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KARBON

carbonKARBON (lot. Carboneum, az carbo – angisht), S, elementi khimiyavii guruhi IV sistemai davrii Mendeleev, raqami at. 6, massai at. 12,011. Dar tabiat du izotopi sobit 12S (98,892%), 13S (1,108%) va yak radioaktivi K 14S(T1/2 = 5,6 • 103 sol) malumand. Dar asosi izotopi 12S jadvali hozirazamoni massahoi atomi tartib doda shudaast. Moddai zinda 18%, chub 50%, angishtsang 80%, neft 85% va antrasit 96% K. dorand. K. dar payvasthoyash beshtar chorvalenta ast; dar sharoiti muqarrari nofaol buda, hangomi garm kardan sukhta oksidi karbon (II va IV) hosil mekunad. Dar haror. baland K. barqarorkunandai qavi meboshad; bo metallho – karbid, bo sulfur – sulfidi karbon, bo nitrogen – sian hosil mekunad.
K. elementi muhimi organizm buda, asosi hayotro tashkil medihad. Hamai on payvasthoi organiki, ki dar tamini qobiliyati hayotii organizmho ishtirok mekunand, asosan az K. iboratand. Qismi ziyodi energiyai ba organizm zarur binobar dar hujayraho oksid gashtani K. hosil meshavad. Izotopi radioaktivi K. (14S) dar biologiya va tib istifoda megardad.

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