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QAND

kandQAND, gizoi mamuli shirin. Tarkibi khimiyavii Q. yakkhela buda, 99,75 foiz sakharoza iborat ast. Q. zudhazm buda, organizmro bo karbogidratho tamin mekunad.
Q.-ro az nayshakar yo lablabui qand megirand. Solhoi okhir olimoni yak qator mamlakatho afzoishi baze bemoriho, az jumla amrozi dilu rag va kariesi dandonro ba istemoli barziyodi Q. vobasta medonand. Az in sabab bo dig. gizoho ivaz namudani Q. yo dar voyai khurok kam kardani miqdori on tavsiya doda meshavad.
Dar haqiqat, istemoli Q. dar mamlakathoi mutaraqqi dar sad soli okhir borho afzudaast. S-hoi 70 a. 20 miqdori on ba har sari aholi andaryak ruze 110 – 140 giromro tashkil medod. Agarchi Q. manbai muhimi glyukoza buda, baroi kori magzi sar, mushakho va dig. uzvho zarur ast, tavsiyai olimon oid ba kam kardani istemoli on asos dorad. Q. pesh az hama mansubi khurokvoriho buda, kaloriyai on ba arzishi gizoi muvofiq nest. Agar odam Q.-ro bisyor istemol kunad, dar voyai khurok miqdori safedaho, vitaminho, moddahoi minerali kam meshavad. Ziyod budani kaloriyai Q. (hangomi barziyod istemol kardani on) boisi ikhtiloli mubodilai ravgan, farbehi, ziyod gashtani kholesterini khun megardad. Dar natijai istemoli yakborai miqdori ziyodi Q. glyukozai khun afzuda, gormoni gadudi zeri meda – insulin bisyor khorij meshavad. In holat ba gunshavii glyukoza dar namudi glikogen dar jigar, mushakho va qisman ba ravgan tabdil yoftani on musoidat menamoyad. Dar natija gilzat (konsentratsiya)-i Q. dar khun kam shuda, odamro ehsosi gurusnagi faro megirad. CHunin tasiri Q. firebi his ast, zero on boisi purkhuri va farbehii odam megardad. Gayr az in, muntazam va barziyod istemol kardani Q. kori gadudi zeri medaro vaznin karda, sababi inkishofi diabeti qandi meshavad. Az in ru, hatto ba odamoni solime, ki bo kori jismoni va sport mashgul nestand, ruze na ziyodtar az 50 – 100 g istemol kardani Q. muvofiqi maqsad ast (ba in mahsuloti shirin, taom, konfet, mahsuloti qannodi, murabbo, jem, kompot va g. niz dokhil meshavad). Gayr az in, istemoli Q.-ro kam karda, biduni maslihati dukhtur onro bo sakharin, ksilit, sorbit, fruktoza ivaz namudan joiz nest, zero istifodai muntazami onho baroi salomati zarar dorad.
Dar ayni hol istemoli miqdori nisbatan ziyodi Q. baroi odamone, ki ba kori vaznini jismoni mashguland, makhsusan baroi varzishgaron (ruze ziyoda az 100 g), komilan durust ast. Bo rafti sinnu sol istemoli Q.-ro kam kardan lozim.
Q. khosiyati dar organizm nigoh doshtani obro dorad, binobar in miqdori on dar gizoi muolijavi boyad mutadil boshad, khosa hangomi varam kardani azo.
Dar mavridi baze bemoriho (diabeti qandi, farbehi) istemoli Q. boyad khele kam yo komilan qat karda shavad. Dar in surat chun shirini az ivazkunandahoi Q., khususan sorbit va ksilit, istifoda mebarand; sakharinro faqat dar istehsoli mashrubot va mahsuloti qannodie, ki baroi bemoroni giriftori diabeti qand tain shudaand, kor mefarmoyand. SHirinii sorbit az shirinii Q. du marotiba kamtar ast. Sorbit baroi bemoroni diabeti qand va farbeh tavsiya shudaast. Ksilitro niz ba chunin bemoron tavsiya mekunand; on az Q. du marotiba shirintar va nisbat ba sorbit khushtamtar ast. Gayr az in, ksilit talkharon va isholovar niz meboshad.
Nig. niz Ksilit, Sorbit, Fruktoza.
Miqdori taqribii qand dar baze gizoho
Mahsulot Vohidi chenak Vazn,
bo g Miqdori qand,
bo g
SHakar 1 qoshuqcha 9 9
Rafinad 1 dona 7 7
Povidlo 1 qoshuqcha 15 10
Murabbo 1 qoshuqcha 15 11
Pirojni 1 dona 75 34
Pichini 1 qutticha 185 50
YAkhmos 1 basta 75 12
Kompot 1 istakon 175 39
Afshurai meva 1 istakon 175 26
Obi meva 1 istakon 175 16

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