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KAMHUNII GEMOLIZII NAVZOD

kamhunii-navzodKAMHUNII GEMOLIZII NAVZOD (Morbus haemolyticus neonatorum), bemorii shadide, ki binobar az rui guruhhoi khun va rezus-omil muvofiqat nakardani khuni modaru janin paydo meshavad.
Dar eritrositho (hujayrahoi surkhi khun)-i bisyor odamon moddai makhsuse vujud dorad, ki on avvalin bor az khuni maymuni zoti makaka-rezus judo karda shudaast (az in sabab onro rezus-omil nomidand). Vobasta ba omili mazkur khunro ba rezus – musbat va rezus – manfi judo mekunand. Kudak ba bemori hangomi nomuvofiqatii rezusi khuni padar va modar (khuni modar rezus-manfi va khuni padar rezus-musbat) bemor meshavad. Dar in mavrid kudak mumkin ast rezus-omilro az rezus-musbati padar meros girad. Rezus-omili khuni janin ba tavassuti hamrohak ba majroi khuni rezusash manfii modar meguzarad. Organizmi modar bar ziddi rezus-omili kudak podtanhoe hosil mekunad, ki onho ba vositai hamrohak ba khuni rezusash musbati janin guzashta, eritrosithoro vayron mesozand (khun ob meshavad). In illat minbad boisi kamkhuni va jam shudani pigmenti zardi talkha – bilirubin megardad. Ba bemori beshtar kudakone, ki dar hamli duyum, seyum va minbad zoida shudaand, inchunin kudakone, ki pesh az tavallud yoftani onho zan isqot (abort) kardaast, giriftor meshavand (zero miqdori podtanhoi organizmi modar az yak davrai homilagi to davrai homilagii digar meafzoyad). Agar ba modar, sarfi nazar az rezus-omil, peshtar khun guzaronida boshand, mumkin ast kudaki yakumi u niz ba K. giriftor shavad. Bemori inchunin hangomi nomuvofiqatii guruhi khuni modar va kudak ruy medihad. Asosan in holat hamon vaqt ba vuqu mepayvandad, ki khuni modar ba guruhi O, vale khuni kudak ba guruhi A yo V mansub ast.
CHunin mehisoband, ki dar mavridi rezus – nomuvofiqatii khun az 1000 navzod 2 – 3 naf. va hangomi tazod (konflikt) dar sistemai AVO az 1000 navzod 5 – 6 naf. ba K. giriftor meshavad.
Se shakli K. mavjud ast: istisqoi umumii modarzodi kudak, zardparvini navzod va kamkhunii modarzodi tifl. In taqsimot shartist, zero shaklhoi omekhtai on ham duchor meoyand.
SHakli mamuli K. zardparvini navzod ast. Zardparvin ruzhoi avvali badi tavallud ayon gashta, zud avj megirad; bazan kudak bo rangi zard ba dunyo meoyad. Ba paydoishi zardparvin dar khun paydo shudanu zud afzudani bilirubin, ki hangomi tajziyai eritrositho hosil meshavad, musoidat mekunad. Bilirubin moddai zahrnok buda, afzoishi on boisi etiloli magzi sar megardad. Dar surati durust muolija nakardan, holi kudak dar okhiri haftai avvali hayot yakbora bad meshavad; u beholona sina memakad, tashannuj ruy medihad, harakati chashmon khalal meyobad. Kudake, ki chunin zardparvini vazninro az sar guzaronidaast, minbad mumkin ast ruhan va jisman zaif ba voya rasad.
SHakli az hama vaznini K. istisqoi umumii modarzodi kudak ast. Dar in mavrid kudak murda tavallud meshavad yo dar soathoi avvali hayot memirad. Hangomi istisqoi umumii modarzod rangi pust parida, on bazan zardchatob meshavad; varami pust va kamkhunii kudak khele nazarras ast. Kamkhuni va istisqo boisi nuqsi dil va favtidani kudak megardad.
Hangomi kamkhunii modarzodi tifl rangi rui kudak parida, in rngparidagi dar okhiri haftai yakum va avvali haftai duyumi hayoti u beshtar ayon megardad.
Usulhoi imruzai muolija bahri kam shudani favti kudakon az K. zaminai musoid faroham ovardand. Bo maqsadi peshgirii K. dar markazhoi mushovarai tibbii zanon rezus-omili khuni zanhoi homila muayyan karda meshavad. Zani khunash rezus-manfiro ba qayd megirand, aniq mekunand, ki oyo ba u peshtar khun guzaronida budand, kudaki murda yo bemor ba dunyo ovarda bud, isqot kardaast yo ne. Mavjudiyati rezus-podtanhoro dar khuni onho muntazam taftish mekunand. Hangomi gumonbar shudan ba bemori (ziyod shudani miqdori podtanho) tadbirhoi zaruri meandeshand. Ba zane, ki bori avval homila shudaastu khunash rezus-manfist, isqoti janin maslihat doda nameshavad.

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