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KISHOVARZi

kishovarziKISHOVARZi (gigienai mehnat), yake az qadimtarin namudhoi faoliyati khojagii odam. Paydoishi K. ba davrae mansub ast, ki odam zaminro bo oloti sodatarin shudgor va hayvonotro ba khud rom mekard. Bo tagyiri munosibathoi jamiyati khususiyat va navi K. niz digar shud.
Dar JT dar natijai ba amal barovardani siyosati agrari nafaqat dar inkishofi iqtisodii dehot, balki dar peshrafti ijtimoii on ham tagyiroti kulli ruy dod: darajai madaniyati sokinoni dehot afzuda, sharoiti mehnat, zindagi va khizmati tibbiyu sanitarii onho behtar shud.
K. ba du soha judo meshavad: ziroat yo rastaniparvari (ziroatkori, sabzavotkori, bogdori, pakhtakori va g.) va chorvodori (khukparvari, gusfandparvari, murgparvari va g.). K. inchunin navhoi gunoguni korkardi mahsuloti nabototu hayvonot, tayyor kardanu sergizo gardondani emu khoshok va g.-ro darbar megirad. Gigienai mehnat dar K. tasiri omilhoi muhiti zist va jarayoni mehnatro ba organizmi kormandon meomuzad, inchunin khususiyathoi kori kishovarzonro ba nazar girifta, baroi behtar namudani sharoiti mehnat, hifz va tahkimi salomatii onho tadbirho meandeshad.
Dar ziroat omilhoe, ki ba organizm tasiri noguvor merasonand beshtar zohir megardand: mavsimi va tajili budani korhoi asosi sababi nobarobarii mehnati dehqonon dar davomi sol va daroz shudani ruzi kori dar davrai kishtukor va hosilgundori megardad. Korhoi asosii dehqoni dar havoi kushod zeri tasiri doimii omilhoi nomusoid guzaronida meshavand. Azbaski korhoi dehqoni dar sahro meguzarand, tay kardani masofai bayni iqomatgoh va joi kor sarfi vaqtu quvvai ziyodro metalabad. Farovon istifoda burdani vositahoi khimiyavii muhofizati rastani (nig. Zahrhoi kishovarzi), inchunin nurihoi minerali va dig. moddahoi az jihati biologi faol hosili ziroatro baland bardoshta, imkonpazirii tamosi dehqonon va mutakhassisonro bo payvasthoi khimiyavii zahrnok ziyod mekunad.
Peshrafti ilmiyu tekhnikie, ki tamomi sohai istehsoloti K.-ro darbar giriftaast, sharoiti mehnati dehqononro niz tagyir dod. Korgaroni asosi dar K.-i hozira mekhanizatorho meboshand: mehnati zaminron, daravgar, ki sarfi quvvai ziyodi jismoniro metalabad, amalan mohiyatashro gum kard. Darajai balandi mekhanizatsiya sababi mehnati dastiro ivaz kardani moshinho gardid.
Traktorho, moshinhoi khudgard va majmui agregathoi gunogun asosi mekhanizatsiyaro tashkil medihand. Traktorhoi seriyavii solhoi okhir nisbat ba traktorhoi peshina talaboti behdoshtiro purratar qone megardanand.
Baroi behdoshti sharoiti mehnati traktorchi va dig. mekhanizatoron sokhti hujrai in guna moshinho muntazam behtar megardad; onho bo amortizator, dastgohi harorat, kondensioner va g. jihozonida shudaand, sadoro nameguzaronand. Darajai sadoguzaronii hujrai traktorhoi hozira va quvvai mushakhoe, ki hangomi idorai agregatho ba fishang va pedal sarf meshavad, odatan, az meyor ziyod nest.
Dar davrai avji korhoi K. bo maqsadi tamini sharoiti musoidi istehsolot va maishat boshishgohhoi doimi va muvaqqatii sahroi sokhta meshavand. Masohati qitai zamini boshishgohi sahroi az 0,5 to 1,25 ga buda dar mintaqai kabudizor joygir meshavad. Meyori istifodai ob dar yak shaboruz ba har nafar dar boshishgohi doimii sahroi 30 – 40 l, dar boshishgohi muvaqqati 10 – 12 l ast. Zarf baroi kashondan va muvaqqatan nigoh doshtani ob boyad jumaku sarpush doshta boshad, onro badi har 3 – 4 ruz bo mahluli ohaki khlordor (ba 100 l ob yak istakon mahluli 10 foiza) bezarar gardondan lozim ast; dar in mavrid badi 2 soat mahlulro rekhta, zarfro mechayqonand va sipas bo obi toza pur mekunand. Honai khobi boshishgohho baroi 4 – 6 kat (4,5 m baroi yak kas) peshbini shudaast. Hobgohho boyad baroi khushkonidani libos va poyafzor joi makhsus doshta boshand.
Dar chorvodori shirdushii dasti, taqsimi emu khoshok, nigohubini chorvo, barovardani sargin korest baso dushvor. Mehnati govdushone, ki bo dast shir medushand, khele vaznin buda, dar onho mumkin ast illati dast, radikuliti kamaru chorband, dardi asab inkishof yobad. Hangomi pusidani sragin va dar havo paydo shudani merkaptan, indol, ammiak, sulfidi gidrogen va dig. moddaho, ki bui noforam dorand, muhiti korii chorvodoron nomusoid megardad. Dar asnoi taqsimi emu khoshoki khushk va rubuchini bino, miqdori gardu chang va mikroorganizmho dar havo yakbora meafzoyad. Mikroflorai binoi chorvodori, odatan, az mikrobhoi saprofiti va shartan bemoriovar iborat ast.
Dar zavodhoi khuroki omekhtai chorvo yo sekhhoe, ki baroi sergizogardonii emu khoshok tain shudaand, ba korgaron gardu changi zahrolud, sadoi baland, mikroiqlimi noguvor tasir merasonand. Hangomi bor kardani mahsulot, inchunin dar joyhoi nigahdorii mahsuloti tayyor va dar nazdi moshinhoi rezagar gilzati balandi gardu chang ba vujud meoyad. Ba havoi joi kor vorid shudani gardu chang binobar khalal yoftani havokashii tajhizot ruy medihad; dar havo boqimondai pestisidhoi ashyoi khom, inchunin mikroorganizmho va zanburughoro oshkor namudan mumkin ast.
Hangomi siloskhoboni dar anborhoi makhsus, chuquriyu khandaq va chohho dar natijai ravandhoi mikrobiologi va biokhimiyavi rastani pusida, gazi «silosi» khorij meshavad; on dar asnoi az anbor barovardani silos ba korkunon mumkin ast tasiri noguvor rasonad.
Behdoshti sharoiti mehnat dar chorvodori tadbirhoi zerinro darbar megirad: jihozonidani binohoi chorvodori bo asbobhoi havokashi, muntazam rubuchin kardan va bezarar gardondani bino, bo sarulibosi makhsus, poyafzor va dig. vositahoi muhofizat tamin kardani korgaron. Istifodai moshinho kori jismoniro khele kam va sharoiti mehnati chorvodoronro behtar namud. Mas., dushidani moshinii shir nafaqat mahsulnokii mehnatro 2 – 4 marotiba baland bardosht, balki onro khele oson ham gardond. Dar komplekshoi sanoatii chorvodori va parrandaparvari nizomi az nigohi fiziologi oqilonai mehnatro jori karda, dar fermahoe, ki holo shirdushii dasti boqi mondaast, baroi peshgirii bemorihoi dast tadbirhoi makhsus meandeshand. Bo in maqsad tagorai darozruyaero obi garm (26 – 380S) pur mekunand va dasthoro toza shusta to orinj ba ob megutonand. Davomoti prosedura 10 – 15 daqiqa. Dastro to ogozi shirdushi 5 – 7 daq. mash mekunand. Dastro ba rui miz ozodona meguzorand; sipas angushton va mushakhoi bandi dastro bo angushtonu kafi dasti digar ba tarafi badan molish medihand. Har yak mashqro 5 – 6 marotiba takror mekunand. Avval tarafi pahluii angushton, bad kafu pushti dastro molish medihand. Panjai dast davrodavr mash karda meshavad. Bo kafi yak dast pushti dasti digarro molish medihand. Hangomi paydoishi amrozi pust, kafidahoi amiq, buridan yo kharoshkhurii dast ba dukhtur murojiat boyad kard.
Baroi peshgirii khastashavi va dardi dast hangomi dushidani shir, surati kashish yoftanu sust shudani angushton boyad dar yak daq. az 70 – 80 harakat ziyod naboshad. Ba kursichai muvofiqi qad nishasta govro medushand. Dar in mavrid rost va ozod boyad nishast. Balandii kursicha baroi odami qadbaland 29 – 30 sm, miyonaqad 26 – 28 sm, qadtpast 23 – 25 sm ast. Korkunoni fermahoi chorvodori qoidahoi behdoshti shakhsiro boyad qati rioya kunand. Dar komplekshoi chorvodori sokhtani binohoi sanitariyu maishi, dushkhona, khonai damgiri va behdoshti zanon peshbini shudaast.
Tadbirhoi muhimme, ki ba behdoshti sharoiti mehnat nigaronida shudaand: behtar namudani naqshagirii sekhhoi asosi va tajhizot (khususan dar zavodu sekhhoe, ki khuroki omekhtai chorvo tayyor mekunand), takmil dodani kori asbobhoi havokash, mekhanikonii rubuchini bino va g.
Nazorati sanitarie, ki dar tamomi sohahoi K. meguzaronand, boyad dar robitai zich bo umuri veterinari ba amal barovarda, dar ayni hol qoidahoi behdoshtie, ki sharoiti mehnat talab mekunad, ba asos girifta shavand.

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