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KASBU HUNAR DAR ASRHOI HI–HII

Markazi asosii kasbu hunar va tijorat shahr bud. Kasbu hunari shahrii onvaqta aksaran ba tavassuti malumot va madrakhoi bostonshinosi omukhta shudaast. Bostonshinoson, besh az hama, doir ba tavlidi masnuoti kuloli va shishagi malumot ba dast ovardaand.

Baroi asrhoi HI–HII, qabl az hama, ba darajai khele ziyod afzudani hajmi istehsoli masnuoti kuloli va dar ayni zamon ba khud shaklhoi qolibi giriftani onho kharakternok ast. Dar istehsoli zarfhoi «sari dastarkhon» mavqei kalonro kosavu tabaqhoi besir, vale purnaqshu nigor ishgol menamudand, ki in ham jihati khosi peshai kulolii onvaqta meboshad. Zarfhoi sirdodashuda ham dar asrhoi HI–HII ba tavri vase pahn gardida budand, onhoro dar chunin gushahoi durdasti kuhistoni Osiyoi Miyona, ki dar asrhoi IH–H az in qabil zarfho asare nabud va yo khele kamyob bud, duchor omadan mumkin ast. Digar tagyirothoe ham, ki oloti kulolii asrhoi HI–HII va ibtidoi asri HIII-ro az davrahoi peshina farq mekunonand, ba amal omadand.

Istehsoloti kulolii asrhoi HI–HII ham az nuqtai nazari tekhnika va tekhnologiya, ham az nuqtai nazari shaklu oroish khele khub omukhta shudaast,[1] zero bostonshinoson zarfhoi mansub ba in davraro dar kharobahoi tamomi shahristonhoi asrimiyonagi ba miqdori ziyode paydo namudaand. Dar yak qator mahalho osori istehsolot mushohida gardida, kurahoi safolpazi, qolibhoi naqshpartoi va asbobhoi makhsusi kura (oveza va joygohi zarf; sepoya baroi az ham judo kardani zarfho va gayra) yofta shudaand.

Zarfhoi sirdodashuda dar istehsolot mavqei asosi doshtand. Beshtar siri siyohcharangi shaffof va misli peshtara khiratob ba kor burda meshud. Az bayni sirhoi gayrishaffof khususan siri firuzafomi khushsifat va zebo, ki dar vaqthoi okhir paydo shuda bud, besh az pesh mavridi istifoda qaror megirift.

Dar barobari shaklhoi kuhnai zarfhoi sirdor shaklhoi navi takmilyofta niz ba vujud meomadand. CHunonchi, agar dar asrhoi IH–H charogho ravgandoni mudavvar va nugi kutoh doshta boshand, dar asrhoi HI–HII bo barobari in shakl charoghoe paydo meshavand, ki ravgandoni onho rakhdor, nugashon taroshida va daroztar ast.

remeslo-3Dar vaqti minokori zarfho misli peshtara bo khathoi handasi, naqshhoi naboti, tasviri mavjudoti zinda (khususan parandagon) oroish meyoband. Zaminai naqshu nigori zarfho aksaran sof va berang buda, ranghoi norinji va siyoh niz vase kor farmuda meshavand. Rangi tasvirot khele gunogun: siyoh va safed, qahvagi va surkh, sabz va zard, kabud va nilufari ast. Dar oroishi zarfho tamomi komyobihoi zamoni guzashta istifoda shuda, dar ayni zamon onho tagyir va takmil ham yoftaand.

Navishtajoti az had ziyodi khayriyatkhohona va pandomez az bayn rafta, joi onro navishtajoti mukhtasar megirad, ki hatto az yak kalima iborat buda, in kalima chandin bor takroran sabt megardad; naqshhoi katibavie ba vujud meoyand, ki az shaklhoi zeboi hurufi faroham omada, yagon maniro ifoda namekunand va khonda ham nameshavand. Dar tasviri mavjudoti zinda niz alomathoi ramzi ba nazar merasand. Masalan, tasviri murgon, ki az qadim dar oroishi zarfho istifoda meshavand, khele sathi meboshad, aksar vaqt, hatto surati murg purra ovarda nashuda, faqat qanoti on takror ba takror tasvir megardad.

Naqshhoi handasi va naboti niz gunogun meboshand. Du tariqai in naqshho dida meshavad: yake naqshest, ki faqat yak qismi rui zarfro faro girifta, dar zaminai farokh pahn megardad va odatan zaminash sabz yo zardrang meshavad; digare naqshest, ki tamomi rui zarfro pushida, dar zaminash yagon joi kholi nameguzorad. Bisyor naqshu nigorhoi toza va ranguborhoi nav paydo meshavand. Masalan, naqshhoe, ki bo khathoi nafisi safed, siyoh va norinji dar zaminai qahvarang kashida shudaand, nihoyatdaraja nazarraboyand.

Dar asrhoi HI–HII safoloti koshini tayyor karda meshud. Safoli on safed va yo andake pushtirang, murt (zudshikan) va kovok bud. Ba rui on luobi kabudcha va yo nilobi medavonidand. Dar devorahoi tunuki on surokhchahoi girda, sekunja yo khud chorkunja mekushodand, ki pas az sir dodan hamchun naqshhoi zebo diqqatro ba khud jalb mekard.

Zarfhoi safolii tunuki besir va purnaqshu nigori asrhoi HI–HII khele hunarmandona sokhta shudaand. Aksari in zarfho az kuzahoi dahantangi gunogunshaklu gunogunhajm iboratand, ki tanai onho goh gird yo murudshakl va goh misli fuluz pechukhamdor meboshand. Baroi naqshu nigori kuza az vositahoi tekhniki niz istifoda burdaand. CHunonchi, qismhoi bolo va poini kuza va bazan dahani onro ham dar daruni qolibhoi naqshin sokhta, sipas, hamai in qismhoro ba ham vasl mekardand. hamchunin ba vositai qolibhoi makhsus dar rui zarfhoi tayyor har guna surat va naqshho mepartoftand. Dar oroishi oloti safoli boz digar vositaho niz ba kor burda meshudand.

Naqshhoi handasi va naboti, katiba, tasviri hayvon, murg, mohi, odam va har guna makhluqoti khayoli zarfhoi zarifi zevarii onvaqtaro zebu oro dodaand. Tasviroti rui in zarfho ba tavri gunogun tartib yoftaand. YAke az uslubhoi mamul khathoi tasmashaklest, ki dar dokhili yake katiba, digare naqshhoi murakkabi naboti va sevumi surati hayvon joy giriftaast. Oftobai misii katibadori bo naqshhoi paranda va hayvonhoi boldori afsonavi oroishyofta mahsuli kori ustohoi asrhoi HI–HII meboshad. To hol dar hududi Ittifoqi Soveti dah adadi on paydo shudaast, ki shashtoash az muzofoti Uroteppa meboshad. Qimati zarfhoi misi va birinji na tanho dar oroishi onho va sanati kori ustohost, inchunin dar on ast, ki dar rui bazei onho nomi ustoho sabt gardidaand[2].

Timsoli durakhshoni taraqqii kasbu hunar dar asrhoi HI–HII masnuoti shishagist[3]. Dar in davra makhsusan shishai tireza khele mamul va mustamal bud. Dar bisyor mahalho, az jumla, dar kharobahoi shahristoni qadimai Marv, yak qator mavzehoi Horazm va Fargona, dar shahristoni asrimiyonagii Taroz va gayra osori in nav shishaolot daryoft gardidaast. SHishahoi onvaqta aksaran berang buda, qabl az hama, ba maqsadhoi amali dar tireza istifoda meshudand. Goho shishahoi hamvori rangin niz duchor meoyand, ki yaqinan baroi oroish ba kor meraftand. Dar in bobat qasri hokimoni Tirmiz jolibi diqqat ast. Dar panjarahoi in qasr porahoi zarfi shishagii rangin chida shudaand, ki ravshaniro kamtar guzaronand ham, bo naqshhoi rangubarangi khud binoro zeb medihand.

CHunon ki az mushohidahoi bostonshinoson barmeoyad, dar asrhoi H–HII tavlidi shishaolot nisbat ba davrahoi guzashta khele afzuda, masnuoti shishagi ba zindagonii mardum beshtar vorid gardid. Osori ustokhonahoi shishasozii mansub ba in davra dar kharobai bisyor shahristonhoi asrimiyonagi yoft shudaast. Vale namudhoi khudi shishaoloti asrhoi HI–HII dar tamomi mahalhoi Osiyoi Miyona paydo gardidaand.

Istehsoloti zarfsozi misli peshtara mavqei asosi dosht. Dar sokhtani zarfhoi shishagi barobari shishahoi berang va yo andake zardcharang shishahoi rangin: sabz, kabud, nilobi va qahvagi ham ba kor burda meshudand. Anvoi zarfho niz nazar ba zamoni peshin ziyodatar gardid. Dar istehsoloti zarfsozi ham, misli kuloli, shoyad khususiyati har mahal naqshi khudro guzoshta boshad, ammo dar in bobat holo ba yaqin chize guftan dushvor ast. Lekin yak tamoyul ba tavri ravshan ba nazar merasad: baze shakl va navhoi zarfhoi shishagi, az qabili kosavu tabaq, jomu qadah, kuzavu sabu va shishachahoi atriyotu adviyot miqdoran ziyod buda, dar hama jo vomekhurand. Aksari zarfho be naqshu nigor ast, vale zarfhoi zevari ham kam nestand. Zarfhoro ba vasilai dar lulahoi makhsus dam kardan va ba qolibhoi naqshin rekhtani shisha oroish medodand. Dar oroishi zarfho hamchunin vositahoi murakkabtari tekhniki, masalan, kandakori niz istifoda meshud. Hususan zarfhoi shishagii naqshdori hulbuk (Tojikistoni janubi) va Quva (Fargona) khele hunarmandona sokhta shudaand. Medalyonhoi shishagii tirmizi, ki dar onho surati parandagon, hayvonot va savoraho kashida shuda, katibahoi khati kufi sabt gardidaand, niz jolibi diqqat meboshand.

Masnuoti shishagi ba zarurathoi gunogun kor farmuda meshudand. Qismati beshtari onhoro zarfhoi taom, doru va atriyot, asbobi ruzgor (davot, tuvak va g.), oloti mukhtalifi zinati (khususan shadda), shishai tireza va amsoli inho tashkil mekardand. Ehtimol, zarfhoi kimiyogari ham bisyor boshand, vale mutaassifona, aksaran sanai onho zikr nashudaast.[4]

Umumi va hamajoi budani istehsoli zarfhoi shishagi va, hatto shishahoi tireza, gunogunii anvoi zarfho va dar ayni zamon yakrangii shaklhoi aksari onho, istifodai tarzhoi samarabakhsh va dar barobari on kamzahmat va arzontari zevarbandi–in hama daleli on ast, ki shishasozoni asrhoi HI–HII nazar ba asrhoi IH–H ba doirai vasetari kharidoron khizmat mekardaand.

Dar kasbu hunari ahli shahr mavqei namoyonro istehsoli oloti fuluzi ishgol menamud. Masalan, «mahallai ohangaron» dar Tirmiz besh az 5 gektar masohat dosht. Dar barobari sokhtani asbobhoi ruzgor, oloti istehsolot va aslihajot miqdori ziyodi masnuoti nafisi hunari–degcha, qalamdon, charog va gayra, ki bo katibaho va tasviroti gunogun oroish yoftaand, niz tayyor karda meshudand. CHunonchi, qalamdoni misii dar Osiyoi Miyona yoftshuda az hamin qabil masnuot ba shumor meravad, ki bo nuqra khotamkori shuda, rui onro katiba, naqshu nigor ba surati murgon zinat medihand. Dar yake az katibaho 12 apreli soli 1148 az tarafi usto Umar ibni Fazl sokhta shudani on zikr gardidaast.[5] Dar Bukhoro degchai khele zeboi birinjii bo misu nuqra khotamkorishuda, ki mohi dekabri soli 1163 bo dasti ustoi musavvir Masud ibni Ahmad va ustoi kandakor Muhammad ibni Abdulvohidi hiroti sokhta shudaast, paydo gardid. Dar rui in degcha podshohi takhtnishin, bozi, shikor, raqs va sahnahoi digar tasvir  yoftaast.[6] Dar Lagmon (vodii Vakhsh) ganjinai masnuoti khele khubi birinji, ki mansub ba hamon asrhost, kashf karda shud.

Dar in davra istikhroji madan davom namuda, konhoi sershumor dar ayni istifoda budand.

[1]Asarhoi I.Ahrorov, O.G.Bolshakov, N.N.Vakturskaya, E.Uulomova, E.A.Davidovich, B.A.Litvinskiy, S.B.Lunina, E.V.Sayko, SH.S.Toshkhojaev, G.V.SHishkin va digaron.

[2] Mukhtorov A., 1965, s. 52

[3] Abdurazzorov A. A., Bezborodov M. A., Zadneprovskiy YU. A., 1953. Dar bobi V, mutaassifona, baroi muayyan kardani khususiyathoi navi shishasozii asrhoi HI–HII kushishe karda nashudaast, muallifon in sohai kasbu hunarro majmuan dar hududi besh az chor asr (IH – ibtidoi HIII) mavridi tahrir raror dodaand, hol on ki bozyofthoi bostonshinosi ba tavsifi konkreti on dar sanahoi muayyani tarikh imkon medihand. Mirdori khele ziyodi osori shisha-oloti asrhoi HI–HII badastomada, dar bisyor nashriyahoi bostonshinosi tavsifi khudro paydo kardaast.

[4] Nig.: masalan, Jukov V. D. 1940, 1945; Davidovich E. A., 1953; Trudnovskaya S. A., 1958; Merejin L., 1956, Ahrorov I., 1960; Aminjonova M., 1960 1961; Uulomova E., 1961 va digaron.

[5] Gyuzalyan L., 1938, s. 217 va mobad

[6] Veselovskiy N. I., 1910

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