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KLAVIATURA

Klaviatura baroi ba kompyuter dokhil namudani komandaho va matni hujjatho peshbini karda shudaast. Azbaski imruz masalai az tarafi kompyuter shinokhtani ovozi inson ba purragi halli khudro nayoftaast, binobar hamin ham klaviatura yagona vositae boqi memonad, ki bo yorii on istifodabaranda informatsiyai harfi-adadiro ba kompyuter dokhil menamoyad.

Har yak tugmai (klavish) klaviatura sarpushero memonad, ki dar zeri on kalidi miniaturi (mekhaniki yo membranagi) joygir shudaast. Mikroprotsessori nachandon kalone, ki dar klaviatura joygir ast, vazi in kalidhoro ba hisob girifta, pas az har yak pakhshkuni va sardihii tugmaho ba kompyuter malumoti zaruriro ravon menamoyad.

klaviatura

Malumothoi ba kompyuter rasida az tarafi programmai makhsus (sistemai operatsioni) kor karda baromada meshavand. Muvofiqi vazifahoyashon hamai tugmahoi klaviaturaro ba panj guruh judo menamoyand: bloki harfi-raqami, tugmahoi funksionali, bloki raqami, tugmahoi idorakunii kursor va tugmahoi yorirason (Rasmi 2). Dar kompyuterhoi modeli kuhnai IBM PC XT klaviaturahoi 89-tugmador istifoda burda meshudand. Holo in kompyuterho istehsol karda nameshavand. Dar kompyuterhoi modeli navi IBM PC AT boshad, klaviaturahoi 101-tugmador yo 102-tugmador istifoda burda Rasmi 2. Klaviaturai kompyuteri IBM PC meshavand. Garchande miqdori tugmahoi klaviaturai kompyuterhoi portativi kamtar boshand ham, vale onho ba misli klaviaturahoi 102-tugmador kor mekunand.

Programmahoi gunogun tugmahoi klaviaturaro metavonand ba tarzhoi gunogun istifoda barand, yane vobasta az programmaho funksiyai tugmaho metavonad tagyir yobad.

Qoidahoi umumitarini istifodabarii tugmahoro dida mebaroem.

Bloki harfiraqami. In blok dar qismi mobayni va poyonii chapi klaviatura joygir shuda, tugmahoi on rangi safed dorand. Hangomi pakhshi tugmahoi in blok dar ekran harfhoi rusi yo lotini (vobasta az rejai intikhobkardashuda) va raqamho yo simvolhoi (ramzho) makhsus paydo meshavand.

Agar rejai korii klaviatura rejai dokhilkunii harfhoi alifboi lotini boshad, on goh hangomi pakhshi tugmahoi in blok dar ekran simvolhoi dar qismi chapu boloii tugmaho joygirbuda (harfhoi lotini va baze simvolhoi kitobati) paydo meshavand. In qoida ba tugmahoi satri yakumi blok (tugmahoi raqamdor) dakhl nadorad. Hangomi pakhshi tugmahoi in satr (dar har du reja ham) simvolhoi poyonii tugmaho (asosan raqamho va simvolhoi ~, –, =) paydo meshavand. Baroi hosil namudani simvolhoi boloii in satri blok (simvolhoi makhsus) boshad, tugmahoionro dar yakjoyagi bo tugmai yorirasoni Shift pakhsh namudan lozim ast. YAkjoya pakhshnamudani du yo ziyoda tugmaho on manoro dorad, ki yak tugmaro pakhsh karda istoda, bo angushtoni dasti duyum tugmahoi digarro pakhsh kardan lozim ast. Agar tugmahoi harfii blok dar yakjoyagi bo tugmai Shift pakhsh karda shavad, on goh dar ekran harfhoi kaloni alifboi jori hosil meshavand. Azbaski dar klaviatura ham az chapu ham az rosti bloki harfi-raqami du tugmai Shift joygir shudaand, farq nadorad, ki mo kadomi onhoro istifoda mebarem. Kadome az onho baroi kor qulaytar boshad, hamonashro pakhsh namudan mumkin ast. Manoi kalimai Shift (SHift) lagjonidan, tagyir dodan ast.

Agar rejai korii klaviatura rejai dokhilkunii harfhoi alifboi rusi boshad, on goh hangomi pakhshi tugmahoi harfii in blok simvolhoi dar qismi rostu poyonii tugmaho (harfhoi rusi va baze simvolhoi makhsus) joygirbuda, dar ekran paydo meshavand.

Baroi az yak reja ba rejai digari kori (az alifboi rusi ba lotini yo baraks) guzashtan, yagon tugma yo kombinatsiyai tugmahoro pakhsh namudan lozim ast. Mahz kadom tugmaro pakhsh namudan, az programmai makhsusi drayveri dokhilkunii klaviatura nomdoshta vobasta ast. Baze drayverho pakhsh namudani tugmai rosti Ctrl , bazeashon pakhshi yakjoyai har du Shift va bazeashon digar kombinatsiyahoro talab menamoyand.

Agar matn tanho az harfhoi kalon iborat boshad, on goh bo yorii pakhshi tugmai yorirasoni Caps Lock (Caps Lock – Keps Lok) in korro ba osoni anjom dodan mumkin ast. Hudi manoi Caps Lock niz baqaydgirii harfhoi kalon ast. Dar mavridi faol budani rejai harfhoi kalon indikatori Caps Lock, ki dar qismi rostu boloii klaviatura joygir ast, furuzon megardad. Agar dar in holat tugmahoi harfii blok dar yakjoyagi bo tugmai Shift pakhsh karda shavand, on goh dar ekran harfhoi khurd paydo meshavand. Pas, in reja baraksi rejai muqarrari kor mekardaast. Pakhshi takro- rii tugmai Caps Lock rejai harfhoi kalonro bekor meku nad va indikatori hamnomi on khomush megardad.

Dar qismi markazi va az hama poyoni bloki harfiraqami tugmai daroztarini klaviatura – tugmai Probel joygir shudaast. Novobasta az rejai korii klaviatura yo pakhshi tugmai Shift in tugma hamesha yak vazifaro (funksiyaro) ijro menamoyad, ki on dokhilkunii probel (mavqei kholi) dar matn meboshad.

Tugmahoi funksionali. Sababi asosii chunin nom giriftani in tugmaho az on iborat ast, ki onho vobasta az sistemai operatsioni va programmai amalii dar ayni hol istifodashavanda, metavonad funksiyahoi gunogunro ijro namoyand. Tugmahoi funksionali odatan dar qismi boloii klaviatura, pesh az bloki harfi-raqami joygir shuda, bo harfhoi F1, F2, …, F12 ishorat karda meshavand. Baze programmaho vazifa va funksiyahoi in tugmahoro dar yakjoyagi bo pakhshi tugmahoi yorirasoni Ctrl yo Alt yo Shift niz muayyan mesozand. Pakhshi tugmai F1 dar aksariyat programmaho ba ekran barovardani programmai malumotdihanda (malumotnoma) ast.

Tugmahoi idorakunii kursor. Tugmahoi  ,  ,  ,  , Home , End , PgUp , PgDn tugmahoi idorakunii kursor (kuqsoq) nom dorand. In tugmaho dar bayni blokhoi harfi- raqami va raqami joygir shudaand. Hangomi pakhshi in tugmaho kursor mavqei khudro dar ekran tagyir medihad.

Kursor dar har yak programma metavonad, yagon shakli muayyani figurahoi geometriro doshta boshad. Masalan, dar tahrirgari matni odatan on shakli khatchai amudi, dar digar programmaho shakli khatchai milt-miltkunandai ufuqi, dar bazei digarashon shakli kvadrat, sekunja va gayrahoro dorad.

 Kursor – nishondihandaest, ki ba vositai on dar ekran mavqei amaliyotguzaroni muayyan karda meshavad. Samti tugmahoi tirchador samti harakati kursorro dar ekran nishon medihad. Miqdori pakhshi in tugmaho miqdori mavqehoi harakati kursorro ba in yo on samt ba tanzim meorad. Vazifai in tugmaho chunin ast:

  •  – kuchonidani kursor ba yak mavqe ba tarafi chap
  •  – kuchonidani kursor ba yak mavqe ba tarafi rost
  •  – kuchonidani kursor ba yak mavqe ba satri boloi
  •  – kuchonidani kursor ba yak mavqe ba satri poyoni

Home

– kuchonidani kursor ba avvali satr (Home – ibtido, khona)

End – kuchonidani kursor ba okhiri satr (End – intiho, okhir) PgUp

– kuchonidani kursor ba yak sahifa (ekran) bolo (Page Up)

PgDn

– kuchonidani kursor ba yak sahifa (ekran) poyon (Page Down)

Hangomi pakhshi tugmahoi idorakunii kursor dar yakjoyagi bo tugmahoi yorirasoni Ctrl , Alt va Shift vazifahoi onho tagyir doda meshavand. Masalan, pakhshi yakjoyai tugmahoi Ctrl va Home kursorro ba avvali matni hujjat va tugmahoi Ctrl va End boshad, ba okhiri matni on ravona mesozand.

Bloki raqami. In blok dar qismi rosti klaviatura joygir shudaast. Tugmahoi in blok vobasta az rejai koriashon metavonand du funksiyaro ijro namoyand. Agar tugmai

Num Lock pakhsh ___________karda shuda boshad, on goh in blok baroi dokhilkunii raqamhoi 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 va amalhoi arifmetikii +,-,*,/ khele qulay ast. Dar in mavrid indikatori hamnomi tugmai Num Lock niz dar qismi boloii klaviatura furuzon megardad, ki manoi on baqaydgirii raqamho meboshad. Hangomi khomush budani in indikator, funksiyai tugmahoi in blok ba funk-siyai tugmahoi idorakunii kursor tabdil doda meshavand.

Vazifai tugmahoi yorirason va makhsus:

Del yo Delete – baroi nestkunii simvol yo fragmenti matni judokardashudai az tarafi rosti kursor joygirbuda (Delete –nestkuni, khorijkuni);

BackSpace yo  – baroi nestkunii simvol yo fragmenti matni judokardashudai az tarafi chapi kursor joygirbuda (BackSpace – ba qafo bargashtan);

Ins yo Insert – agar pakhsh karda shuda boshad, on goh simvoli

mavjuda ba simvoli dokhilshavanda ivaz karda meshavad. Dar

holati aks, simvoli mavjuda ba yak mavqe ba tarafi rost

melagjad va joi onro simvoli dokhilshavanda megirad (Insert – guzoshtan, ilova kardan, hamroh kardan);

Enter yo – funksiyahoi ziyod dorad. Masalan, baroi dokhilkunii komandaho, guzashtan ba satri nav, ba okhirrasonii matni abzats va gayraho (Enter – dokhilkuni). In tugma dar du blok harfi-raqami va raqami takror meshavad;

Esc – bekorkunii ijroishi komanda, amaliyot yo baromadan az rejai programma (Esc – gurekhtan, bajo shudan, bekor kardan);

Tab – hangomi tahrirkunii matnho – guzashtan ba mavqei navi tabulyatsiya (odatan yakbora ba 8 mavqe). Dar baze programmaho pakhshi in tugma guzashtan az yak maydon ba maydoni digar, az yak sutun ba sutuni digar va gayrahoro ifoda mekunad;

PrtSc – baroi chopi informatsiyai dar ekran joygirbuda yo nuskhabardorii faylii informatsiyai ekran yo ba buferi mubodila ravon kardani on (Prtsc – PrintScreen);

Ctrl , Alt , Shift – in tugmaho funksiyai aniq va yagona nadorand.

Onho odatan bo digar tugmaho yakjoya pakhsh karda shuda, vazifahoi onhoro digargun mesozand (Ctrl – control –

idorakuni, nazoratkuni, Alt – intikhobi alternativi, Shift – joyivazkuni). In tugmaho ba misli tugmahoi Enter , Del , Ins , Home , End va gayraho dar klaviatura du marotiba takror meyoband.

Vazifai baze tugmaho va kombinatsiyai onhoro hangomi omuzishi mavzuhoi muvofiq dar oyanda dida mebaroem.

Savolho:

  1. Vazifahoi klaviatura kadomhoyand?
  2. Informatsiya ba vositai klaviatura chi tavr ba kompyuter dokhil karda meshavad?
  3. Tugmahoi klaviaturaro shartan ba chand guruh judo menamoyand?
  4. Oyo funksiyahoi tugmahoi klaviatura doimo yakkhelaand yo vobasta az programmaho tagyir yofta meistand?
  5. Bloki harfi-raqami dar kadom qismi klaviatura joygir shudaast va kadom funksiyahoro ijro menamoyad?
  6. Pakhshi yakjoyai du yo se tugma chi mano dorad?
  7. CHi guna az harfhoi khurdi alifboi jori ba harfhoi kaloni on guzashtan mumkin ast?
  8. Kadom usulhoi az rejai alifboi lotini ba rusi va baraks guzashtanro medoned?
  9. Tugmahoi funksionali kadom vazifahoro ijro menamoyand?
  10. Tugmahoi idorakunii kursor kadomhoyand va dar kadom qismi klaviatura joygir shudaand?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Funksiyahoi tugmahoi idorakunii kursor va tugmahoi yorirasonu makhsusro dar shakli tablitsa tasvir namoed.
  3. Dar klaviaturai sinfkhonai kompyuteri tugmahoro pakhsh namoed va bined, ki dar ekran chi hodisa ruy medihad.
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