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KIBERNETIKAI TIBBi

kibernetikai-tibbiKIBERNETIKAI TIBBi, yak fasli kibernetika, ki ravandi idora va daryofti akhborro dar organizmi zinda va guruhi alohidai odamon (baroi hallai masalai tabobat va peshgirii bemoriho) meomuzad. K. t. masalahoi muolija va peshgirii bemorihoro muhokima mekunad, faoliyati organizmi odamro dar asosi qonunhoi idora, ki odatan ba hamai obekthoi tabii va suni khos ast, tahqiq menamoyad.
Dar in hol organizmi zinda va uzvhoi alohidai onro chun sistemae boyad tasavvur kard, ki dar on dark, zakhira, tahlil va intiqoli akhbor ba vujud meoyad, ba aksulamal (reaksiya)-i muvofiq zaminae tayyor mekunad, ki jarayoni mutadili hama ravandhoi hayotan muhimro idora menamoyad. Az nuqtai nazari K. t. har guna bemori hamchun ikhtiloli ravandi qabul, intiqol va tahlili akhbor yo natijai tafsiri nodurusti omili idorakunanda donista meshavad. Istifodai usulhoi K. t. (modelonii elektroni va matematiki, usulhoe, ki ba korbasti kompyuterho asos yoftaand va g.) ba afzun gardondani rohhoi tadqiqi organizmhoi zinda, oshkor sokhtani imkoniyathoi dukhturon hangomi tashkhis va tabobati bemoron ravon gardidaast. Taraqqiyoti K. t. bo inkishofi tekhnikai kompyuteri va usulhoi navi ba dast ovardani akhbor dar borai vazi organizm yo sistemayu uzvhoi alohidai on zich aloqamand ast. Tadqiqoti tibbiyu kibernetiki ba se samti asosi judo meshavad. Samti yakum ba jam namudani akhbor dar borai faoliyati organizmhoi zinda va uzvhoi onho, ichunin korkardi usulhoi istifodai akhbori mavjuda (baroi tavsifi obektivonai holati organizm) vobasta ast. Samti duyum kori idorai ravandhoi mutadil va nomutadilro darbar megirad, ki on kharakteri baroi organizmi zinda zarurii rafti in amaliyotro tamin menamoyad. Samti seyum tadqiqot oid ba kashfi omilhoi tekhnikii tashkhis va tabobat, inchunin sistemahoi akhboriyu idorakuni bo maqsadi idorai kori sohahoi mukhtalifi umuri hifzi tandurusti (az muassisahoi alohida, mas., poliklinika, bemorkhona to idorahoi dakhldor va hatto vazi salomatii aholii nohiyaho va davlathoi alohida) meboshad.
Ba korhoi samti yakum tadqiqot oid ba tashkhisi bemoriho tavassuti barnomayu usuli makhsusi istifodai kompyuterho dokhil meshavand, ki qobiland az bayni chand namudhoi bemori navi beshtar imkonpaziri illatro «nishon» dihand. Sistemahoi tashkhisi dar holathoi dushvor ba dukhtur kumak merasonand (dar in hol kompyuter ba dukhtur varianti beshtar imkonpaziri tashkhisro «nishon» doda, hangomi zarurat muoinai ilovagi tavsiya mekunad). Onhoro baroi takmili umuri tibbi ba aholi dar sharoite, ki yorii tibbii tajili dushvor ast (mas., az sababi dar muassisai mazkur nabudani mutakhassisi yagon sohai tib), istifoda mebarand (dar in hol sistemahoi makhsusi aloqaro istifoda burda, muassisai tibbiro bo muassisai tibbii markazi aloqamand mekunand va az on maslihati zaruri megirand); nihoyat, sistemahoi tashkhisiro baroi muayyan namudani odamoni alohida (hangomi muoinai tibbii ommavi)-e, ki khavfi giriftor shudani onho ba in yo on bemori beshtar ast, kor mefarmoyand. Dar in hol az pursishi anketi istifoda burda meshavad, ki on tarjumai holi odam, sharoiti zindagi va mehnat, omilhoe, ki ba tarzi zistu zindagii u vobastaand, bemorihoi az sar guzarondani uro darbar megirad. Agar khavfi ba in yo on bemori giriftor shudani odamoni alohida muayyan karda shavad, on goh onhoro ba muoinai ilovagi mefiristand, ba nizorati doimii tibbi megirand. Azbaski korkardi malumoti pursishi anketi dushvor nest, istifodai in usul imkon medihad, ki mablagi bahri muoina va bistarigardonii tamomi aholi judokarda sarfa shavad.
Ba guruhi tadbirhoi samti yakum kori tahlili kompyuterii elektroensefalogramma, elektrokardiogramma va g., ki vazi bemorro muayyan mekunand, korkardi sistemai ba nom sarbastai idorai narkoz, angezishi faoliyati dil (nig. Kardiostimulyatsiya), nafaskashi va asbobhoi yorirason (mas., asbobhoi khungardishi suni va g.) dokhil meshavand.
Az sababi ziyod shudani ragbat ba daryofti uzvhoi suni, diqqati mutakhassisoni sohai K. t.-ro masalai amsilasozi (modeloni)-i organizm yo zersistemahoi kaloni on (gardishi khun, nafaskashi, mubodilai moddaho) jalb menamoyand. Az in ru, omuzishi tarz (mekhanizm)-i ustuvor nigoh doshtani muhiti dokhilii organizm (gomeostaz) yake az bakhshhoi muhimi samti duyumi tadqiqoti K. t. ast. Hususiyati gomeostazii organizmhoi zinda ham az jihati oshkor kardani tabiati fiziologii tarzi nigohdoshi holate, ki ba muhiti dokhilii organizm musoid ast (hangomi tagyiri sharoiti beruni) va ham az nuqtai nazari imkoniyati amaligardonii gomeostaz tavassuti asbobhoi tekhniki (nig. Bionika) baroi K. t. ahamiyati kalon dorad.
Idorai rafti tabobat niz yake az masalahoi K. t. meboshad. Istifodai qobiliyati hifzi miqdori ziyodi akhbor dar kompyuterho imkon medihad, ki ba tahlili mariziho takya karda, baroi har bemor chunin tarzi muolijae intikhob karda shavad, ki oqibati on nek boshad. Masalai idorai tabobat hangomi istemoli doruhoi purtasir va zahrnok khele sudbakhsh ast. Dar in surat tavassuti usulhoi amsilasozi (modeloni)-i matematiki barnomai tabobati (muhlati istemol va voyai doru), usulhoi imkonpaziri bartaraf namudani tasiri nomatlubi doru va g. muayyan karda meshavand. Hangomi shuoshifoi (baroi hisob kardani voyai shuo) istifoda burdani kompyuterho ahamiyati kalon dorand.
Ba korhoi samti seyum daryofti usulhoi ba qayd giriftani vazi salomatii shumorai ziyodi aholi dokhil meshavad. CHunin baqaydgiri (hangomi datsras budani tarikhi bemori) imkon medihad, ki dar holathoi tajili ba bemor favran yori rasonida shavad; tadbirhoi peshgirii bemoriho az rui naqsha ijro gardand; sababhoi tamoyuli noguvorro dar tagyiri ahvoli salomatii aholi sarivaqt oshkor namoyand. Dar natija umuri tibbie ba vujud meoyad, ki vazifahoi gunogunro hal karda, imkoniyathoi dar sistemahoi hifzi tandurusti vujuddoshtaro amali megardonad. Sistemahoi idorai tadqiqoti ilmi dar sohai tib niz yake az tarzhoi jamovarii akhbori tibbi meboshand. Hangomi daryofti chunin sistemaho sayu kushishi odamon ba halli masoili muborizai ziddi bemorihoe, ki ba jamiyat zarari kalon merasonand, ravona shudaast (bemorihoi dilu rag, onkologi, siroyati va g.). Tadqiqoti ba muborizai zidi in bemoriho ravonshudaro tashkilothoi baynalkhalqi, qabl az hama Sozmoni umumijahonii tandurusti, hamohang mesozand.

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