mumkin ast.

Tanho talaboti haqkoni metavonad bo zamonat tamin karda shavad.

 

Moddai 391. Shakli shartnomai zamonat

Shartnomai zamonat boyad khatti tartib doda shavad. Dar surati ba tarzi khatti tartib nadodani on shartnomai zamonat beetibor megardad.

 

Moddai 392. Masuliyati zomin
  1. Hangomi ijro nanamudan yo ijroi nomatlubi bo zamonat tamin kardani uhdadori zomin va qarzdor, agar qonun va yo shartnomai zamonat masuliyati subsidarii zominro peshbini nakarda boshand, dar nazdi kreditor mushtarak javobgar meboshand.
  2. Agar dar shartnomai zamonat tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, zomin dar nazdi kreditor barobari qarzdor, az jumla dar pardokhti foiz, jubroni kharojoti sudi oid ba ruyonidani qarz va digar ziyoni ba kreditor dar natijai uhdadoriro ijro nanamudan yo nomatlub ijro kardani qarzdor rasidaast, javobgar meboshad.
  3. Ashkhose, ki yakjoya zamonat dodaand, agar dar shartnomai zamonat tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, dar nazdi kreditor yakjoya javobgarand.
  4. Agar zamonati az jonibi qarzdor ijro kardani uhdadoriro bonk yo digar muassisai krediti, shakhsi sugurtakunanda yo digar shakhse, ki zominiro ba sifati faoliyati kasbii sohibkori anjom medihad, ba uhda girifta, agar dar sharthoi shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, zomin dar nazdi kreditor dar doirai mablagi dar zamonatnoma zikrshuda masuliyat dorad.

 

Moddai 393. Huquqi zomin jihati etirozi talaboti kreditor
  1. Agar az shartnomai zamonat tartibi digare barnaoyad, kafil haq dorad ba kreditor oid ba talabotash, ki nisbat ba on qarzdor metavonist arz kunad, etiroz namoyad.

Zomin hatto dar holate, ki qarzdor az etiroz dast kashidaast yo qarzi khudro etirof kardaast, huquqi etiroz kardanro nigoh medorad.

  1. Zomin to qone namudani talaboti kreditor uhdador ast qarzdorro az in ogoh namoyad va agar nisbat ba zomin davo peshnihod shuda boshad, qarzdorro ba muhokimai parvanda jalb namoyad.

3.Agar zomin uhdadorihoi dar qismi 2 hamin modda nishondodashudaro ijro nakarda boshad, qarzdor haq dorad ba muqobili talaboti aks (regresivi)-i zomin, ki u ba muqobili kreditor dosht, etiroz namoyad.

 

Moddai 394. Huquqi zomine, ki uhdadoriashro ijro kardaast
  1. Ba zomini uhdadoriashro ijronamuda huquqi kreditor oid ba in uhdadori va huquqi marbuti kreditor hamchun garavgir, dar on hajme, ki zomin talaboti kreditorro qone namudaast, meguzarad. Zomin hamchunin haq dorad az qarzdor pardokhti foizi mablagi ba kreditor dodashuda va jubroni digar ziyonero talab namoyad, ki binobar masuliyati nazdi qarzdor rasidaast.
  2. Hangomi az jonibi zomin ijro gardidani uhdadori kreditor boyad ba qarzdor asnodero suporad, ki in talabotro ba qarzdor tasdiq mekunad, inchunin uro huquqdor sozad, ki in talabotro tamin mekunad.
  3. Agar dar qonun, digar sanadi huquqi yo shartnomai bayni zomin va qarzdor tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad va az munosibati bayni onho barnaoyad, qoidahoi muayyannamudai moddai mazkur, tatbiq karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 395. Ogohonidani zomin dar mavridi az jonibi qarzdor ijro shudani uhdadori

Qarzdore, ki uhdadorii bo zamonat taminshudaro ijro kardaast, vazifador ast favran zominro az in ogoh sozad. Dar aksi hol, zomine ki uhdadorihoyashro dar navbati khud ijro kardaast, haq dorad az kreditor mablagi beasos giriftaashro ruyonad yo ba qarzdor talaboti  aks (regresivi) arz namoyad. Dar holati ba qarzdor arz namudani talaboti aks (regresivi) qarzdor haq dorad az kreditor tanho mablagi beasos giriftaashro ruyonad.

 

Moddai 396. Qati zominat
  1. Zamonat bo qati uhdadorii taminnamudaash, inchunin dar holati tagyir yoftani in uhdadori, ki boisi afzudani masuliyat yo biduni rozigii zomin ba u digar oqibathoi nomusoid meorand, qat megardad.
  2. Agar zomin ba kreditor dar mavridi javobgari oid ba masuliyati qarzdori nav rozigi nadoda boshad, zominat hangomi ba shakhsi digar guzaronidani qarzi bo zamonat taminshudai uhdadori, qat megardad.
  3. Zamonat hangome, ki kreditor qabuli ijroi durusti peshnihodnamudai qarzdor yo zominro rad mekunad, qat megardad.
  4. Zamonat bo guzashti muhlati dar shartnomai zamonat zikrshuda, ki baroi hamin muhlat doda shudaast, qat megardad. Agar muhlat muayyan nashuda boshad on hangome qat megardad, ki kreditor dar jarayoni yak sol az ruzi faro rasidani ijroi uhdadorii bo zamonat taminshuda ba zomin arzi davo nakarda boshad. Hangome, ki muhlati ijroi uhdadorii asosi muayyan karda nashudaast va muayyan shudanash ham nomumkin ast yo bo lahzai pastalabkuni muayyan karda shuda boshad, agar kreditor ba zomin dar tuli du sol az ruzi bastani shartnomai zamonat arzi davo nakarda boshad, zamonat qat megardad.

 

§ 6. KAFOLAT

 

Moddai 397. Mafhumi kafolat

1.Dar asosi kafolat bonk, digar muassisai krediti yo tashkiloti sugurta (kafil) bo khohishi shakhsi digar (prinsipal) ba kreditori prinsipal (benefitsiar) mutobiqi sharti uhdadorii bo kafolat taminshuda, bo peshnihodi talabnomai benefitsiar oid ba pardokhti mablag uhdadorii khatti  medihand.

  1. Shartnoma dar borai dodani kafolat bayni subekthoe, ki dar qismi 1 hamin modda zikr shudaand va prinsipal dar shakli khatti basta meshavad. Rioya nakardani shakli khattii shartnomai kafolat onro beetibor megardonad.
  2.    Dar kafolatnoma boyad shakhse, ki bo khohishi u kafolat doda meshavad, mablag va muhlati kafolat, nomi kreditor oid ba kafolat, uhdadorie, ki tamin karda meshavad, sharthoi peshnihodi talabot, muhlati ijroi kafolat, masuliyati kafil va digar sharthoi zaruri zikr karda shuda boshad.

 

Moddai 398. Bo kafolat tamin namudani uhdadorii prinsipal

1.Kafolat az jonibi prinsipal ijroi matlubi uhdadoriashro nisbat ba benefitsiar (uhdadorii asosi) tamin mekunad.

  1. Prinsipal ba kafil baroi dodani kafolat podosh medihad. Andozai podosh bo muvofiqai tarafhoi shartnoma muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 399. Mustaqiliyati kafolat az uhdadorii asosi

Uhdadorii peshbininamudai kafolati kafil nazdi benefitsiar dar munosibati bayni onho ba uhdadorii asosie vobasta nameboshad, ki jihati  ijroi on doda shudaast, hatto agar dar kafolat nisbati in uhdadori ishora shuda boshad ham, vobasta nameboshad.

 

Moddai 400. Bebozkhost budani kafolat

Agar dar kafolat  tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, on az jonibi kafil bozkhost karda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 401. Guzaranda nabudani huquqi kafolat

Agar dar kafolat tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, huquqi tibqi kafolat ba benefitsiar marbuti  talabot ba kafil, ba digar shakhs voguzoshta nameshavad.

 

Moddai 402. Etibor paydo kardani kafolat

Agar dar kafolat tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, kafolat az ruzi dodashudanash  etibor paydo mekunad.

 

Moddai 403. Peshnihodi talabnomai  kafolat
  1. Talabnomai benefitsiar dar mavridi pardokhti mablagi kafolat boyad ba kafil, bo zamimai sanadi dar kafolat zikrgardida peshnihod karda shavad. Dar talabnoma yo zamimai on benefitsiar boyad zikr kunad, ki az jonibi prinsipal rioya nakardani uhdadorii asosi, ki jihati tamini on kafolat doda shudaast, az chi iborat ast.
  2. Talabnomai benefitsiar ba kafil boyad to qati muhlati dar kafolat muayyanshuda, ki baroi hamon muhlat doda shudaast, peshnihod gardad.

 

Moddai 404. Uhdadorii kafil hangomi barrasii talabnomai benefitsiar
  1. Hangomi giriftani talabnomai benefitsiar kafil vazifador ast favran az in prinsipalro ogoh namoyad va ba u nuskhai talabnomaro bo hamai sanadi marbut ba on dihad.
  2. Kafil boyad talabnomai benefitsiarro bo hama sanadi zamimagardida dar muhlati muvofiq barrasi namuda, baroi muayyan kardani on, ki in talabnoma va sanadi zamimashuda ba sharthoi kafolat mutobiqand, gamkhorii oqilona zohir namoyad.

 

Moddai 405. Ijroi talabnomai benefitsiarro rad namudani kafil
  1. Agar talabnomai benefitsiar yo sanadi ba on zamimashuda ba sharti kafolat mutobiq naboshand yo ba kafil pas az khotimai muhlati dar kafolat muayyanshuda peshnihod gardida boshand, kafil qone namudani talabnomai benefitsiarro rad mekunad.

Kafil boyad benefitsiarro az qone nakardani in talabnoma  favran ogoh sozad.

  1. Agar to qone namudani talabnomai benefitsiar ba kafil malum gardida boshad, ki uhdadorii asosii bo kafolat taminshuda purra yo yak qismi dakhldori on ijro shudaast, az rui digar asosho qat yoftaast yo khud beetibor meboshad, u boyad az in benefitsiar va prinsipalro favran ogoh sozad.

Agar badi chunin ogohsozi kafil talabnomai takrorii benefitsiarro girifta boshad, boyad onro qone gardonad.

 

Moddai 406. Haddi uhdadorihoi kafil
  1. Uhdadorii peshbininamudai kafil dar nazdi benefitsiar bo pardokhti mablage, ki ba on kafolat doda shudaast, mahdud karda meshavad.

2.Masuliyati kafil dar nazdi benefitsiar baroi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadorii bo kafolat taminshuda az jonibi kafil, agar dar kafolat tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, bo mablagi  kafolat dodashuda mahdud karda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 407. Qati kafolat
  1. Uhdadorii kafil dar nazdi benefitsiar oid ba kafolat dar holathoi zayl qat megardad:

a) ba benefitsiar pardokhtani mablage, ki ba on kafolat doda shudaast;

b) bo khotima muhlati dar kafolat muayyanshuda, ki baroi hamon muhlat doda shudaast;

v) dar natijai dast kashidani benefitsiar az huquqi khud oid ba kafolat va ba kafil bargardonidani in huquq;

g) dar natijai az huquqi oid ba kafolat benefitsiar dast kashidan bo usuli izhoroti khatti dar mavridi az uhdadori ozod kardani kafil.

Qati uhdadorii kafil boshad asoshoi dar zerbandhoi a), b) va g) hamin qism zikrgardida ba on vobasta nameboshad, ki oyo kafolat ba u bargardonida shudaast.

  1. Kafile, ki baroyash qati kafolat malum shudaast, boyad favran az in prinsipalro ogoh sozad.

 

Moddai 408. Talaboti aksi kafil ba prinsipal
  1. Huquqi kafil dar mavridi az prinsipal mutobiqi tartibi davoi aks (regresivi) talab kardani jubroni mablage, ki ba benefitsiar dar asosi kafolat doda shudaast, tibqi sozishnomai kafil bo prinsipal, ki jihati ijroi on kafolat doda shuda bud, muayyan megardad.
  2. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, kafil haq nadorad az prinsipal jubroni mablagero, ki ba benefitsiar biduni rioyai sharti kafolat yo bo vayron kardani uhdadorii kafil dar nazdi benefitsiar pardokhta shudaast, talab namoyad.

 

§ 7. BAYONA

 

Moddai 409. Mafhumi bayona. Shakli shartnomai bayona
  1. Bayona mablage etirof karda meshavad, ki yak tarafi imzokunandai shartnoma mutobiqi mablagi tibqi shartnoma pardokhtashavanda baroi isboti bastani shartnoma va tamini ijroi on ba hisobi tarafi digar meguzaronad.
  2. Shartnoma dar borai bayona, sarfi nazar az mablagi bay, boyad dar shakli khatti basta shavad.
  3. Hangomi shubha kardan ba on, ki oyo mablagi az jonibi digar ba hisobi shartnomai pardokht guzaronidashuda bayona ast yo na, az jumla dar natijai rioya nakardani qoidahoi muayyannamudai qismi 2 hamin modda, in mablag, agar tartibi digare isbot nashuda boshad, ba sifati peshpardokht etirof karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 410. Oqibati qat yoftan va ijro nakardani uhdadorii bo bayona taminshuda
  1. Agar uhdadori to ogozi ijroyash bo sozishnomai tarafho yo dar natijai imkonnopazirii ijro (moddai 448) qat yobad, bayona boyad bargardonida shavad.
  2. Agar baroi ijro nashudani shartnoma tarafe, ki bayona dodaast masuliyat doshta boshad, bayona dar ikhtiyori tarafi digar memonad. Agar baroi ijro nashudani shartnoma tarafe javobgar boshad, ki bayona giriftaast, on boyad ba tarafi digar mablagi dukaratai bayonaro suporad.

Bar zammi in tarafe, ki baroi ijro nashudani shartnoma javobgar ast, agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, boyad ba tarafi digar tovoni ziyonro bo bahisobgirii mablagi bayona pardozad.

 

BOBI 23. IVAZ ShUDANI ShAKhS DAR UHDADORI

 

§ 1. GUZAShTANI HUQUQI KREDITOR BA ShAKhSI DIGAR

 

Moddai 411. Asos va tartibi guzashtani huquqi kreditor ba shakhsi digar
  1. Huquqe (talabote), ki dar asosi uhdadori ba kreditor taalluq dorad tibqi ahd ba digar shakhs (guzasht kardani talabot) doda shudanash mumkin ast yo dar asosi qonun metavonad ba digar shakhs guzarad.

Qoidahoi guzashtani huquqi kreditor ba shakhsi digar dar mavridi talaboti aks (regresivi) tatbiq karda nameshavand.

  1. Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, baroi guzashtani huquqi kreditor ba shakhsi digar, rozigii qarzdor talab karda nameshavad.
  2. Agar qarzdor ba tavri khatti dar mavridi amali anjomdodashudai ba shakhsi digar guzashtani huquqi kreditor ogoh nashuda boshad, kreditori nav vobasta ba in tavakkali sar zadani oqibati nomusoidro ba uhda megirad. Dar chunin holat ijroi uhdadorii kreditori ibtidoi ijroi uhdadorii kreditori munosib etirof karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 412. Huquqhoe, ki ba digar shakhs guzashta nametavonand

Ba digar shakhs guzashtani huquqi kreditor, ki ba tavri nogusastani ba shakhsiyati u aloqamand meboshad, az jumla talabot oid ba aliment va jubroni ziyone, ki ba hayot va salomati rasidaast, ijozat doda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 413. Andozai huquqi kreditor, ki ba shakhsi digar meguzarad

Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, huquqi kreditori ibtidoi ba kreditori nav dar hajm va mutobiqi sharte meguzarad, ki to lahzai guzashtani huqu mavjud bud. Az jumla ba kreditori nav huquqe, ki ijroi uhdadoriro tamin mekunad, hamchunin digar huquqhoi vobasta ba talabot, az jumla huquq ba foizhoi pardokhtnashuda niz meguzarad.

 

Moddai 414. Dalelhoi huquqi kreditori nav
  1. Qarzdor haq dorad to az jonibi kreditori nav peshnihod kardani dalelho oid ba guzashtani huquqi talabot uhdadoriashro nisbati in shakhs ijro nakunad.
  2. Kreditori talabotashro ba shakhsi digar guzashtkarda vazifador ast ba u sanadi tasdiqkunandai huquqi talabashro dihad va malumoti baroi tatbiqi uhdadori muhimro ba u rasonad.

 

Moddai 415. Etirozi qarzdor nisbati talaboti kreditori nav

Qarzdor haq dorad ba muqobili talaboti kreditori nav etirozero, ki ba u nisbat ba kreditori ibtidoi to lahzai giriftani ogohinoma oid ba guzashtani huquqi uhdadori ba kreditori nav dosht, arz namoyad.

 

Moddai 416. Dar asosi qonun ba shakhsi digar guzashtani huquqi kreditor

Huquqi kreditor oid ba uhdadori ba shakhsi digar dar asosi qonun va faro rasidani holathoi dar on nishondodashuda meguzarad:

a) dar natijai  guzashtani huquqhoi umumii vorisi huquqi kreditor;

b) bo qarori sud dar mavridi ba digar shakhs guzaronidani huquqi kreditor, dar surate ki imkoniyati chunin guzaronidan dar qonun peshbini gardida boshad;

v) dar natijai ijro namudani uhdadorii qarzdor az jonibi zomin yo garavdeh, ki az rui in uhdadori qarzdor nameboshand;

g) hangomi subrogasiya kardani huquqi kreditor az tarafi sugurtakunanda ba qarzdore, ki baroi faro rasidani khodisai sugurta masuliyat dorad;

d) dar digar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun.

 

Moddai 417. Sharti guzasht kardani talabot
  1. Ba digar shakhs guzasht kardani talabot az jonibi kreditor dar holate, ki on khilofi qonun, digar sanadi huquqi yo shartnoma naboshad, ijozat doda meshavad.
  2. Guzasht kardani talabot az rui uhdadori, hangome ki shakhsiyati kreditor baroi qarzdor doroi ahamiyati nazarras meboshad: biduni rozigii qarzdor, ijozat doda nameshavad.

 

Moddai 418. Shakli guzasht kardani talabot
  1. Talabote, ki ba ahdi oddii khatti yo notariali asos yoftaast, boyad ba tarzi dakhldori khatti guzasht karda shavad.
  2. Agar dar qonun tartibi digare muqarrar nashuda boshad guzasht kardani talabot az rui ahde, ki baqaydgirii davlatiro taqozo mekunad, boyad mutobiqi tartibi baroi baqaydgirii chunin ahd peshbinishuda, ba qayd girifta shavad.
  3. Talabot az rui kogazi qimatnoki orderi bo rohi indossament (navishtajoti tahlili)-i in kogazi qimatnok (qismi 3 moddai 160) guzasht karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 419.  Masuliyati kreditore, ki talabashro guzasht kardaast

Kreditori ibtidoi, ki talabashro guzasht kardaast, dar nazdi kreditori nav baroi nodurust budani talaboti ba u dodaash javobgar buda, vale baroi ijro nagardidani in talab az jonibi qarzdor, ba gayr az holate, ki kreditori ibtidoi dar nazdi kreditori nav  kafilii qarzdorro ba uhda giriftaast, javobgar nameboshad.

 

§ 2. GUZARONIDANI  QARZ

 

Moddai 420. Shart va shakli guzaronidani qarz
  1. Az jonibi qarzdor ba digar shakhs guzaronidani qarz tanho bo rozigii kreditor ijozat doda meshavad.
  2. Ba shakli guzaronidani qarz muvofiqan qoidahoi oid ba shakli guzashti talabot tatbiq megardand.

 

Moddai 421. Etirozi qarzdori nav ba muqobili talabi kreditor

Qarzdori nav haq dorad ba talabi kreditor, ki ba munosibati bayni u va qarzdori ibtidoi asos yoftaand, etiroz kunad.

 

BOBI 24. MASULIYaTI VAYRON KARDANI UHDADORI

 

Moddai 422. Mafhumi vayron kardani uhdadori
  1. Tahti mafhumi vayron kardani uhdadori ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlub (sari vaqt ijro nakardan, norasoihoi mol va korho, vayron kardani digar shartho yo ki az mohiyati uhdadori barmeoyad) dar nazar doshta shudaast (ijroi nomatlub). Dar surati pesh omadani holati gayriimkoni ijroi matlub qarzdor boyad favran kreditorro ogoh sozad.
  2. Ba javobgari kashidani qarzdor baroi vayron kardani uhdadori tibqi talabi kreditor anjom doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 423. Tovoni ziyone, ki dar natijai vayron kardani uhdadori rasonida shudaast
  1. Qarzdore, ki uhdadoriro vayron kardaast, vazifador ast ba kreditor tovoni ziyoni dar natijai vayron kardani uhdadori rasidaro pardozad (moddai 15 hamin Kodeks). Jubroni ziyon oid ba uhdadorihoe, ki bo jarimai ahdshikani tamin shudaast, mutobiqi qoidahoi peshbininamudai moddai 424 hamin Kodeks muayyan karda meshavad.
  2. Sozishnomai to vayron kardani uhdadori qabulnamudai tarafho dar mavridi ozod kardani qarzdor az tovoni ziyoni az vayron kardan rasonidashavanda beetibor buda, vale tarafho bo rozigii hamdigar metavonand tanho ruyonidani ziyoni voqeii ba molu mulk rasonidashudaro peshbini namoyand.
  3. Agar dar qonunho yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, hangomi muayyan kardani ziyon narkhhoi mahalle, ki uhdadori meboist dar on jo ba ijro rasonda shavad, dar ruzi ikhtiyoran qone namudani talabi kreditor az jonibi qarzdor ba etibor girifta meshavad, vale agar talabot ikhtiyoran qone karda nashuda boshad – narkhhoi dar ruzi arz shudani davo amalkunanda ba inobat girifta meshavand. Bo nazardoshti holatho, sud metavonad talabi tovoni ziyonro bo ba inobat giriftani narkhhoe, ki dar ruzi barovardani qaror amal mekunanda yo dar ruzi pardokhti voqei jori meboshand, qone namoyad.
  4. Hangomi muayyan kardani andozai daromadi azdastrafta, tadbirhoi andeshidai kreditor baroi giriftani in daromad va baroi in maqsad omodagi didani u ba inobat girifta meshavad.
  5. Agar kreditor, isbot karda tavonad, ki hamaguna amali qarzdor, bo maqsadi sarkashi az masuliyat baroi vayron kardani uhdadori anjom doda shudaast, oid ba beetibor donistani in amalho haq dorad, talabot arz namoyad.

 

Moddai 424. Ziyon va  noustuvorona
  1. Agar baroi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori noustuvorona muqarrar gardida boshad, pas ziyon dar qismi bo noustuvorona taminnashuda ruyonida meshavad.

Qonunho va yo shartnoma holathoi zaylro peshbini namudanashon mumkin ast: hangome, ki tanho ruyonidani noustuvorona ijozat doda meshavad, vale na tovoni ziyon; hangome, ki tovoni ziyon metavonad ba mablagi purra bar zammi jarimai akhdshikani ruyonida shavad; hangome, ki mutobiqi intikhobi kreditor yo jarimai akhdshikani yo tovoni ziyon ruyonida meshavad.

  1. Dar holathoe, ki baroi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori masuliyati mahdud muayyan karda shudaast, tovoni ziyone, ki boyad dar qismi bo jarimai ahdshikani taminnashuda yo bar zammi on yo bar ivazi on ruyonida shavand, to hadde bo chunin mahdudsozi muqarrargardida, jubron shudanashon mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 425. Jubroni ziyoni manavi, ki dar natijai vayron kardani uhdadori rasonida shudaast

Ziyoni manavi (azobi jismoni yo ruhi), ki  ba shahrvand dar natijai vayron kardani uhdadori rasonida shudaast, bar zammi tovoni ziyoni peshbininamudai moddai 423 hamin Kodeks jubron karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 426. Masuliyat baroi gayriqonuni istifoda burdani mablagi gayr
  1. Baroi gayriqonuni istifoda burdani mablagi gayr dar natijai ijro nakardani uhdadorii puli, yo guzaronidani muhlati pardokhti on yo biduni asos giriftani on yo ba amonat guzoshtan az hisobi shakhsi digar boyad ba andozai in mablag foiz pardokhta shavad. Andozai foiz bo nazardoshti stavkai miyonai foizi bonk, ki Bonki millii Tojikiston dar ruzi ijroi uhdadorii puli yo qismi dakhldori in uhdadori muayyan kardaast, ba hisob girifta meshavad. Hangomi az tariqi sud ruyonidani qarz sud metavonad talaboti kreditorro bo darnazardoshti stavkai miyonai bahisobgirii foizi bonk dar ruzi peshnihodi davo yo dar ruzi barovardani qaror yo dar ruzi pardokhti voqei qone namoyad. In qoidaho, agar dar sanadi qonuni yo shartnoma foizi digar muqarrar nashuda boshad, tatbiq megardand.
  2. Agar dar qonunho va yo shartnoma baroi hisobi foiz muhlati nisbatan kutohtar muayyan nagardida boshad, foizi istifodai mablagi gayr to ruzi pardokhti in mablag ba kreditor ruyonida meshavad.
  3. Agar ziyoni ba kreditor rasonida shuda dar natijai istifodai gayriqonunii mablaghoi pulii u az mablagi foizi dar asosi qismi 1 hamin modda dodashavanda beshtar boshad, u haq dorad az qarzdor tovoni ziyonro ba hamon andozai qisme, ki az on mablag beshtar ast, talab namoyad.
  4. Zam kardani foiz ba foiz, ba gayr az holathoe, ki qonun dokhil kardani foizi soli guzashtaro ba mablagi asosii qarz peshbini namudaast, man meboshad.
  5. Baroi gayriqonuni istifoda burdani mablagi pulii gayr az rui uhdadorii puli, ki bo faoliyati sohibkori aloqamand meboshad, bar zammi mablagi dar qismi 1 hamin modda nishondodashuda ba andozai panj foizi mablagi solonae, ki muhlati pardokhtash guzashtaast, agar dar shartnoma foizi nisbatan balandtari jarima muqarrar nagardida boshad, jarima ruyonida meshavad.

 

Moddai 427. Masuliyat va ijroi uhdadori dar shakli asl (natura)
  1. Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, pardokhti noustuvorona va tovoni ziyon dar surati ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori qarzdorro az ijroi uhdadori dar shakli asl (natura), ozod namekunad.
  2. Agar dar qonun va yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, tovoni ziyon dar holati ijro nakardani uhdadori va pardokhti noustuvorona baroi ijro nakardani on, qarzdorro az ijroi uhdadori dar shakli asl (natura) ozod mekunad.
  3. Az jonibi kreditor rad karda shudani qabuli ijroi uhdadori, ki dar natijai guzaronidani muhlat baroi u ahamiyatashro (qismi 2 moddai 436) gum kardaast, inchunin pardokhti noustuvorona, ki ba sifati huquqi dast kashidan (moddai 441) muqarrar gardidaast, qarzdorro az ijroi uhdadori dar shakli asl (natura) ozod mekunad.

 

Moddai 428. Ijroi uhdadori az hisobi qarzdor

Hangomi az jonibi qarzdor ijro nakardani uhdadori oid ba tayyor kardan va ba molikiyati khususi, peshburdi khojagidori yo digar idorai operativi suporidan yo inki dodani mol ba istifodai kreditor, yo baroi u ijro namudani kori muayyan yo rasonidani hizmat ba u kreditor haq dorad ijroi uhdadoriro dar muhlati muvofiq, bo narkhi munosib ba shakhsi seyum suporad yo onro bo quvvai khud ijro kunad va agar az qonun, digar sanadi huquqi, shartnoma yo mohiyati uhdadori tartibi digare barnaoyad, az qarzdor jubroni kharojoti zarurii masrafshuda va digar ziyonro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 429. Oqibati ijro nakardani uhdadori oid ba dodani moli muayyani infirodi

Dar surati ijro nakardani uhdadori oidi ba molikiyati khususi, peshburdi khojagidori, idorai operativi yo istifodai bopodoshi ba kreditor dodani moli muayyani infirodi,  okhirin haq dorad dar asosi sharthoi peshbininamudai uhdadori az qarzdor kashida giriftani in mol va ba kreditor dodani onro talab namoyad. Agar mol qablan ba shakhsi seyume doda shuda boshad, ki huquqi molikiyat, peshburdi khojagidori yo idorai operativi dorad, in huquq beetibor ast. Agar mol hanuz ba kreditor doda nashuda boshad, on kreditore doroi afzaliyat meboshad, ki ba manfiati u uhdadori peshtar ba miyon omadaast va agar muayyan namudani in gayriimkon boshad, one ki barvaqttar davo arz kardaast, afzaliyat dorad.

Bar ivazi talabi ba u dodani mole, ki mavzui uhdadori meboshad, kreditor haq dorad, jubroni ziyonro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 430. Masuliyati  ilovagi
  1. To arzi talabot ba shakhse, ki mutobiqi qonun yo sharti uhdadori ilovatan ba masuliyati shakhsi digar, ki qarzdori asosi meboshad, masuliyat dorad (masuliyati ilovagi), kreditor boyad ba qarzdori asosi talabot arz kunad.

Agar qarzdori asosi  talaboti kreditorro qone  nanamoyad yo az qonegardonii on sarkashi kunad in talabotro ba shakhse, ki masuliyati ilovagiro (subsidariro) ba zimma dorad, arz kardan mumkin ast.

  1. Agar talaboti kreditor bo rohi bahisobgirii davoi aks ba qarzdori asosi yo biduni bahs ruyonidani mablag az hisobi qarzdori asosi gardonida shavad, u haq nadorad qone namudani talaboti khudro ba qarzdori asosi az shakhse talab kunad, ki masuliyati ilovagiro ba zimma dorad.
  2. Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, shakhse, ki masuliyati ilovagiro ba zimma dorad, metavonad nisbat ba qarzdori asosi talabot arz namoyad.
  3. Shakhse, ki masuliyati ilovagiro ba zimma dorad, boyad to qone namudani talaboti az jonibi kreditor guzoshtashuda dar mavrid qarzdori asosiro ogoh sozad va agar ba chunin shakhs davo arz shuda boshad, qarzdori asosiro baroi ishtirok dar parvanda jalb namoyad.

Dar aksi hol qarzdori asosi haq dorad ba muqobili talaboti aks (regres) – i shakhsi ba tavri ilovagi masuliyatdoshta etirozero, ki u nisbat ba kreditor dosht, arz namoyad.

 

Moddai 431. Mahdud sokhtani andozai masuliyat oid ba uhdadori
  1. Az rui navhoi alohidai uhdadori va uhdadorie, ki ba shaklhoi muayyani faoliyat aloqamand meboshand, qonun huquqi jubroni purrai ziyonro mahdud sokhtanash mumkin ast (masuliyati mahdud).
  2. Sozishnomai mahdud sokhtani andozai masuliyati qarzdor oid ba shartnomai hamrohshavi yo digar shartnomae, ki dar on shahrvandi kreditor istemolkunanda meboshad, etibor nadorad, ba sharte ki andozai masuliyatro baroi hamin navi uhdadori yo hamin qonunshikaniro qonun muayyan karda, sozishnoma to faro rasidani holate, ki baroi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori boisi javobgari megardad, basta shuda boshad.

 

Moddai 432. Asoshoi masuliyat baroi vayron kardani uhdadori
  1. Shakhse, ki uhdadoriro ijro nakardaast yo onro nomatlub ijro kardaast, hangomi mavjud budani gunoh (qasdan yo az sababi beehtiyoti), ba gayr az holathoe, ki qonun yo shartnoma digar asoshoi masuliyatro peshbini namudaand, javobgar meboshad.

Shakhs hangome begunoh donista meshavad, ki agar bo vujudi hama guna gamkhori va mulohizakorie, ki vobasta ba khususiyoti uhdadori va sharti ahd az u talab kardashuda bud, jihati ijroi matlubi uhdadori hamai tadbirhoro andeshida boshad.

  1. Be gunohii khudro shakhse, ki uhdadoriro vayron kardaast, isbot mekunad.
  2. Agar dar qonun yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, shakhse, ki hangomi anjom dodani faoliyati sohibkori uhdadoriro ijro nakardaast yo nomatlub ijro kardaast, agar isbot nakunad, ki ijroi matlubi uhdadori dar natijai quvvai rafnopazir, yane dar hamon sharoit favqulodda va noguzir imkonnopazir gashtaast, masuliyat ba zimma dorad. Ba chunin holatho, az jumla vayron kardani uhdadori az tarafi kontragenthoi qarzdor, dar bozor mavjud nabudani molhoi baroi ijro zaruri, mablagi zaruri nadoshtani qarzdor dokhil nameshavand. Mutobiqi shartnoma yo qonun sharthoi digari az masuliyat ozod kardani subekthoi faoliyati sohibkori niz peshbini shudanashon mumkin ast.
  3. Sozishnomai qablan bastashuda dar mavridi bartaraf namudan yo mahdud sokhtani masuliyati qasdan vayron kardani uhdadori etibor nadorad.

 

Moddai 433. Masuliyati qarzdor baroi kormandoni khud

Amali kormandoni qarzdor jihati ijroi uhdadorihoyash amali qarzdori etirof karda meshavad. Agar in amal boisi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori gardida boshad, qarzdor baroi in amal javobgar ast.

 

Moddai 434. Masuliyati qarzdor oid ba amali shakhsi seyum
  1. Qarzdor inchunin dar holathoe, ki sababi rioya nakardani uhdadori amal yo beamalii shakhsi seyum oid ba uhdadorihoyashon dar nazdi qarzdor gashtaast, dar nazdi kreditor masuliyat dorad.

Agar dar qonun muayyan nashuda boshad, ki masuliyat ba zimmai ijrokunandai bevosita guzoshta meshavad, qarzdor inchunin baroi amal yo beamalii shakhsi seyum, ki ba onho qarzdor ijroi uhdadoriashro dar nazdi kreditor voguzoshta bud, dar nazdi kreditor javobgar ast.

  1. Qarzdor az masuliyati vayron kardani uhdadori, ki az amal yo beamalii shakhsi seyum barmeoyad, ozod karda shudanash mumkin ast, ba sharte ki begunohii onhoro isbot karda tavonad.

Hangomi anjom dodani faoliyati sohibkori qarzdor az masuliyati vayron kardani uhdadori, ki az amal yo beamalii shakhsi seyum barmeoyad, ozod karda shudanash mumkin ast, ba sharte ki on bo quvvai rafnopazir aloqamand boshad (qismi 3 moddai 432 hamin Kodeks).

  1. Hangomi vayron kardani uhdadori, ki bo mushkil gardidani mavzui uhdadori bo huquqhoi shakhsi seyum aloqamand ast, qarzdor tanho dar surate az masuliyat ozod karda meshavad, ki agar chunin mushkilot to bastani shartnoma bo kreditor pesh omada boshad va kreditor hangomi bastani shartnoma az in ogohonida shuda bud.
  2. Qonunho yo shartnoma sharthoi digari javobgarii qarzdorro baroi amali shakhsi seyum peshbini karda metavonand.

 

Moddai 435. Oqibathoi vayron kardani uhdadori bo gunohi har du taraf
  1. Agar ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori bo gunohi khar du taraf sodir shuda boshad, sud muvofiqan andozai masuliyati qarzdorro kamtar mekunad. Agar kasdan yo az beehtiyoti kreditor dar natijai ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlub ba ziyod shudani hajmi ziyon musoidat karda boshad yo baroi kam kardani hajmi on tadbirhoi oqilona naandeshida boshad, sud inchunin haq dorad andozai masuliyati qarzdorro kam kunad.
  2. Qoidahoi qismi 1 hamin modda muvofiqan inchunin dar holathoe niz tatbiq megardand, ki qarzdor dar asosi qonun yo shartnoma, sarfi nazar az gunohi khud, baroi ijro nakardan yo ijroi nomatlubi uhdadori masuliyat doshta boshad.

 

Moddai 436. Az jonibi qarzdor guzaronidani muhlat
  1. Dar muhlati muqarrarnamuda az jonibi qarzdor ijro nakardani uhdadori muhlatguzaronii qarzdor etirof karda meshavad.
  2. Qarzdore, ki muhlati ijroi uhdadariro guzaronidaast, dar nazdi kreditor baroi ziyoni az guzaronidani muhlat rasida va baroi oqibati tasoddufe javobgar meboshad, ki az guzaronidani muhlat faro rasidaast.
  3. Agar dar natijai guzaronidani muhlat az jonibi qarzdor ijroi uhdadori baroi kreditor manfiatashro gum karda boshad, u metavonad qabuli ijroi uhdadoriro rad kunad va jubroni ziyonro talab namoyad.
  4. To zamone, ki uhdadori bo sababi muhlatro guzaronidani kreditor ijro nagardad qarzdor muhlatro guzaronida hisob nameyobad.

 

Moddai 437. Az jonibi kreditor guzaronidani muhlat
  1. Agar kreditor qabuli ijroi matlubi peshnihodnamudai qarzdorro rad karda boshad yo amali dar qonunho yo sozishnoma peshbinishuda yo az ananahoi ahdhoi kori yo az mohiyati uhdadori barmeomadaro ijro nakarda boshad, ki to anjom dodani on qarzdor nametavonist uhdadorii khudro ijro kunad, u muhlatro guzaronida ba hisob meravad.

Kreditor inchunin dar holathoi peshbininamudai qismi 2 moddai 440 hamin Kodeks muhlatro guzaronida ba hisob meravad.

  1. Az jonibi kreditor guzaronidani muhlat, agar kreditor isbot karda natavonad, ki guzaronidani muhlat mutobiqi holathoe ba miyon omadaast, ki baroi on holat na u shakhsan va na digar shakhsi ba zimmaashon bo amri qonun yo suporishi kreditor qabuli ijroi uhdadori voguzoshtashuda javobgar nameboshand, ba qarzdor huquq medihad, ki ziyoni az sababi guzaronidani muhlat rasonidashudaro talab namoyad.

Ba zimmai kreditore, ki ba guzaronidani muhlat roh dodaast, hamai oqibathoi nomusoidi dar davrai guzaronidani muhlat bamiyonomadai imkonnopazirii nogahonii ijroi uhdadori guzoshta meshavad.

  1. Mutobiqi uhdadorii puli baroi pardokhti foiz dar davrai guzaronidani muhlat az tarafi kreditor qarzdor masul nameboshad.

 

Moddai 438. Tavakkali sohibkori dar uhdadori

Agar dar uhdadori ijroi yagon kore bo farmoishi sohibkor peshbini gardida boshad, tavakkali imkonnopaziri yo muvofiqi maqsad nabudani istifodai natijai kor ba zimmai sohibkor guzoshta meshavad. Shakhse, ki korro matlub anjom dodaast, haq dorad barobari darajai ijro haqqi korashro girad, ba gayr az holathoe, ki dar shartnoma taqsimi digari tavakkali sohibkori peshbini nagardida boshad.

BOBI 25. QATI  UHDADORI

 

Moddai 439. Asosho baroi qati uhdadori
  1. Uhdadori az rui asoshoi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks, digar qonunho va sanadi huquqi yo shartnoma qisman yo purra qat megardad.
  2. Qati uhdadori bo talabi yake az tarafho tanho dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma ravost.

 

Moddai 440. Qati uhdadori bo ijroi on
  1. Ijroi matlub uhdadoriro qat mesozad.
  2. Kreditor ijroi uhdadoriro qabul namuda, vazifador ast bo talabi qarzdor ba u dar mavridi purra yo qismi dakhldorro qabul kardani on zabonkhat dihad.

Agar qarzdor baroi tasdiqi uhdadori ba kreditor hujjti qarzro suporida boshad, pas kreditor ijroro qabul karda, boyad in hujjatro pas dihad va hangomi nabudani imkoniyati bargardonidani on dar zabonkhat dar in mavrid sabt kunad. Zabonkhatro bo sabti ruzi dar hujjati qarzi bargardonidashavanda ivaz kardan mumkin ast. Dar dasti qarzdor budani hujjati qarz, agar daleli digare isbot nashuda boshad, qati uhdadoriro tasdiq mekunad.

Hangomi zabonkhat nadodan, hujjati qarzro barnagardondani kreditor yo dar zabonkhat sabt namudani imkonnopazirii bargardonidani on qarzdor haq dorad ijroi uhdadoriro bozdorad. Dar in holat kreditor muhlatro guzaronida mehisobad.

 

Moddai 441. Haqqi dastkashi

Mutobiqi sozishnomai bayni tarafho uhdadori bo dodani haqqi dastkashi (pardokhti pul, dodani molu mulk va gayra) bar ivazi ijro metavonad qat gardad. Andoza, muhlat va tartibi dodani haqqi dastkashi az jonibi tarafho muayyan karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 442. Qati uhdadori bo bahisobgiri

Uhdadori bo bahisobgirii talaboti yakkhelai mutaqobil, ki muhlatash faro rasidaast yo muhlatash muayyan nashudaast yo bo lahzai talabidan muqarrar karda shudaast, purra yo qisman qat megardad. Baroi bahisobgiri arizai yak taraf kifoya ast.

 

Moddai 443. Holathoi nomumkin budani bahisobgiri

Dar holathoi zayl bahisobgiri nomumkin ast:

a) agar tibqi arizai tarafi digar ba talabot muhlati davo istifoda shuda va in muhlat guzashta boshad;

b) hangomi jubroni ziyoni ba hayot yo salomati rasonidashuda;

v) hangomi ruyonidani aliment;

g) hangomi tamini umrbod;

d) dar holathoi digari peshbininamudai qonun yo shartnoma.

 

Moddai 444. Bahisobgiri hangomi guzasht kardani talabot
  1. Dar holati guzasht kardani talabot qarzdor ba muqobili talaboti kreditori nav haq dorad talaboti mutaqobili khudro ba kreditori ibtidoi ba hisob girad.
  2. Agar talabot ba qarzdor tibqi asoshoi to giriftani ogohinoma dar borai guzasht karda shudani talabot zarur shuda, muhlati talabot to giriftani on faro rasida boshad yo in muhlat nishon doda nashuda boshad yo bo lahzai darkhost muayyan gardida boshad, talab ba hisob girifta meshavad.

 

Moddai 445. Qati uhdadori hangomi chun yak shakhs muvofiq omadani qarzdor va kreditor

Agar qarzdor va kreditor chun yak shakhs muvofiq oyand, uhdadori qat megardad.

 

Moddai 446. Qati uhdadori bo sababi nav shudani on (novatsiya)
  1. Uhdadori bo sozishnomai bayni tarafho dar mavridi ivazi uhdadorii ibtidoii bayni onho mavjudbuda bo digar uhdadorii digari bayni hamon ashkhose, ki predmeti digar va usuli digari (novatsiya) ijroi uhdadoriro talab mekunad, qat megardad.
  2. Dar munosibat ba uhdadori oid ba jubroni ziyone, ki ba hayot va salomati rasonidaast va oid ba pardokhti aliment navovari (novatsiya) ijozat doda nameshavad.
  3. Navovari (novatsiya), agar dar sozishnomai bayni tarafho tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, uhdadorii ilovagiro, ki ba uhdadorii ibtidoi aloqamand ast, qat menamoyad.

 

Moddai 447. Bakhshidani qarz

Hangomi az jonibi kreditor ozod kardani qarzdor az uhdadorihoi ba zimmaash guzoshtashuda, agar in huquqi digar ashkhosro dar munosibat ba molu mulki kreditor vayron nakunad, uhdadori qat megardad.

 

Moddai 448. Qati uhdadori hangomi imkonnopazirii ijro
  1. Agar ijroi uhdadori bo holathoe imkonnopazir boshad, ki baroyash qarzdor masuliyat nadorad, on qat megardad. Amali qoidahoi mazkur ba uhdadorihoi puli tatbiq karda nameshavad.
  2. Dar surati imkonnopazir budani ijro az jonibi tarafi uhdadori, ki ba holatho vobasta ast va baroi on hej kadome az tarafho javobgar nestand, agar dar qonunho yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, in taraf haq nadorad az tarafi digar ijroi uhdadoriro talab kunad. Dar ayni zamon har kadom taraf, ki uhdadoriro ijro kardaast haq dorad bargardonidani ijroro talab namoyad.
  3. Agar qarzdor uhdadoriro binobar amali gunahkoronai kreditor ijro karda natavonad, okhirin haq nadorad bargardondani ijroi uhdadoriro talab kunad.

 

Moddai 449. Qati uhdadori dar asosi sanadi maqomoti davlati
  1. Agar dar natijai qabuli sanadi maqomoti davlati purra yo qisman ijro namudani uhdadori imkonnopazir gardad, uhdadori purra yo dar qismi dakhldori on qat megardad. Tarafhoe, ki dar natijai in ziyon didaand, haq dorand mutobiqi moddahoi 13 va 16 hamin Kodeks jubroni onro talab namoyand.
  2. Agar sanadi maqomoti davlati, ki dar asosi on uhdadori qat gardidaast, tibqi tartibi muqarrarshuda beetibor donista shavad, uhdadori barqaror megardad, ba sharte ki az sozishnomai tarafho yo mohiyati uhdadori tartibi digare barnaoyad va ijroi uhdadori baroi kreditor manfiati khudro gum nakardaboshad.

 

Moddai 450. Qati uhdadori az sababi favti shahrvand
  1. Agar ijroi uhdadori biduni ishtiroki shakhsii qarzdor nomumkin boshad yo uhdadori ba tariqi digar ba tavri nogusastani bo shakhsiyati qarzdor aloqamand boshad, uhdadori ba favti qarzdor, qat megardad.
  2. Bo favti kreditor, agar ijroi uhdadori mahz baroi kreditor tain shuda boshad yo uhdadori bo tariqi digar ba tavri nogusastani bo shakhsiyati kreditor aloqamand boshad uhdadori qat megardad.

 

Moddai 451. Qati uhdadori bo barham khurdanishakhsi huquqi
  1. Uhdadori bo barham khurdani shakhsi huquqi (qarzdor yo kreditor) qat megardad, ba gayr az holathoe, ki qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi ijroi uhdadorii shakhsi huquqii barhamkhurdaro ba zimmai shakhsi digar guzorand (oid ba talabot dar mavridi pardokhti tovoni ziyon, ki ba hayot va salomati rasonida shudaast va gayra).

 

ZERFASLI 2. MUQARRAROTI UMUMB  OID BA ShARTNOMA

 

B O B I 26. MAFHUM VA MAZMUNI ShARTNOMA

 

Moddai 452. Mafhumi shartnoma
  1. Shartnoma sozishi du yo yakchand shakhs baroi ba vujud ovardan, tagyir dodan yo qati huquq va uhdadorii grajdani meboshad.
  2. Nisbat ba shartnoma qoidaho oidi ahdi dujoniba va bisyorjoniba, ki dar bobi 7 hamin Kodeks peshbini gardidaast, tatbiq megardand.
  3. Agar dar qoidahoi hamin bob va qoidaho oidi navhoi alohidai shartnomaho, ki dar hamin Kodeks zikr shudaand, tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, nisbati uhdadorihoe, ki az shartnoma barmeoyand, muqarraroti umumi oid ba uhdadoriho (moddahoi 328-451) tatbiq megardand.
  4. Nisbati shartnomahoe, ki beshtar az du taraf mebandand, muqarraroti umumi oid ba shartnoma tatbiq megardad, ba sharte, ki in ba khususiyati bisyorjonibai chunin shartnomaho mukholif naboshad.

 

Moddai 453. Mustaqiliyati shartnoma
  1. Shahrvandon va shakhsi huquqi dar bastani shartnoma mustaqil meboshand. Majbur kardan ba bastani shartnoma, ba istisnoi holathoe, ki vazifai bastani shartnoma dar hamin Kodeks, qonun yo uhpdadorii ikhtiyoran qabulgardida peshbini shudaast, ijozat doda nameshavad.
  2. Tarafho metavonand tibqi tartibi peshbininamuda yo peshbininanamudai qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi shartnoma bandand.
  3. Tarafho metavonand shartnomae bandand, ki on juzhoi shartnomahoi mukhtalifi peshbinikardai qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi (shartnomai omekhta)-ro dar bar girifta boshad. Agar az sozishnomai tarafho yo mohiyati shartnomai omekhta tartibi digare barnaoyad, dar munosibati tarafho oid ba shartnomai omekhta, dar qismathoi dakhldor qoidahoi shartnomae, ki juzhoi on dar shartnomai omekhta mavjud ast, tatbiq megardand.
  4. Sharthoi shartnoma, ba istisnoi holathoe, ki mazmuni sharti dakhldor dar qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi zikr shudaast (moddai 454), bo salohdidi tarafho muayyan karda meshavad.

Dar holathoe, ki sharti shartnoma mutobiqi meyor istifoda meshavad, zero dar sozishnomai bayni tarafho tartibi digare peshbini nashudaast (meyori dispozitivi), tarafho metavonand bo sozishnomai khud istifodai onro bekor kunand yo shartero ba miyon guzorand, ki az sharti peshbinigardida farq doshta boshad. Hangomi mavjud nabudani chunin sozishnoma sharthoi shartnoma tibqi meyori dispozitivi muayyan karda meshavand.

  1. Agar sharti shartnoma az jonibi tarafho yo meyori dispozitivi muayyan nashuda boshad, sharthoi dakhldor bo ananahoi ahdhoi kori, ki nisbati tarafho tatbiq megardad, muayyan karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 454. Shartnoma va qonun
  1. Shartnoma boyad ba qoidahoi baroi tarafho hatmie, mutobiqat kunad, ki bo qonun yo digar sanadi huquqii (meyorhoi imperativi) dar lahzai bastani shartnoma amalkunanda muqarrar karda shudaand.
  2. Agar pas az bastani shartnoma qonune qabul shuda boshad, ki baroi tarafho nisbat ba qoidahoi hangomi bastani shartnoma amalkunanda qoidahoi hatmii digarro muqarrar menamoyad, sharthoi shartnomai bastashuda ba istisnoi holathoi muqarrarnamudai qonun dar mavridi on, ki amali on ba munosibathoi az shartnomai qablan bastashuda bamiyonomada tatbiq megardad, etibori khudro nigoh medorad.

 

Moddai 455. Shartnomahoi muzdnok va bemuzd
  1. Shartnomae, ki mutobiqi on yak taraf boyad muzd yo baroi ijroi uhdadoriyash pasbargardonii digari mutaqobilaro girad, ba muzd ba hisob meravad.
  2. Shartnomae, ki mutobiqi on yak taraf uhdador meshavad ba tarafi digar be muzd yo pasbargardonii chize dihad, shartnomai bemuzd etirof karda meshavad.
  3. Agar az qonun, sanadi digari huquqi mazmun yo mohiyati shartnoma tartibi digare barnaoyad, shartnoma muzdnok hisob karda meshavad.

 

Moddai 456. Narkh
  1. Ijroi shartnoma mutobiqi narkhi dar sozishnomai bayni tarafho muayyangardida pardokhta meshavad.

Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun narkh (tarifho, narkhguzori, stavka va gayra)-hoi muqarrar yo tanzim namudai maqomoti  vakolatdori davlati istifoda burda meshavand.

  1. Tagyir dodani narkh pas az bastani shartnoma tanho dar holatho va tibqi sharthoi peshbininamudai shartnoma, ijozat doda meshavad.
  2. Agar dar shartnomai bamuzd narkh peshbini nagardida boshad va binobar sharti shartnoma muayyan shuda nametavonad, ijroi shartnoma boyad bo narkhe pardokhta shavad, ki dar chunin holatho odatan baroi in guna mol va koru khizmatrasoni girifta meshavad.

 

Moddai 457. Amali shartnoma
  1. Shartnoma az lahzai basta shudanash etibor paydo mekunad va baroi tarafho hatmi megardad.
  2. Tarafho haq dorand muayyan kunand, ki sharti shartnomai bastai onho ba munosibathoi to bastani shartnoma bamiyonomada niz tatbiq megardad.
  3. Qonun yo shartnoma muayyan karda metavonand, ki khotimai muhlati amali shartnoma boisi qati uhdadorii tarafho oid ba shartnoma megardad.

Shartnomae, ki dar on chunin shart guzoshta nashudaast to lahzai ijroi uhdadoriro ba okhir rasondani tarafho muayyan karda shudaast, boetibor etirof  karda meshavad.

  1. Qati muhlati amali shartnoma tarafhoro az masuliyati rioya nakardani on ozod namekunad.

 

Moddai 458. Shartnomai ommavi
  1. Shartnomai ommavi shartnomae meboshad, ki az jonibi tashkiloti tijorati basta shuda, dar on uhdadorii tashkilot dar mavridi furushi mahsulot, ijroi kor yo khizmatrasoni, ki chunin tashkilot muvofiqi khususiyathoi faoliyatash boyad nisbati har murojiatkunanda anjom dihad (savdoi chakana, musofirkashoni dar naqliyoti istifodai umum, khizmatrasonii aloqa, taminoti barq, khizmatrasonii tibbi, mehmonkhonaho va gayra) muayyan gardidaast.

Tashkiloti tijorati dar bastani shartnomai ommavi, ba istisnoi holathoi peshbininamudai qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi, haq nadorad yak shakhsro nisbat ba digare avlotar shumorad.

  1. Narkhi mol, kor va khizmatrasoni, inchunin digar sharthoi shartnomai ommavi ba istisnoi holathoe, ki qonun dodani imtiyozhoro baroi kategoriyai alohidai istemolkunandagon peshbini menamoyad, baroi hamai istemolkunandagon yakkhela meboshad.
  2. Dar holati mavjud budani imkoniyati bastani shartnomai ommavi jihati ba istemolkunandagon rasonidani moli dakhldor, khizmatrasoni va baroi onho anjom dodani kori dakhldor az jonibi tashkiloti tijorati rad kardani bastani shartnoma ijozat doda nameshavad.

Dar surati beasos az bastani shartnomai ommavi sarkashi kardani tashkiloti tijorati muqarraroti peshbininamudai qismi 4 moddai 477 hamin Kodeks tatbiq megardad.

  1. Dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston metavonad qoidahoe barorad, ki baroi tarafho hangomi bastan va ijroi shartnomahoi ommavi hatmi meboshand.
  2. Sharthoi shartnomai ommavi, ki ba talaboti muqarraroti qismhoi 2 va 4 hamin modda mutobiq nestand, etibor nadorand.

 

Moddai 459. Sharthoi namunavii shartnoma
  1. Dar shartnoma peshbini gardidanash mumkin ast, ki sharthoi alohidai on bo sharthoi namunavii baroi shartnomahoi dakhldor tahiya va dar matbuot nashrgardida muayyan karda meshavand.
  2. Agar dar shartnoma ba sharthoi namunavi ishora naboshad, chunin sharthoi namunavi dar munosibati bayni tarafho ba sifati ananahoi muomiloti kori istifoda megardand, ba sharte ki onho ba talaboti muqarrarnamudai moddai 5 va qismi 5 moddai 453 hamin Kodeks muvofiq boshand.
  3. Sharthoi namunavi dar shakli shartnomai namunavi yo digar sanade, ki in sharthoro dar bar giriftaast, inikos yoftanash mumkin ast.

 

Moddai 460. Shartnomai hamrohshavi
  1. Shartnomai hamrohshavi shartnomaest, ki sharti onro yak taraf dar shakli tavsiya (formulyar) yo digar shakli standarti peshnihod namudaast va onro tarafi digar tanho bo rohi purra hamroh shudan ba shartnomai peshnihodgardida qabul mekunad.
  2. Tarafi ba shartnoma hamrohgardida, harchand shartnomai hamrohshavi khilofi qonunho naboshad ham, vale in tarafro az huquqhoe mahrum mesozad, ki odatan mutobiqi chunin shakli shartnomaho doda meshavand, masuliyati tarafi digarro dar holati rioya nakardani uhdadori istisno yo mahdud mekunad yo sharthoi baroi tarafi hamrohshuda baralo vazninro dar bar megirad, ki onhoro bo nazardoshti oqilonai manfiati darknamudai khud, hangomi mavjud budani imkoniyati ishtirok dar muayyan kardani sharti shartnoma qabul namekunad, haq dorad bekor yo tagyir dodani onro talab namoyad.
  3. Agar tarafi hamrohshuda medonist yo meboist donad, ki bo kadom shartho shartnoma mebandad, dar holathoi peshbininamudai qismi 2 hamin modda, talabi bekor yo ivaz namudani shartnoma, ki yak tarafi ba shartnoma hamrohshuda binobar anjom dodani faoliyati sohibkoriash peshnihod kardaast, qone gardonida nameshavad.

 

Moddai 461. Shartnomai peshaki
  1. Mutobiqi shartnomai peshaki tarafho uhdador meshavand dar oyanda dar mavridi dodani molu mulk, ijroi kor yo khizmatrasoni (shartnomai asosi) tibqi sharthoi peshbininamudai shartnomai peshaki shartnoma bandand.
  2. Shartnomai peshaki mutobiqi shakli baroi shartnomai asosi muqarrarshuda basta meshavad va agar shakli shartnomai asosi muayyan nashuda boshad, on khatti tartib doda meshavad. Rioya nakardani qoidaho dar mavridi shartnomai peshaki onro beetibor megardonad.
  3. Shartnomai peshaki boyad sharthoero dar bar girad, ki ba muayyan namudani mavzu, inchunin digar sharthoi shartnomai asosi imkoniyat dihad.
  4. Dar shartnomai peshaki muhlate, ki tarafho uhdador shudaand shartnomai asosi bandand, nishon doda meshavad.

Agar chunin muhlat dar shartnomai peshaki muayyan nagardida boshad, shartnomai asosi boyad dar davomi yak sol az lahzai ba imzo rasidani shartnomai peshaki basta shavad.

  1. Agar to qati muhlate, ki tarafho boyad shartnoma bandand, ba imzo narasad yo yake az tarafho ba tarafi digar dar mavridi bastani shartnoma peshnihod irsol nakunad, uhdadorihoi peshbininamudai shartnomai peshaki, qat megardad.
  2. Agar dar sozishnomai oid ba niyat (protokol oid ba niyat va gayra) bevosita khohishi tarafho dar mavridi ba on dodani huquqi shartnomai peshaki inikos nagardida boshad, boisi oqibathoi huquqii grajdani namegardad.

 

Moddai 462. Shartnoma ba manfiati shakhsi seyum
  1. Shartnoma ba manfiati shakhsi seyum shartnomae meboshad,

ki dar on tarafho muqarrar namudaand  kreditor boyad uhdador ast ba shakhsi seyumi dar shartnoma zikrshuda yo zikrnashudaro, ki huquq dorad az qarzdor ijroi uhdadoriro ba foidai khud talab namoyad,  ijro kunad.

  1. Agar qonun, digar sanadi huquqi yo shartnoma tartibi digarero peshbini nakarda boshand, tarafho az lahzai ba qarzdor az jonibi shakhsi seyum bayon karda shudani niyati istifodai huquqi khud oid ba shartnoma, shartnomai bastashudaro biduni rozigii shakhsi seyum bekor yo tagyir doda nametavonand.
  2. Qarzdor haq dorad dar shartnoma ba talaboti shakhsi seyum etiroz bayon kunad, chunon ki metavonist ba muqobili kreditor shikoyat namoyad.
  3. Dar surati dast kashidani shakhsi seyum az huquqi mutobiqi shartnoma ba u dodashuda, kreditor metavonad az in huquq istifoda barad, ba sharte ki on khilofi qonun, sanadi digari huquqi yo shartnoma naboshad.

 

Moddai 463. Tafsiri shartnoma
  1. Hangomi tafsiri shartnoma sud manoi aslii kalima va iborahoi dar on sabt shudaro ba inobat megirad. Hangomi nofahmo budani on manoi aslii sharthoi shartnoma bo rohi muqoisa bo digar shartho va umuman mazmuni shartnoma muqarrar karda meshavad.
  2. Agar qoidahoi dar qismi yakumi hamin modda muqarrargardida baroi muayyan kardani mazmuni shartnoma imkoniyat nadihand, boyad niyati haqiqii umumii tarafho, bo nazardoshti maqsadi shartnoma daqiq karda shavad. Dar ayni zamon hamai holathoi dakhldor, az jumla guftuguzoru mukotibot va amalhoi to bastani shartnoma surat girifta, ki dar munosibathoi tarafho muqarrar shudaast, ananahoi muomiloti kori, raftori minbadai tarafho ba inobat girifta meshavand.

 

BOBI 27. BASTANI  ShARTNOMA

 

Moddai 464. Muqarraroti umumi oidi bastani shartnoma
  1. Agar bayni tarafho, mutobiqi shakli dar holathoi muayyani zaruri az rui hama sharthoi asosii shartnoma sozish ba dast omada boshad, shartnoma bastashuda donista meshavad.

Sharthoi oid ba mavzui shartnoma, sharthoe, ki dar qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi baroi shartnomai shakli mazkur muhim va zaruri nombar shudaand, inchunin hamai on sharthoe, ki dar aloqamandi ba onho tibqi arizai yake az tarafho boyad sozish ba dast oyad, sharthoi asosi ba hisob meravand.

  1. Shartnoma bo firistodani oferta (peshnihod baroi bastani shartnoma) az jonibi yak taraf va aksepti on (qabuli peshnihod) az jonibi tarafi digar basta meshavad.

 

Moddai 465. Lahzai bastani shartnoma
  1. Shartnoma az lahzai az jonibi shakhsi firistodai oferta giriftani aksepti on basta shuda ba hisob meravad.
  2. Agar baroi bastani shartnoma tibqi qonun, inchunin dodani molu mulk zarur boshad, shartnoma az lahzai dodani molu mulki dakhldor (moddai 248) basta shuda ba hisob meravad.
  3. Shartnomae, ki boyad ba qaydi davlati girifta shavad, az lahzai ba qayd girifta shudanash basta shuda ba hisob meravad ba sharte ki qonun tartibi digare peshbini nakarda boshad.

 

Moddai 466. Shakli shartnoma
  1. Shartnomaro dar hama guna shakle, ki baroi anjom dodani ahd peshbini shudaast, bastan mumkin ast, ba sharte ki qonun baroi shartnomai shakli zikrshuda shakli muayyan muqarrar nakarda boshad.

Agar tarafho shakli muayyani bastani shartnomaro maslihat karda boshand, harchand tibqi qonun baroi chunin navi shartnoma in shakl nomatlub boshad ham, badi dar shakli muayyan peshnihod karda  shudanash basta shuda ba hisob meravad.

  1. Shartnoma dar shakli khatti bo rohi tartib dodani yak sanadi imzokardai tarafho, inchunin bo rohi mubodilai asnod az tariqi pochta, telegraf, teletayp, telefon, aloqai elektroni yo digar navi aloqae, ki imkoniyati az jonibi tarafi shartnoma firistoda shudanashro mutamad tasdiq menamoyad, basta shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Agar peshnihodi khattii tartib dodani shartnoma tibqi tartibi peshbininamudai qismi 3 moddai 470 hamin Kodeks qabul gardida boshad, rasmiyati shakli khattii shartnoma rioya gardida hisob meshavad.

 

Moddai 467. O f e r t a (peshnihod)
  1. Oferta peshnihodi ba yak shakhs yo yakchand shakhsi muayyan firistodae meboshad, ki maqsadi shakhsi peshnihod kardaro aniq ifoda namuda shartnomaro bo unvone, ki peshnihodro qabul kunad, imzo karda shuda hisob mekunad. Oferta boyad sharthoi muhimi shartnomaro dar bar girad.
  2. Oferta shakhsi firistodai onro az lahzai az jonibi unvoni giriftani on aloqamand mesozad.

Agar ogohinoma dar mavridi talab karda giriftani oferta barvaqttar az oferta yo hamzamon bo on rasida boshad, oferta dastrasnashuda hisob meyobad.

 

Moddai 468. Bebozkhostii oferta

Agar dar khudi oferta tartibi digar muayyan nagardida boshad yo on az mohiyati peshnihod yo sharoiti ijro gardidani amal barnaoyad, ofertai  giriftai unvoni dar tuli muhlate, ki baroi aksepti on muayyan karda shudaast, bozkhosta nameshavad.

 

Moddai 469. Davat baroi peshnihodi oferta. Ofertai ommavi
  1. Reklama yo digar peshnihode, ki ba guruhi shakhsi nomuayyan manzur shudaand, hamchun davati bastani oferta etirof meshavad, ba sharte ki dar taklif tartibi digare daqiq inikos nayofta boshad.
  2. Peshnihode, ki tamomi sharthoi muhimi shartnomaro faro giriftaast va az on niyati shakhsi manzurnamudai peshnihod oidi bastani shartnoma tibqi sharthoi dar peshnihod manzurgardida bo har shakhse, ki mayl dorad muayyan megardad, chun oferta etirof karda meshavad (ofertai ommavi).

 

Moddai 470. Aksept
  1. Aksept javobi shakhse meboshad, ki ofertai ba u firistodashudaro giriftaast.

Aksept boyad purra va bechunucharo boshad.

  1. Agar az qonun, ahdhoi ananavii kori yo az munosibati qablii korii bayni tarafho tartibi digare barnaoyad, sukut kardan aksept ba hisob nameravad.
  2. Agar qonun yo sanadi digari huquqi tartibi digarro peshbini nanamuda boshand va yo dar oferta nishon doda nashuda boshad, dar muhlati baroi aksept muayyannamuda az jonibi shakhse, ki ofertaro giriftaast, ijro namudani amali sharthoi dar on zikrshuda (borfiristoni, khizmatrasoni, ijroi kor, pardokhti mablagi dakhldor va gayra), aksept ba hisob meravad.

 

Moddai 471. Bozkhosti aksept

Agar ogohinomai bozkhosti aksept ba shakhse, ki ofertaro firistodaast, peshtar az aksept yo hamzamon bo on rasida boshad, aksept giriftashuda ba hisob nameravad.

 

Moddai 472. Bastani shartnoma dar asosi ofertae, ki baroi aksept muhlat muayyan kardaast

Agar dar oferta muhlati aksept  muayyan shuda boshad, shartnoma basta shuda ba hisob meravad, ba sharte ki aksept az jonibi shakhsi firistodai muhlati dar on zikrshuda dastras gardad.

 

Moddai 473. Bastani shartnoma dar asosi ofertae, ki dar on  muhlati aksept muayyan nashudaast
  1. Agar dar ofertai khatti muhlati aksept muayyan nashuda boshad va agar aksept az jonibi shakhsi ofertaro firistoda to qati muhlati muayyannamudai qonun yo digar sanadi huquqi girifta shuda boshad va dar surati muayyan nashudani chunin muhlat shartnoma dar muhlati zaruri baroi in muvofiq basta shuda shumurda meshavad.
  2. Agar oferta shifohi, biduni nishon dodani muhlati aksept bayon shuda tarafi digar favran dar mavridi aksepti on izhor karda boshad, shartnoma basta shuda hisobida meshavad.

 

Moddai 474. Aksepte, ki der girifta shudaast
  1. Dar holate, ki ogohinomai sarivaqt firistodashuda, dar mavridi aksept der dastras shuda tarafi ofertaro firistoda favran tarafi digarro az der giriftani aksept ogoh nasozad muhlati aksept der nameshavad.
  2. Agar tarafi ofertaro firistoda favran tarafi digarro dar mavridi aksepti giriftaash, ki der dastras shudaast, ogoh sozad, shartnoma bastashuda ba hisob meravad.

 

Moddai 475. Aksept mutobiqi sharthoi digar

Javob dar mavridi rozigi oid ba bastani shartnoma bo sharthoi digar, aksept hisobida nameshavad.

Chunin javob raddi aksept etirof gardida, dar ayni zamon ofertai nav shumurda meshavad.

 

Moddai 476. Mahalli imzoi shartnoma

Agar dar shartnoma mahalli imzoi shartnoma muayyan nagardida boshad, shartnoma dar mahalli zisti shahrvand yo mahalli budu boshi shakhsi huquqi, ki oferta firistodaast, basta shuda etirof megardad.

 

Moddai 477. Bo  tartibi hatmi bastani shartnoma
  1. Dar holati mutobiqi hamin Kodeks, digar qonunho baroi tarafe, ki oferta firistoda shudaast (loihai shartnoma) bastani shartnoma hatmi boshad, in taraf boyad ba tarafi digar oid ba aksept yo raddi aksept yo oid ba aksepti oferta tibqi sharthoi digar (protokoli ikhtilofi nazar oid ba loihai shartnoma) dar davomi si ruzi giriftani oferta ogohinoma firistad.

Tarafe, ki oferta firistodaast va az tarafe, ki baroyash bastani shartnoma hatmi buda dar borai aksepthoi on bo sharthoi digar ogohinoma giriftaast (protokoli ikhtilofi nazar oid ba loihai shartnoma) haq dorad ikhtilofoti hangomi bastani shartnoma bamiyonomadaro dar davomi si ruzi giriftani chunin ogohinoma yo guzashtani muhlati aksept ba barrasii sud peshnihod namoyad.

  1. Dar holati mutobiqi hamin Kodeks yo qonunhoi digar baroi tarafi ofertaro firistoda (loihai shartnoma) bastani shartnoma hatmi boshad va ba on dar davomi si ruz protokoli ikhtilofi nazar oid ba loihai shartnoma firistoda meshuda boshad, in taraf boyad dar davomi si ruzi giriftani protokoli ikhtilofi nazar tarafi digarro az qabuli shartnomai tahrirkhurda yo oid ba raddi protokoli ikhtilofi nazar ogoh sozad.

Hangomi rad kardani protokoli ikhtilofi nazar yo dar muhlati muayyanshuda nagiriftani ogohinoma oidi  natijai barrasii on tarafe, ki protokoli ikhtilofi nazarro firistodaast, haq dorad ikhtilofi nazari hangomi bastani shartnoma bamiyonomadaro ba barrasii sud peshnihod namoyad.

  1. Agar tibqi qonun, digar sanadi qonuni muhlati digare muayyan nagardida boshad yo az jonibi tarafho muvofiqa nashuda boshad, qoidaphoi oid ba muhlat peshbininamudai qismhoi 1 va 2 hamin modda istifoda burda meshavand.

4.Agar tarafe, ki mutobiqi hamin Kodeks yo digar sanadi qonuni baroyash bastani shartnoma hatmi meboshad, az bastani shartnoma sarkashi namoyad, tarafi digar haq dorad ba sud dar mavridi majburan bastani shartnoma talabot arz namoyad.

Yak taraf metavonad az tarafi digare, ki az bastani shartnoma beasos sarkashi kardaast, tovoni ziyoni bo in amal rasondaro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 478. Bahshoi pesh az shartnoma

Agar ikhtilofote, ki hangomi bastani shartnoma ba miyon omadast, dar asosi moddai 477 hamin Kodeks yo tibqi sozishnomai bayni tarafho manzuri barrasii sud karda shavad, sharthoi shartnoma, ki nisbat ba onho tarafho ikhtilofi nazar doshtand mutobiqi qarori sud muayyan karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 479. Bastani shartnoma hangomi guzaronidani savdo
  1. Agar az mohiyati shartnoma tartibi digare barnaoyad, onro hangomi guzaronidani savdo bastan mumkin ast. Shartnoma bo shakhse basta meshavad, ki dar savdo burd kardaast.
  2. Tashkilkunandai savdo moliki molu mulk yo dorandai huquqi molu mulk yo tashkiloti makhsus buda metavonand. Tashkiloti makhsus dar asosi shartnoma bo moliki molu mulk yo sohibi huquqi molu mulk amal karda, az nomi onho va az nomi khud baromad mekunad.
  3. Dar holathoi muayyannamudai hamin Kodeks yo qonunhoi digar shartnomaho dar mavridi furushi mol yo huquqi molu mulki tanho bo usuli guzaronidani savdo basta shudanashon mumkin ast.
  4. Savdo dar shakli muzoyada yo ozmun (tender) guzaronida meshavad. Dar savdoi muzoyada shakhse burdkarda ba hisob meravad, ki narkhi balandtarro peshnihod kardaast, dar ozmun (tender) boshad, shakhse ki mutobiqi khulosai komissiyai ozmuni (tenderi) qablan az jonibi tashkilkunandai savdo taingardida behtarin shartro peshnihod namudaast, burdkarda shumurda meshavad (QJT az 23.07.16 s., №1334).

Agar dar qonun tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, shakli savdoro moliki molu mulki ba furushrasanda yo sohibi huquqi molu mulki ba furush barovardashuda muayyan mekunand.

  1. Agar dar qonunhoi murofiavi tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, hoidahoi muqarrarnamudai moddahoi 480 va 481 hamin Kodeks nisbat ba savdoi ommavi, ki bo tariqi ijroi qarori sud doir megardand, tatbiq karda meshavand.
Moddai 480. Tashkil va tartibi guzaronidani savdo
  1. Muzoyada yo ozmun (tender) kushoda yo pushida buda metavonand. Dar muzoyada yo ozmuni (tenderi) kushoda har shakhs metavonad ishtirok namoyad. Dar muzoyada yo ozmuni (tenderi) pushida tanho ashkhose, ki makhsus baroi in maqsad davat shudaand, ishtirok mekunand (QJT az 23.07.16 s., №1334).
  2. Agar dar qonun tartibi digar peshbini nagardida boshad, ogohinoma dar mavridi guzaronidani savdo boyad az jonibi tashkilotchii on az si ruz pesh az doir shudani on firistoda shavad. Dar ogohinoma dar hama holat oid ba vaqt, mahal va shakli savdo, mavzui on va tartibi guzaronidani on, az jumla dar mavridi ba rasmiyat darovardani ishtirok dar savdo, muayyan namudani shakhsi burdkarda dar savdo, inchunin oid ba narkhi ibtidoi malumot doda shavad.

Dar surate, ki mavzui savdo tanho huquqi bastani shartnoma boshad, dar ogohinomai savdoi doirshavanda boyad muhlati baroi on muayyangardida zikr karda shavad.

  1. Agar dar qonun yo ogohinoma dar mavridi guzaronidani savdo tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, tashkilkunandai savdoi ozod, ki ogohinoma firistodaast, haq dorad har vaqt, vale na dertar az se ruz to faro rasidani muhlati doir shudani on, tashkilkunandai ozmun (tender) boshad, na dertar az si ruzi to doir gardidani ozmun (tender) az guzaronidani on dast kashad (QJT az 23.07.16 s., №1334).

Dar holati in muhlatro rioya nakardan, az savdoi ozod dast kashidani tashkilkunanda, u vazifador ast ba ishtirokchiyon tovoni ziyoni voqeiashonro pardozad.

Tashkilotchii muzoyada yo ozmuni pushida vazifador ast ba ishtirokchiyoni davatshuda, sarfi nazar az on, ki bad az firistodani ogohinoma az guzaronidani savdo  mahz kay dast kashidaast, tovoni ziyoni voqeiashonro pardozad.

  1. Ishtirokchiyoni savdo boyad tibqi andoza, muhlat va tartibe, ki dar ogohinomai guzaronidani savdo nishon doda shudaast, bayona dihand. Agar savdo doir nagardida boshad, bayona boyad bargardonida shavad. Bayona ham chunin ba ashkhose, ki dar savdo ishtirok doshtandu vale dar on burd nakardaand, bargardonida meshavad.

Hangomi bastani shartnoma bo shakhse, ki dar savdo burd kardaast, bayonaash dar ijroi uhdadori oid ba shartnomai bastashuda hisob karda meshavad.

  1. Shakhse, ki dar savdo burd kardaast va doirkunandai savdo dar ruzi guzaronidani muzoyada yo ozmun (tender) oid ba natijahoi savdo protokol imzo mekunand, ki etibori shartnomaro dorad. Shakhse, ki savdoro burd kardaast, dar holati az imzoi protokol sarkashi kardan az bayonai dodaash mahrum megardad. Doirkunandai savdo, ki az imzoi protokol sarkashi mekunad, vazifador ast bayonaro dar hajmi dukarata bargardonad va ba shakhsi dar savdo burdkarda tovoni ziyoni bo ishtirok dar savdo rasonidashudaro vobasta ba hajme, ki az andozai mablagi bayona beshtar ast, pardozad (QJT az 23.07.16 s., №1334).

Agar mavzui savdo tanho huquqi bastani shartnoma boshad, chunin shartnoma az jonibi tarafho boyad badi khotimai savdo va tartib dodani protokol dar davomi  bist ruz yo digar muhlati dar ogohinoma muayyanshuda basta shavad. Dar holati az bastani shartnoma sarkashi kardani yake az tarafho tarafi digar haq dorad az sud talab namoyad, ki tarafi gunahgorro ba bastani shartnoma majbur sozad va inchunin ziyoni az nabastani shartnoma rasonidashudaro pardozad.

 

Moddai 481. Oqibati rioya nakardani qoidahoi guzaronidani savdo
  1. Savdoe, ki bo rioya nakardani qoidahoi muqarrarnamudai qonun guzaronida shudaast, tibqi davoi shakhsi manfiatdor az jonibi sud beetibor donista shudanash mumkin ast.
  2. Beetibor donistani savdo shartnomai bo shakhsi dar savdo burdkarda bastashudaro beetibor megardonad.

 

BOBI 28. TAGYIR DODAN VA BEKOR KARDANI  ShARTNOMA

 

Moddai 482. Asosho baroi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma
  1. Agar dar hamin Kodeks, qonunhoi digar yo shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad, shartnomaro bo sozishi tarafho tagyir dodan yo bekor kardan mumkin meboshad.
  2. Shartnomaro bo talabi yake az tarafho tanho dar holathoi zayl az tariqi sud tagyir dodan yo bekor kardan mumkin ast:

a)   hangomi shartnomaro ba tavri nazarras vayron kardani tarafi digar;

b) dar digar holathoi peshbininamudai hamin Kodeks, qonunhoi digar yo shartnoma.

Jiddan rioya nakardani shartnoma on ast, ki  ba jonibi digar az in ziyon rasida, uro az umedi ba dast ovardani nafi ziyode mahrum sozad, ki hangomi bastani shartnoma dar nazar dosht.

  1. Hangomi yaktarafa rad namudani ijroi purra yo qismani shartnoma, agar chunin radro qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho ijozat dihad, shartnoma muvofiqan bekor yo tagyirdodashuda ba hisob meravad.

 

Moddai 483. Tagyir dodan va bekor kardani shartnoma hangomi ba tavri nazarras tagyir yoftani holat
  1. Agar dar shartnoma tartibi digare peshbini nagardida boshad va yo az mohiyati on barnaoyad tagyir yoftani holat, ki tarafho hangomi bastani shartnoma onro ba inobat girifta budand, baroi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani on asos buda metavonad.

Tagyir yoftani holat hangome ba tavri nazarras etirof karda meshavad, ki agar tarafho chunin tagyir yoftani holatro oqilona peshbini karda boshand, umuman shartnoma namebastand yo on bo sharthoi to andozae digar  ba imzo merasid.

  1. Agar tarafho dar mavridi ba holati ba tavri nazarras tagyiryofta mutobiq gardonidani shartnoma yo bekor kardani on ba muvofiqa narasida boshand, vayro sud bo asoshoi peshbininamudai qismi 4 hamin modda bekor karda, tibqi talabi tarafi manfiatdor hamzamon bo sharthoi zayl tagyir doda metavonad:

a) agar dar lahzai bastani shartnoma tarafho onro ba asos girifta boshand, ki chunin  tagyir yoftani holat ba miyon nameoyad;

b) agar holat bo sababhoe tagyir yofta boshad, ki tarafi manfiatdor pas az rukh dodanash onro ba haddi gamkhori va ehtiyotkorie, ki az talabi shartnoma va sharti ahdho barmeoyand bartaraf karda nametavonist;

v) agar ijroi shartnoma biduni tagyir dodani shart tanosubi ba shartnoma muvofiqi manfiati molu mulkii bayni tarafhoro to andozae vayron kunad va ba tarafi manfiatdor on qadar ziyone rasonad,  ki az manfiati kalone, ki haq dosht hangomi bastani shartnoma ba on umed bandad, mahrum shuda metavonist;

g) agar az ananahoi ahdhoi kori yo mohiyati shartnoma barnaoyad, ki tavakkali tagyir yoftani holat ba zimmai tarafi manfiatdor ast.

  1. Hangomi bekor kardani binobar jiddan tagyir yoftani on sud bo talabi har kadome az tarafho oqibati bekor kardani shartnomaro bo nazardoshti taqsimi odilonai kharojoti ijroi in shartnoma masraf shudaast, muayyan mekunad.
  2. Bekor kardani shartnoma az sababi ba tavri nazarras tagyir yoftani holat tanho bo qarori sud, dar holathoi mustasno, hangome, ki bekor kardani shartnoma ba manfiathoi jamiyati mukholif ast yo ba tarafho ziyone vorid mekunad, ki az kharojoti badi tagyir dodani shartho az jonibi sud baroi ijroi shartnoma zaruri khele ziyod ast, ijozat doda meshavad.

 

Moddai 484. Tartibi tagyir dodan va bekor  kardani shartnoma
  1. Agar az qonun, digar sanadi huquqi, shartnoma yo ananahoi ahdhoi kori tartibi digare barnaoyad, sozishnomai tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma, ba hamon shakle ki shartnoma dorad, surat megirad.
  2. Taraf talabi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnomaro tanho badi giriftani raddiyai tarafi digar oidi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma yo dar muhlati dar peshnihod yo dar qonun va yo dar shartnoma muayyanshuda nagiriftani javob va dar surati nabudani on dar muddati si ruz ba sud arz karda metavonad.

 

Moddai 485. Oqibati tagyir dodan yo bekor  kardani shartnoma
  1. Hangomi tagyir dodani shartnoma uhdadorii tarafho dar shakli tagyiryofta nigoh doshta meshavad.
  2. Hangomi bekor kardani shartnoma uhdadorii tarafho qat megardad.
  3. Agar az sozishnoma yo mohiyati tagyir dodani shartnoma tartibi digare barnaoyad, dar holati tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma uhdadori az ruzi bastani sozishnomai tarafho dar mavridi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma, va hangomi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma tibqi tartibi sudi boshad, az ruzi etibori qonuni paydo kardani qarori sud dar borai tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma tagyiryofta  yo bekorkardashuda ba hisob meravad.
  4. Agar dar qonun yo sozishnomai tarafho tartibi digare peshbini nashuda boshad, tarafho haq nadorand bargardonidani chizero, ki onho mutobiqi uhdadori to ruzi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma anjom dodaand, talab namoyand.
  5. Agar az jonibi yake az tarafho ba tavri nazarras vayron kardani shartnoma baroi tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma asos shuda boshad, tarafi digar haq dorad tovoni ziyoni az tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma rasidaro talab namoyad.

 

Moddai 486. Holathoi tagyir dodan va bekor kardani shartnoma mutobiqi arizai yake az tarafho
  1. Shartnomaro mutobiqi arizai yake az tarafho tanho dar holathoi zayl tagyir dodan yo bekor kardan mumkin ast:

a) agar ijroi shartnoma imkonnopazir boshad (moddai 448 hamin Kodeks);

b) az jonibi tarafi digar vayron kardani sharthoi  peshbininamudai qonunho yo shartnoma dar mavridi sifat, muhlati ijro va digar shartho;

v) agar tarafi digar tibqi tartibi muqarrargardida muflis etirof shuda boshad;

g) agar sanadi maqomoti davlati, ki dar asosi on shartnoma basta shuda bud, tagyir doda yo bekor karda shuda boshad;

d) dar  holathoi digari peshbininamudai qonunho yo shartnoma.

  1. Dar surati yaktarafa tagyir dodan yo bekor kardani shartnoma yak taraf boyad tarafi digarro na dertar az yak moh peshaki ogoh sozad.

 

Moddai 487. Daroz kardani muhlati amali shartnoma

Tarafho haq dorand amali shartnomaro ba muhlati nav daroz kunand. Muhlati amali shartnoma tibqi qoidahoi moddahoi  472 – 473 hamin  Kodeks daroz karda  meshavad.

 

 

 

QONUNI

JUMHURII TOJIKISTON

 

Dar borai qabul kardani qismi yakumi

Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston

 

Moddai 1.

 

Qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston qabul karda shavad.

 

Moddai 2.

 

Az 1 yanvari soli 2000 az etibor soqit donista shavand:

– fasli yakum «Qoidahoi umumi», fasli duyum «Huquqi molikiyat», zerfasli 1 «Qoidahoi umumi dar borai uhdadoriho»-i fasli seyumi «Huquqi uhdadori»-i Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki bo Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston az 28 dekabri soli 1963 «Dar borai tasdiq kardani Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston» va Qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki muvofiqi onho ba faslhoi ishorashudai Kodeksi  grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston tagyirotu ilovaho vorid karda shudaand;

– Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston az 14 dekabri soli 1996 «Dar borai molikiyat dar Jumhurii Tojikiston» (Akhbori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston 1996, №24, moddai 412);

– Qarori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston az 14 dekabri soli 1996 «Oidi mavridi  amal qaror dodani Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai  molikiyat dar Jumhurii Tojikiston» (Akhbori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston 1996, № 24, moddai 413);

– Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston az 23 dekabri soli 1991 «Dar borai faoliyati sohibkori dar Jumhurii Tojikiston» (Akhbori Shuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, 1992, № 4, moddai 37) va Qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki muvofiqi onho ba in Qonun tagyirotu ilovaho vorid karda shudand;

– Qarori Shuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston az  23 dekabri soli 1991 «Dar khususi amali gardonidani Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai faoliyati sohibkori dar Jumhurii Tojikiston» (Akhbori Shuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, 1992, № 4, moddai 38);

– Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston az 25 iyuni soli 1993 «Dar borai korkhonaho» (Akhbori Shuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, 1993, № 14, moddai 279) va Qonunhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki muvofiqi onho ba in in Qonun tagyirotu ilovaho vorid karda shudand;

– Qarori Shuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston az 25 iyuni soli 1993 «Dar khususi ba mavqei ijro guzoshtani Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai korkhonaho» (Akhbori Shuroi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston, 1993, № 14, moddai 280).

 

Moddai 3.

 

To mutobiq gardonidani qonunho va digar sanadi huquqii dar qalamravi Jumhurii Tojikiston amalkunanda bo qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdani, qonunho va digar sanadi huquqii Jumhurii Tojikiston to dame istifoda burda meshavand, ki onho khilofi qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston naboshand.

 

Moddai 4.

 

Qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston nisbat ba munosibathoi huquqi grajdani, ki badi mavridi amal qaror dodani on ba vujud omadaast, istifoda burda meshavad.

Az rui munosibathoi huquqi grajdani, ki to mavridi amal qaror dodani on ba vujud omadaast, qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston nisbat ba on huquq va vazifaho istifoda burda meshavad, ki onho badi mavridi amal qaror dodani on ba vujud meoyand.

 

Moddai 5.

 

Az ruzi mavridi amal qaror dodani qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston tashkilothoi tijorati tanho dar on shaklhoi tashkili-huquqi tasis yofta metavonand, ki baroi onho Kodeksi mazkur peshbini namudaast.

Tasisi shakhsi huquqi badi intishori rasmii qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston bo tartibe, ki hamin Kodeks peshbini namudaast, amali megardad.

 

Moddai 6.

 

Sanadi tasisii korkhonaho sarfi nazar az shakli molikiyat boyad to 1 iyuli soli 2000 bo meyorhoi qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston mutobiq gardonida shavand.

Korkhonaho sarfi nazar az shakli molikiyat az pardokhti boji baqaydgiri dar mavridi qaydi tagyiroti maqomi huquqii onho vobasta ba mutobiq gardonidani on bo meyorhoi qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston ozod karda meshavand.

 

Moddai 7.

 

To mavridi amal qaror dodani qonun dar borai baqaydgirii shakhsi huquqi va qonun dar borai baqaydgirii huquqho ba molu mulki gayrimanqul va ahdho bo onho tartibi amalkunandai baqaydgirii shakhsi huquqi va baqaydgirii molu mulki gayrimanqul va ahdho bo onho istifoda burda meshavad.

 

Moddai 8.

 

Meyorhoi Kodeks dar borai asosho va oqibathoi gayrivoqei budani ahdho nisbat ba ahdhoe tatbiq megardand, ki talabot dar borai beetibor donistan va beetibor budani oqibathoi onhoro sud sarfi nazar az vaqti sodir shudani ahdhoi dakhldor, badi 1 yanvari soli 2000 barrasi menamoyad.

 

Moddai 9.

 

Muhlati bo qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston muqarrarshudai muhlati davo nisbat ba on davohoe tatbiq megardand, ki muhlati izhori onho, ki bo qonunguzorii qablan amalkunanda peshbini shudaast, to 1 yanvari soli 2000 ba okhir narasidaand.

 

Moddai 10.

 

Khususiyati tasis va faoliyati kooperativhoi kishovarzi (tijorati, korkard, khizmatguzori istehsolkunandagoni khojagii qishloq) bo Qonun dar borai kooperatsiyai kishovarzi muayyan karda meshavand.

 

Prezidenti

Jumhurii Tojikiston                                                                          E.Rahmonov

 

sh. Dushanbe, 30 iyuni soli 1999,

№  802

 

QARORI

MAJLISI OLII

JUMHURII TOJIKISTON

 

Oidi  mavridi amal qaror dodani qismi yakumi

Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston

 

(Akhbori Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston,  s.1999, №6, mod.155)

 

Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston  qaror  mekunad:

 

  1. Qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston badi intishori rasmi az 1 yanvari soli 2000-um mavridi amal qaror doda shavad.

 

  1. Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston dar muhlati shash moh az ruzi mavridi amal qaror dodani qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston:

– qarorhoi khudro ba qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston mutobiq namoyad;

– dar borai bo qismi yakumi Kodeksi grajdanii Jumhurii Tojikiston mutobiq gardonidani qonunguzorii Jumhurii Tojikiston peshnihod manzur kunad.

 

Raisi

Majlisi Olii

Jumhurii Tojikiston                                                                                          S. Rajabov

 

sh. Dushanbe, 30 iyuni soli 1999,

№ 803

 

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