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KASHFI QALAI KUHI MUG

Dar tadqiqi davrahoi avvali tarikhi asrimiyonagii Sugd kashfiyotu tadqiqothoi arkheologi chunon maqomu ahamiyatero sohib ast, ki zohiran in guna maqomu ahamiyati onho digar dar hej kujo ba nazar namerasad. Mo borho ba in guna madrakoti arkheologi istinod kardem. Dar boloi materialhoe, ki az Qalai kuhi Mug va az Panjakenti qadim ba dast omadaand, andak mufassal tavaqquf mekunem.

Ahli dehai Hayrobod (dar hududi rayoni Ayni) az davrahoi qadim joero medonistand, ki onro «Qalai Mug» meguftand va in nom dar adabiyoti ilmi ba shakli «Qalai kuhi Mug» mamul shud. Dar ibtidoi solhoi 30-yum ahli deha ba in jo bisyor omaduraft doshtand va, inak, bahori soli 1932 Juraali nom podabon yak sabad va dar on yak varaq kogazi abreshimi yoft, ki ba kadom yak khati ajoibi galati kim-chiho navishta shuda bud. Hatro na mahmadonohoi deha va na ahli savodi Uroteppa khonda natavonistand. Tiramoh in khabar ba gushi kotibi raykompartiya Abdulhamid Pulodi rasid, ki ba tarikhu madaniyati qadim maylu ragbati zur dosht. Vay bo yak didan pay burd, ki varaq varaqi oddi ne va onro favran ba Dushanbe firistod. Aynan dar hamon vaqt, yane soli 1932 bo taklifi KM Partiyai kommunistii Tojikiston va hukumati respublika, bo qarori Prezidiumi AF SSSR Bazai tojikistonii AF SSSR tasis yofta bud. Avvalin rohbari on sharqshinosi olamshumul S.F. Oldenburg tain shud. Mutakhassisonn Baza muqarrar kardand, ki khat ba zaboni uyguri yo sugdi navishta shudaast va bahori soli 1933 rasmi dastnavisro ba eronshinosi nomii soveti A.A.Freyman dodand. Vay muqarrar kard, ki khat ba zaboni sugdi va bo hurufoti sugdi navishta shudaast. Bozyofti podabon kashfiyoti buzurgi ilmi gardid. Osori katibai sugdiyon khele pesh ham malum bud (onho az Turkistoni sharqi yoft shuda budand). Soli 1932 katibai sugdi mahz dar khoki khudi Sugd yoft shud – ore, khati sugdi az khudi Sugd baromad – az in khabar dili kadom olim ba tapish nameomad![1]

A.A. Freyman ba Dushanbe omad, bo nuskhai aslii khat shinos shud, tarikhi yofta shudani onro ba tafsil pursida girift va inak, aqidae paydo shud, ki dar nazari avval guyo khayoli khom menamoyad — dar joi yoftshudai khat boyad boz digar khatho ham boshad. Bo maslihati A.A. Freyman ba Qalai Mug yak guruh khodimoni bazai tojikistonii AF SSSR raftand. Ahli respublika bo ishtiyoqi tamom muntazirii kashfiyoti nav gardid. A. Pulodi dar chunin sharoit tobistoni soli 1933 ba koftukov sar kard. Albatta, guftan darkor, ki vay arkheolog nabud va ehtimol, dar in kor sahvu galat ham karda boshad, vale har chi ham naboshad, ba gayratu jiddu jahdi vay qoil shudan darkor. Mohi iyul ziyoda az bist hujjat va chand ashyoi moddi ba dast omad. Soveti Komissaroni Halqi RSS Tojikiston baroi davom dodani hafriyot qarori makhsus qabul karda, mablagu vositahoi lozimiro dod.

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Tiramohi hamon sol ba sari hafriyot kotibi ilmii Bazai tojikistonii AF SSSR A.I.Vasilyev bo yak guruh olimonu mutakhassison omad. Ana hamon vaqt ba koftukovi qala shuru kardand; A.I.Vasilyev boz 21 dastkhat yoft. Bo qarori idorahoi rohbarikunandai Tojikiston mohi oktyabr yak ekspeditsiyai kalonu mukammal tasis doda shud, ki rohbari on A.A.Freyman bud. Noyabri soli 1933 A.I.Vasilyev dar hayati hamin ekspeditsiya Qalai kuhi Mugro koftukov kard. Sonitar (dar soli 1947) L.Voronina kori A.I.Vasilyev sar kardaro anjom dod.

Kuhe, ki dar boloi on kharobai qala joy dorad, yak harsangi bosalobati yaklukhti hashtodmetraest, ki dar sohili chapi daryoi Zarafshon, dar qaribii bo on hamroh shudani daryochai Qum voqe gardidaast. Se tarafi in kharsang ob va tarafi chorumash rohi rostu farozi mushkilguzar meboshad. Maydonchai boloi kuh zamone devori sangin doshtaast va qala ba in sabab qarib tamoman fathnopazir meshud. Dar in maydoncha kharobai binoe menamoyad, ki zamone duoshyona budaast. hangomi ogozi hafriyot faqat kharobahoi oshyonai yakum menamudu bas. Imorat shaklan rostkunjai nobarobare budu pahluhoi on 18,5–19,5 m bud. Oshyonai yakum chunin binoho dosht: chor khonai darozu borik, ki ba qaddi imorat barobar budand (bari har yak az in khonaho 1,9-2,25 m) va dar shi-moli in khonaho doloni az in ham boriktari kundalange bud, ki tamomi on chor khonaro ba ham mepayvast. Az in dolon dare ba berun kushoda meshud. Tah-kursii devorho az khishti pukhta va sardevoriho az khishti khom bud. Hudi bino kalon nest. YAgon zebu oroish nadorad va yak qalai muqarrarii didboni ast.

Dar rafti hafriyot malum shud, ki hujjatho (shumorai onho az 80 guzasht va az jumlai onho 74-toash sugdi bud) dar balandii 50-70 m az farsh, dar tagi shikastaporahoi fururaftai shift khobidaand. A.I.Vasilyev durust takhmin kard, ki bino aslan duoshyona budu hujjatho dar oshyonai duvum meistodand. Dar rafti hafriyot na faqat hujjat, balki bisyor ashyoi madaniyati moddi niz ba dast omad va nomgui onho ba 400 rasid. Alalkhusus, safolot bisyor ast. Ashyoi bofta — sabadhoi gunogun jolibi diqqatand. In sabadho nihoyat bo havsala bofta shudaand va tarzi bofti onho bo bofti tojikoni Pomir shabohat dorad.

Ashyoi chubinro makhsus qayd kardan darkor – karsonu tabaq, tugmavu sagak, belu qoshuq barin chizho khele bomahorat sokhta shudaand. Sanduqchai chubine kiroi zikr ast, ki bo charmi siyohi tunuk rukash gardidaast va dar sarpushi on ba shakli sitorahoi hashtgushai surkh naqshi ajoibe hast. Digar ashyoi nodir sipari chubin ast, ki niz rukashi charmin dorad va dar rui on surati rangorangi aspu savori musallah kashida shudaast. Matohoe, ki az on jo yoft shudaand, asosan pakhtagi, abreshimi va pashmi meboshand. Alalkhusus, sargirakhoi turi jolibi diqqat ast, ki az resmoni pakhtagi bofta shudaast va osori bagoyat ajoibu olisifatva behamtoyu besobiqai sanati turbofii Osiyoi Miyona meboshad.[2] Az jumlai asbobi jangi gayr az sipare, ki dar bolo zikr kardem ehtimol, in sipari jangi ne, balki sipari marosimi ham boshad), boz gilofi chubini khanjar, paykonhoi ohani, tirhoi nayi, chubi va chubunayiro nombar kardan darkor. Inchunin ashyoi shishagin, shash dona tanga va boqimondahoi ziroat yoft shud.

Tamomi in bozyofti farovon dar borai khususiyati madaniyati moddii sugdiyon bori avval malumoti mufassal dod va kashfiyoti hujjathoi khatti, ki bozyofti beamsoli davron hisob meshud, darak medod, ki badi kushodani ramzi on roje ba tarikh va madaniyati manavi madrakoti garonbaho ba dast khohad omad. Ba sharofati mehnati purmashaqqatu shadidi A.A.Freyman kushodani ramzi dastkhathoi sugdi ogoz yoft va in korro shogirdoni vay M.N.Bogolyubov, V.A.Livshits, O.I.Smirnova anjom dodand, matnhoi arabiro I.YU.Krachkovskiy va V.A.Krachkovskaya khonda, sharh dodand.

Tadqiqi in materialho imkon dod, ki sanai bunyodi Qalai Mug va davrai istehsoli ashyoi on aniq muayyan karda shavad. Rohnamo yak hujjati arabi shud, ki dar matni on V.A.Krachkovskaya va I.YU.Krachkovskiy zud nomi «Divasti»-ro khondand (sugdiyonro «Divashtich», «Divashtak» meguftand) va in nom dar makhazhoi roje ba Osiyoi Miyonaro istilo kardani arabho zikr shudaast. I.YU.Krachkovskiy badi 10 soli in kashfiyot dar kitobash «Nad arabskimi rukopisyami» («Dar sari dastnavishoi arabi») tafsiloti voqearo khele aniqu daqiq va bo oburang tasvir kardaast. Dar khotima vay guftaast: «Dar haqiqat, nomi Divashtich miftohi tamomi kor gardid – yane na faqat khati arabiro fahmonda dod, balki baroi tadqiqi hujjathoi sugdi zaminai mustahkam faroham ovard. Divashtak hokimi sugdiyon budaastu mahz boqimondahoi arkhivi vay dar Qalai Mug ba dasti ekspeditsiya aftodaast. Nomi digar volii arab, ki Divashtich maktubro ba vay irsol karda bud, ba osoni muayyan shud va mahz hamin nom imkon dod sanai maktub aniq karda shavad va on soli sadumi  hijri, yane taqriban solhoi 718–719 budaast».

Allakay fevrali soli 1934 dar Leningrad, dar majlisi Akademiyai fanho, ki ba ekspeditsiyai Qalai Mug bakhshida shuda bud, natijai on, az jumla, avvalin kushishi kushodani ramzi dastnavishoi sugdi va khondani hujjathoi arabi arz karda shud. I.YU.Krachkovskiy khele durust guftaast, ki: «…In tantana bud, tantanai ekspeditsiya bud, ki ilmro bo malumoti besobiqa gani kard, in tantanai ilm bud, ki qudrati khudro ravshan nishon dod va dar peshi nazari hama donishi moro ba zinai balandtare barovard.[3]

Faqat haminro ilova kardan darkor, ki ba in tantana ham yak podaboni oddi va ham kotibi raykompartiya va ham rohbaroni idorahoi respublikavi va ham sharqshinosoni olamshumuli soveti sahmi khudro guzoshtand.

Hamai in diqqati olimonro ba havzai boloobi Zarafshon kashid. Dar on vaqtho dar Tojikiston muassisahoi arkheologi vujud nadoshtand, vale olimone budand, ki mekhostand guzashtai respublikaro tadqiq namoyand. YAke az hamin guna odamoni tashabbuskor arkheologi kishvarshinos V.R.CHeylitko nom shakhsi kordoni bogayrate bud. Vay solhoi 1934-1937 havzai boloobi Zarafshonro tadqiq karda, az jumla, dar Panjakenti qadim andak hafriyot guzarond. Az akhbori mukhtasaru berobitai gazetaho dar borai in hafriyot malumoti mufassal giriftan mumkin ne, vale shubhae nest, ki natijai in hafriyot khele khub bud. Vale tavsifi bozyoftho bisyor kambudiho dorad. Ammo dar ayni hol boyad iqror kard, ki V.R.CHeylitko ahamiyati dimnai Panjakenti qadimro durust muayyan namud va oyandai onro niz durust peshgui kard, ki ba tufayli tadqiqoti in dimna yak shahri kaloni butun padid meoyad, ki pesh az istiloi arabho vujud dosht va ba in shahr «tasiri asrhoi minbada nest, zero badi dar ibtidoi asri VIII kharob shudan mardum digar ba in jo manzil nakardand. Ba tufayli hafriyot bisyor asarhoi sanat, tamgaho va safolot yoft shud.

Vale tadqiqi ilmii Panjakent faqat pas az 10 sol ogoz yoft. Soli 1946 «Ekspeditsiyai arkheologii sugdshinosii tojik» nom ekspeditsiyai kaloni ilmi tashkil karda shud. Dar kori ekspeditsiya se muassisa — Instituti tarikhi madaniyati moddii AF SSSR, Filiali tojikistonii AF SSSR va Ermitaji davlati shirkat doshtand. Azo — korrespondenti AF SSSR, zabardasttarin sharqshinos va arkheologi soveti, shogirdi V.V.Bartold-A.YU.YAkubovskiy rohbari ekspeditsiya tain karda shud. Vay soli 1946 bo yak guruh olimon ba Panjakent omad. A.YU.YAkubovskiy dimnaro bodiqqat taftish kard va bo malumoti V.R.CHeylitko shinos shuda, ba khulosae omad, ki dar in mahal hafriyoti kalon tashkil namudan zarur ast. Vay hamin nuktaro dar nazar dosht, ki «Panjakenti qadim dar zamoni islom vujud nadosht». A.YU.YAkubovskiy mekhost malumote jam kunad, ki on imkon dihad dar borai shahrhoi to istiloi arab vujuddoshta aqidae bayon karda shavad. Vay masalai tadqiqi Panjakenti qadimro az gushavu kanoru tangkuchahoi sarbastai kishvarshinosi berun barovarda, ba shohrohi ilmi soveti hidoyat namud. To vopasin dami khud (soli 1953) A.YU.YAkubovskiy rohbari hafriyoti Panjakent bud. Badi sari vay ba hafriyot M.M.Dyakonov rohbar shud (vafotash soli 1954), az soli 1954 rohbari hafriyot A.M.Belenitskiy meboshad.

Harobahoi Panjakenti qadim 60 km sharqtari Samarqand, dar kanori Panjakenti imruza joy giriftaast. «Dar hamin jo, dar sohili balandi Zarafshon dimna voqe ast. Pesh az hafriyot in jo zaminhoi lalmi budu dar vusati maydoni labi daryo tarhi bazur ayoni devori qala va burjhoi on ba nazar merasid. Agar kas ba boloi yake az in kharobahoi burjho baroyad, sathi khudi dimnaro medid, ki on maydone bud pur az teppayu dungiyu dungichahoi gunogunsokhtu gunogunshakl. In maydoni khudi shahr bud, ki sonitar ba on istilohi shahristonro nisbat dodand. Vusati shahriston 19 ga va masofai girdogirdash 1750 m ast. Devori shahriston faqat dar shimol va sharq rost ast, dar janub va garb boshad, ba pastiyu balandii mahal muvofiq shuda, kaju kilebu pastubaland meboshad. Dar tarafi garbii shahriston boshishgohi hokim – ark joy dorad, ki zamone bo devorhoi qala yak istehkomi tomro tashkil medod. Ark dar boloi teppai 30-metra voqe buda, az shahriston bo soe judo ast. Dar tarafi sharqi va janubu sharqii shahriston havlihoi nazdishahri joy dosht, ki on guyo ibtidoi rabothoi shahrhoi davrai mutaraqqii asrhoi miyona bud. Dar janubi shahriston chand teppachaho hast, badi hafriyot malum shud, ki onho novushoi zardushti budaand. Pas, qabriston ham dar hamin jo budaast.

SHahriston kuchahoi bisyor dorad. Bari kuchahoi shahr 3–5 m buda, onho goh mutavozi meravand va goh ba ham payvasta meshavand. Dar du tarafi kucha mahallahoi sershumor, dukonu ustokhonahoi bisyor joy dosht. Masalan, dar yake az kuchahoe, ki shartan № 3 nomida shudu ba tuli 100m mufassal tadqiq gardid, dar yak tarafash mahallahoi HIII va VI va dar tarafi digarash mahallahoi III, HH, VII va HVI yoft shud, ki har yake az dahho havliho va ziyoda az 100 bino iborat ast.

Masalan, mahallai istiqomatie, ki shartan «obekti III» nom girift, dar gushai shimolu sharqii shahr joy dorad va rostkunjai taqriban duruste meboshad, ki az shimol ba janub tul kashida, andozaash 190kh35 m ast. Tarafi garbii mahalla dar tuli 100 m ba shakli devori yaklukht ast, ki panj darvoza va yak ayvon dorad, vale hamin ki ba janub tob khurd, shaklash digar meshavad. Tarafi sharqii mahalla khele bisyor darvozavu ayvon dorad. Ba aqidai O.G.Bolshakov, tamomi mahalla az hasht havli iborat buda, dar har yak havli 10–15 imorat hast.[4]

Havli az binoi bolokhonador iborat meboshad, ki az khonai poyon ba khonai bolo bo rohi moil ba balandi baromadan (pandus) mumkin ast. Markazi havli tolori kaloni chorkunja meboshad. Devori gafsu balandi bedarvoza yak havliro az digar havli judo kardaast.

Sokhti obekti VI–HIII nazar ba obekti III on qadar botartib nest. Binohoi in havli ba devori qala payvast buda, dar gardishhoi on joyhoi kholi mondaast, ki misli ruydarichaho meboshad. B.YA.Staviskiy dar in jo bisyor havlihoro muayyan namudaast, ki oshyonai yakumi onho az chor to dah khona dorand. Dar yakchand az in havliho tolori kaloni tashrifot hast, ki ba on doloni shervonisaqf mebarad, gayr az in chand khonahoi ilovagi dorad va baroi ba oshyonai duvum baromadan baromadgohi moili zinamonand sokhta shudaast. Hamai in havliho ba havlii obekti III monandi dorad.

V.L.Voronina muayyan kardaast, ki imorati har yak havli ba du taqsim me-shavad: ba khonai tashrifot va khonai istiqomati. havlihoi boytar darvoza-khonae doshtand, ki ba namudi ayvon sokhta shuda bud. Honahoi poyon odatan shervonisaqf va shifti onho khele baland bud (to 5 m) va tag-tagi devor baroi khuftukhob sufaho sokhta shuda bud. Honahoi poyon andak toriktaru salqintar va khonahoi bolo ravshantaru sabuktar sokhta meshudu, ehtimol, khonahoi tobis-toni budand va ba on ba vositai baromadgohi moil yo bo zina ba balandi baromadan mumkin bud. CHi tavre dar bolo ham qayd kardem, markazi in havliho tolori kaloni chorkunjae meboshad (andozai onho ba hisobi miyona 50-80 m2). Girdogirdi daruni tolor sufa dosht va sufai rubarui dari daromad balandu barjasta bud. SHifti tolor az chubi muqarrari buda, ba chor sutun takya mekard va dar miyonjo ravzan dosht. Sarosari devorhoi tolorro pur az naqshu nigor va tanai sutunhoro kandakori mekardand. haykalhoi chubin ham dar in tolorho meistodand.

har yak in guna havli boshishgohi ashrofe meboshad, ki baroi istiqomati khudi sohibi havli va ahli khonavodai vay khonahoi ziyode dosht, baroi khizmatgoronu anboru oshkhonavu va g. niz khonaho budand (bazan onhoro az khonahoi asosi judo mesokhtand) va inchunin tolori tashrifot bud, ki on vazifai meh-monkhonai havlii boyi asrhoi HIH va avvali HH-umi tojikro ijro mekard.

Dar qatori in guna havlihoi kalon dar mahallaho havlihoe budand, ki tolori tashrifot nadoshtand; khele khoksorona va hatto faqirona budand va, zohiran, dar in havliho shahriyoni qatori zindagi mekardand.

YAke az havlihoi obekti VI sokhti makhsus dorad. Dar in havli chor tolori tashrifot hast, az jumla, tolori rostkunjai tashrifot, ki andozaash 12,7H7,9m meboshad. Dar in tolor 100 qol yoft shud, dar bayni rasmhoi rui devor lavhi nardbozi ham kashida shudaast. V.L.Voronina meguyad, ki in tolor «tolori makhsusi bozi bud», vale in gapi uro isbot kardan mumkin naboshad ham, ba har hol joi shubha nest, ki in havli havlii jamoati bud.

Sokhti havliho betagyir namemond. Onhoro vase mekardand, borho az nav mesokhtand.

Dar solhoi okhir muayyan shud, ki khonahoi alohida-alohidai (bazan iborat az du qismi) sari kuchaho, ki bevosita ba kucha dar doshtand, chi guna khonaho budaand. Dar joi tadqiqshudai chorkucha ziyoda az chil adad in guna khonaho baromad. Dar baze in guna khonaho kura, porahoi pakhshshudai ohani gudokhta, doshhoi puri dajgol va digar osori kasbi hunarmandi padid omad. Dar hamin khonaho nisbat ba digar nav khonaho tanga bisyor yoft shud. AM.Belenitskiy meguyad, ki in khonaho ustokhona yo dukon meboshand va yo ham ustokhonavu ham dukon meboshand va in iddaoi uro beasos guftan mumkin nest.

YAk silsila in guna khonaho payvasta ba yak havlii khele boy sokhta shuda, dar pesh maydonchae dorad, ki ba kucha mebaroyad va shumorai on khonaho ba 11 merasad. Peshi tamomi in 11 khona yak ayvon dosht. Bozorjoyho dar qadi kuchahoi shahr voqe budand. CHunonchi, dar davrai mutaraqqii asrhoi miyona chunin bud, dar on davraho niz bozor ham joi istehsol budu ham joi kharidu furush.

Ba qavli A.M.Belenitskiy, «hafriyoti solhoi okhir tasavvuroti peshinaro roje ba tartibi kuchahoi shahr ba kulli digar kard. Malum shud, ki kuchahoi shahr kuchahoi rostu batartibe meboshandu khonahoro ba mahallahoi muayyan taqsim mekunand. Beshak, maydonho niz budandu andozahoi gunogun doshtand.[5]

Dar qismi shimolii dimna pastkhamii kalone hast, ki zamone maydon bud. Dar garbi in maydon du teppai kalone hast, ki zamone du imorati jamoatii ba ham payvasta bud va, odatan, alhol onhoro mabad meguyand – mabadi janubi (№ 1) va mabadi shimoli (№ 2). Mabadho ham az du qism iborat – khudi binoi mabad va havlii mabad, ki chand imorathoi istiqomati va khojagiro dar bar megirift. Guftan darkor, ki mabadi № 2 dar mobayni havli joygir shudaastu chor tarafi onro khonahoi gunogun pechonida giriftaand (tuli havli az sharq ba garb 75–80 m va az shimol ba janub 60m). Mabadi № 1 boshad, dar yak kunji havli istodaastu faqat yak tarafash ru ba havli meboshad. Mabad dar boloi tahkursii baland sokhta shuda, nisbat ba havli bolotar ast. Kas, hamin ki ba havli daromad, rost rubarui darvoza dar peshi mabad rohravi bolopushidai du tarafash kushodaero medid, ki bomash bar shash sutun ustuvor bud (tuli in rohrav qarib 21m ast).

Dar okhiri in rohrav ayvoni chorsutunai chorkunjae ru ba havli, yane ru ba sharq sokhta shuda bud (andozai in ayvon dar yak mabad 7,58H8,1 m va dar mabadi digar 8,1H10,3 m). Az in ayvon ba ibodatgohe daromadan mumkin, ki andak daruntar voqe astu tarhash chorkunja meboshad. Az du taraf va dar qafoi mabad rohravi bolopushidai sutundori du tarafash kushodae voqe bud, ki bo hamin guna rohravi peshi mabad payvast meshud. Devori tolorhoi markazi chorsutundor va devori ayvonho pur az rasmu surat meboshand va, az afti kor, zamone dar in jo haykalhoi gili ham budaand. Darvozakhonai mabadi № 2 bo naqshi gili zinat doda shuda bud. A.M.Belinitskiy isbot kard, ki yak qismi in naqshu nigor ahamiyati marosimi dosht va inchunin tarikhi in imorathoro muayyan namud.

In imoratho alhol kharob shuda boshand ham, holo ham salobati onho kasro zer mekunad. Memor niyati muayyane doshtaast va bo mahorati tamom in niyati khudro ba amal barovardaast. Az rohravi qatorsutuni bolopushidai du tarafash kushodai maydon binoi markazii mabad khele boshukuh menamoyad. «Mabad dar boloi tahkursii baland, bolotar az hama va dar miyonjoi havli jo dosht va baromadgohi moili zinamonandi vaseyu boshavkati khud qatori sutunhoi mavzunu nozuki khud va tolorhoi muzayyanu muqarnasii khudro bo gururi tamom jilva medod. Ajab namude dosht qatori nazarraboi sutunhoi on, naqshi nazokatomezu purlatofati sutunu mujassamahoi on va sahargohon, vaqte anvori zarrini oftob ba daruni ayvonho furu merekht, naqshu nigori on ba tobishi ranginkamon partav meafkand».[6]

Hamai in hafriyot qabati boloii shahristonro oshkor namud, ki ba asrhoi VII-VIII nisbat dorad.

In davra davrai avji taraqqiyoti shahr bud va onro istiloi arabho qat namud. Dar baze joyhoi shahr osori sukhtori azime menamoyad, ki, ehtimol, soli 722 pesh az milod va yo khud andak sonitar (to solhoi 738/39) ba vuqu omadaast.

Taqriban solhoi 738-740 shahr boz barqaror megardad. Vale badtar dar solhoi 70-umi asri VIII, ehtimol, ba munosibati shurishi Muqanna arabho Panjakentro boz kharob kardand va in dafa zindagi dar shahristonu rabot digar ehyo nayoft.[7]

Dar baze qitahoi shahr shabakahoi poyontar ham tadqiq karda shud va malum gardid, ki ham ark va ham shahristoni devorpech, hanuz dar asri V va ibtidoi asri VI paydo shuda budaast. Mahz dar hamin davra shahr taraqqi mekardu tashakkul meyoft.[8]

«…Panjakent shahri haqiqi bud. Tamomi vusati on pur az imorathoi du va seoshyona bud, ki onho mahallahoi kalonro tashkil medodand va ba hamdigar zich joy girifta budand. Vaqti hafriyot dar du tarafi kuchahoi tang dukonhoi sershumori savdogaronu kosibon yoft shud, ki ba masofai kalon tul kashidaand. Alhol ziyoda az sad imorathoi serkhonai panjakentihoi qadim kashf gardidaand. Qarib seyaki in imoratho, yane na faqat khonai ayonu ashrof, balki qarib hamai khonahoi shahriyoni doro tolorhoi boshukuhe dorand, ki bo naqshunigori mujassamaho zinnat yoftand. Ba tufayli hafriyot malum shud, ki dar Panjakenti qadim sanati monumentali nihoyat mamul budaast, hol on ki in aqida ba gushai khayoli kase nameomad. Na faqat mabadho, na faqat qasri shoh, balki dahho khonahoi aholii oddii shahr on qadar osori rassomiyu haykaltaroshi doshtaand, ki har yaki onhoro muzei sanat guem ham, khato nameshavad».[9]

Dar ayni vaqt bo hafriyoti digar qismhoi shahr A.I.Terenojkin ba koftukovi ark sar kard. Solhoi okhir dar in qitai hafriyot arkheologi javon A.Ishoqov bomuvaffaqiyat kor mekunad.

Onho muqarrar kardand, ki ark iborat az burji markazi, ki ba maydonchai peshi ark payvasta meboshad va, inchunin chand imorati poyoni dorad, ki ru ba shahriston sokhta shudaand. Mahz dar hamin jo yakchand imorathoi kaloni tashrifoti, az jumla, tolorhoi buzurg yoft shudand, ki sufahoi bisyor dorand. Miyonjoi imorat tolori azimest, ki (10kh12,5) nishemangohi chuqure dorad. Inchunin shikastaporahoi chubii tahkursii takht ham yoft shud. Devori tamomi khonaho pur az rasmu surathoi olijanob meboshad, vale onho az sukhtor sakht zarar didaand. Az ehtimol dur nest, ki in kharobahoi qasri Divashtich boshad.[10]

Qitai nazdishahri 20–25 ga vusat dorad. In jo sarosar imorat nest, balki jo-jo havliho alohida ba nazar merasad. Solhoi 1951–1953 nuh havli yoft shud, ki pesh az hafriyot faqat teppahoi kholi budand. YAke az in teppaho, ki  alohida meistod, 2,5 m balandi va 22H16 m vusat dosht.

Dar natijai hafriyot tarzi sokhti havliho ham oshkor shud. Imorati havli gayr az dahlez boz se khonai digar, dolon va baromadgohi zinamonand dorad. Tamomi binoho nisbatan durust boqi mondaand. Dar khonai az hama daruntar charkhushte yoft shud, ki on daleli hamin ast, ki ahli in havli mashguli sharobpazi bud. Dar digar khonaho ahli khonavodai sohibi havli zindagi mekardand. YAke az binoho, ehtimol, ogilkhona bud.

Bazan chand metr durtar az khonaho novusho, yane sagonaho niz yoft shudaand, ki boshandagoni qitai atrofi shahr murdahoi khudro dar on jo meguronidand.[11]

Guristoni shahr az devori janubii shahriston taqriban nim kilometr durtar voqe bud. hozir dar in jo 70 khoktepparo didan mumkin (peshtar dar in jo kamash 2–3 barobar beshtar khokteppa budaast). Seyaki onho kofta shudand va malum gardid, ki in khokteppaho hamon novushoe budand, ki ba on jo ustukhondonhoro meguzoshtaand. In novusho hujrai ravoqdoreand, ki badi ustukhoni murdaro ba on guzoshtan dari onro loyband mekardand. Vusati in hujraho odatan 4-5m2 buda, bazan to ba 10m2 merasid. Dar tagi devori hujra sufachaho bardoshta, ba boloi on ustukhondonhoro memondand.[12]

Dar rafti hafriyot dar borai binokori, sanati memori va digar namudhoi kosibii hunarmandi materiali ziyode ba dast omad.[13]

[1] I.YU. Krachkovskiy in vorearo chunin ba ralam dodaast: «Soli 1932 eronshinosoni Leningrad hama sakht ba hayajon omadand — ovoza pahn shud, ki dar Tojikiston kim-chi khel dastnavishoi suudi yoft shudaast. To ba hol dar khudi Suud in khel chizho yoft nashuda bud, farat dar mulkhoi turkistonii on yoft shuda bud. Dar in mobayn ovoza zurtar shud, ki dar Ralai Muu dar sohili Zarafshon kim-chi guna osori arkhiv yoft shudaast» (Krachkovskiy I.YU., 1945, s. 94).

[2] Dar makhazhoi khitoi yak nav ashyoi bofta zikr shudaast, ki az Samarrand meovardaand va E.SHefer nomi onhoro «hair irocadu» tarjuma kardaast (Schafur U.N.,1963, r. 202), vale anir muayyan karda natavonistaast, ki on chi boshad. SHoyad in chiz khudi hamon sargirakhoi turi boshad, ki az Ralai Muu yoft shud.

[3] Krachkovskiy I. YU., 1945, s. 97–98

[4] V.L. Voronina dar in jo 14 binoro murarrar kardaast.

[5] Beleniskiy A.M., 1956, s.179-186, 194-195. Baroi in tavsifu tavili hafriyoti shah-riston asarhoi digar rohbaronu ishtirokchiyoni hafriyot, ki nashr shudaand, niz is-tifoda burda shud (Beleniskiy A.M., 1958; Bolshakov O.G 1964; Voronina V.L., 1958, 1964; Staviskiy B.YA., 1964, b; Raspopova V.I., 1971, Isorov A. I., 1977 va digaron).

[6] Voronina V.L., 1957, s. 131. Dar borai tavsifi mufassali hafriyoti mabadho va digar bozyofthoi on jo nig.: Beleniskiy L.M., 1950 b; 1958, s. 105-113 va digaron.

[7] Bolshakov O.G., 1964, s. 118-120

[8] Beleniskiy A.M., 1967, s. 8-9; Marshak B.I., 1964.

[9] Beleniskiy A.M., Marshak B.I., 1976, s. 75.

[10] Terenojkin A.I., 1950 a; Staviskiy B., 1950; Ishorov A., 1971.

[11] Bolshakov O.G. va Nematov N. N., 1958; Voronina V.L., 1958, s. 203– 209.

[12] Voronina V.L., 1957, s. 133-135; Staviskiy B.YA. va digaron, 1953.

[13] Tavsifi mufassali rafti hafriyot va tavili materialhoi badastomada dar asarhoi A.YU.YAkubovskiy, M.M.Dyakonov, A.M.Belenitskiy va digaron ovarda shudaast.

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