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KARDIOLOGIYA

kardiologiyaKARDIOLOGIYA (az kardio … va … logiya), yake az sohahoi ilmi tib, ki ba omuzishi sokht va vazifahoi sistemai dilu ragho, sabab va mekhanizmi bemorihoi dil, daryofti usulhoi muolijayu peshgirii onho mashgul ast. K. hamchun ilm va fanni amali az davrahoi qadim arzi vujud mekunad. Dar tahqiqi khususiyathoi anatomiyu fiziologii silsilai dilu ragho va jambasti malumoti davr roje ba tashkhisu tabobati amrozi dilu ragho sahmi olimi tojik Abuali ibni Sino buzurg ast. Asarhoi u «Al-Adviyatu-l-qalbiya» («Doruhoi dil»), «Risolai nabz», inchunin usulhoi sanjishi kori dil, ba monandi angushtzani (perkussiya) va g., ki u peshnihod kardaast, dar halli masalahoi tashkhisu tabobati bemoroni giriftori amrozi dil maqomi namoyon dorand.
Dar inkishofi K. dar a. 19 va avv. a. 20 V. Gis, L. Ashoff, olimoni shuravi S. P. Botkin, I. M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov, A. L. Myasnikov, N. N. Anichkov va dig. sahmi bosazo guzoshtand. Az miyonai a. 20 sar karda inkishofi usulhoi tashkhisi holati silsilai dilu ragho baroi istifodai jarrohi dar tabobati onho imkoniyat faroham ovard. S. 1964 jarrohi keyptuni K. Barnard avvalin shuda dar tarikhi tib jarrohii ivaz kardani dilro guzaronid.
K.-i muosir bo asbobhoi murakkabi tashkhisi va tabobati jihozonida shudaast; baroi guzaronidani tabobati tajili va reanimatsiya umuri makhsus vujud dorad, ki on imkon medihad saktai dil, tromboemboliyai ragho va dig. bemoriho muolija karda shavand. Dar K. baroi muolijai bemoron usulhoi tabobati gayrijarrohi, tabobat dar sanatoriyayu kurortho va jarrohiro istifoda mebarand. Jarrohi baroi barham dodani nuqs va illathoi dilu rag, bo khun behtar tamin shudani mushakhoi dil, dastu poyho va g. guzaronda meshavad.
K. dar Tojikiston umuri makhsus buda, maqsadi on yorii sarivaqti ba ashkhosi giriftori bemorihoi dil ast. Rasondani kumak ba odamoni giriftori amrozi shadidi dil zina ba zina surat megirad: brigadai yorii tajili – brigadai kardiologii yorii tajili (dar mavridi tahdidi khavf bo davati nazdikoni bemor bevosita ba kumak meshitobad) – shubai (bloki) tabobati – shubai makhsusgardonidai reabilitatsiyavi (tabobati barqarorsozanda) – sanatoriyai makhsusi kardiologi. Dar hama zinahoi yorii kardiologi az asbobhoi zamonavii tashkhisu tabobat istifoda burda meshavad.
Tarikhi inkishofi K. dar Tojikiston ba rushdu inkishof va dastovradhoi K. – i nazari va amali dar Evropa, Osiyo. Amerika, khususan Rossiya sakht vobastagi dorad. Dispanseri avvalini K. dar sh. Dushanbe s. 1970 bo tashabbusi prof. A. YA. Orifov va dastgirii bevositai akad. AIT Rossiya E. I. CHazov tashkil karda shuda bud. S. 1985 dar nazdi kafedrai farmakologiyai klinikii DDTT ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino kursi K. – i kliniki tasis doda shud, ki s. 1990 ba kafedrai mustaqil tabdil yoft. Az s. 1993 kafedra dar zaminai Donishkadai takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni tibbi Tojikiston faoliyat dorad. Sahmi ustodoni kafedra dar kori tarbiyai mutakhassison – kardiologho dar internatura, ordinatura va aspirantura bagoyat kalon ast.
S. 1991 dar jumhuri Assotsiatsiyai kardiologho tashkil shud. On s. 1992 ba Assosiatsiyai kardiologhoi jumhurihoi Osiyoi Markazi va s. 1995 ba Assotsiatsiyai kardiologhoi IDM shomil gasht. Sent. s. 1993 Konfronsi 1 – umi jumhuriyavii Assotsiatsiyai kardiologho barguzor shud (sh. Kulob). Kardiologhoi tojik dar kori Kongresshoi I (Bishkek, 1993), II (Almaato, 1995) va III (Tashkent, 1997)-i Assotsiatsiyai kardiologhoi jumhurihoi Osiyoi Markazi shirkat doshtand.
Kardiologhoi jumhuri dar robita ba omuzishi masoili aktualii bemorihoi mavzei (regioni), kardiologiyai balandkuhho, gustarishi bemorihoi dilu ragho va omilhoi khavfpaziri onho dar mavzehoi gunoguni Tojikiston, daryoft va dar amal jori namudani tekhnologiyai navi tashkhisu muolija va peshgirii amrozi dilu ragho sahmi nazarras guzoshtaand. Dar in bobat khususan sahmi akad. AI JT H. H. Mansurov, uzvi vobastai AI JT N. H. Hamidov, professoron A. YA. Orifov va N. L. Popova, dotsenton Z. S. Qosimova va Z. YA. Rahimov arzanda ast. Rushdu inkishofi jarrohii dilu ragho dar Tojikiston ba nomi akademikon K. T. Tojiev va N. U. Usmonov, uzvi vobastai AI JT T. G. Gulmurodov, professoron A. J. Goibov va J. D. Sultonov vobastagii nogusastani dorad. Eshon oid ba aortografiyai translyumbali hangomi aloimi Perish, perikarditho, jarrohii dil bo istifoda az dastgohi khungardishi suni, anevrizmahoi shohragi qafasi sina, plastikai nuqsi devorai bayni medachahoi dil, jarrohii tarmimii dil hangomi nuqsi modarzod va gayrimodarzodii on pajuhishhoi jolib anjom dodand. S. 1981 dar sh. Dushanbe Markazi jumhuriyavii kardiologi tashkil shud. On s. 1998 bo tajhizoti tashkhisu tabobatii navtarin mujahhaz gasht. In imkon dod, ki amrozi dilu ragho dar davrahoi avvali paydoish oshkor va tabobat karda shavand. Dar markazi viloyatho niz dispanserhoi kardiologi faoliyat dorand.

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