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QAHVA

kahvaQAHVA, nushokie, ki az qahvadona tayyor mekunand. Q. sergizo va ruhafzost. Dar tarkibi on moddahoi nitrogendor, kofein, qand, ravgan, kletchatka va moddahoi minerali mavjudand. Manfiati Q. ba kofeini tarkibash vobasta ast.
Bino ba malumoti Mahmudi Antoki nushidani Q. sulfai tar, iltihobi magzi sar, gulu va dig. uzvhoro naf mebakhshad. Q. qabziyati peshobro mekushoyad. Bo shirini va ravgan nushidani Q. tabro bolida va khastagiro bartaraf mesozad.
Ba aqidai Muhammad Husayni SHerozi nushidani Q. qabziyatro mekushoyad, dardro taskin va medaro taqviyat mebakhshad, gardishi khunro behtar mesozad, hangomi tablarza, zafarma, sulfai tar, sardard, bemorii malikhuliyo mufid ast, khoboludi va tashnagiro bartaraf menamoyad. Dar barobari in, Q. sababi bekhobi, bazan sardard megardad, badanro khushku logar, rangi ruyro zard, shahvatro sust va nutfaro kam mekunad, boisi dilzani, kulinj, molikhuliyo, khobhoi vahmangez meshavad. Baroi bartaraf namudani tasiri nomatlubi Q. ba dil hangomi tahiyai on kame zafaron ilova mekunand. Tabiboni qadim nushidani Q.-ro dar nahori va badi gizoi ziyod man kardaand.
Tabiboni khalqi Q.-ro chun vositai ruhafzo va nerubakhsh hangomi khastagii jismoni va fikri tavsiya medihand. Q. baroi bemoroni zaifu kamquvvat, khususan baroi onhoe, ki amrozi siroyatiro az sar guzaronidaand, mufid ast.
Dar tibbi muosir Q. davoi parhezi mahsub meshavad. Tasiri on ba organizm misli choy ast. Q. kori sistemai markazii asabro behtar namuda, faoliyati dil va uzvhoi nafasro quvvat mebakhshad, fishori khunro baland mebardorad, raghoi magzi sarro vase mekunad, tarashshuhi shirai medaro ba tanzim medarorad, ishtihoro mekushoyad, khastagi va khoboludiro bartaraf menamoyad. Ba shakhsone, ki bemorii khafaqon, zakhmi meda, galayoni khun dorand yo bekhobi mekashand, nushidani Q. zarar dorad.
Suyistemoli Q. boisi zahroludi megardad. Kori dil tez, shakhs hayajonpazir, khob nomurattab megardad, fishor baland shuda, gushho sado medihand, sar dard mekunad, ehsosi beqarori ba vujud meoyad, dil dard karda, harorat baland meshavad. YAk qoshuqcha Q.-i kufta 0,07 – 0,01 g kofein dorad. In miqdor kofein qobiliyati korii chi odamoni solim va chi odamoni fishori khunashon pastro baland bardoshta, kori dili onhoro qavitar megardonad. Q. inchunin judoshavii shirai medaro metezonad. Ba shakhsone, ki asabashon nihoyat mutaassir astu ba kasalihoi dilzani, galayoni khun giriftorand, inchunin bekhobi mekashand, istemoli qahvaro tavsiya namedihand. Q. ba baze bemorihoi meda (mas., zakhmi meda), niz zarar dorad. Az meyor ziyod istemol kardani Q. hatto ba odamoni solim zarar rasonda,boisi sakht zadani dil va bekhobi megardad. Binobar in, Q.-ro shabona (makhsusan pesh az khob) nushidan lozim nest.
Donahoi khom yo biryoni Q., qahvai kuftai haqiqi yo omekhtai on bo kosni niz furukhta meshavand. Donahoi khomi qahva baroi tayyor kardani nushoki istifoda meshavand, onhoro (behtarash dar toba yo degi chuyani) dar otashi past to jigarirang shudan biryon mekunand. Hangomi biryon kardan donahoi Q.-ro ba ham omekhtan lozim. Dar khona az qahvakubak istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Q., makhsusan Q.-i kufta, buy va tamashro tez gum mekunad, binobar in onro ba zarfhoi shishagi yo tunukagi andokhta, bo sarpush mahkam pushondan lozim ast. Nushokiro favran badi kuftani donai Q. tayyor kardan behtar ast.
Q.-ro dar qahvapazak ba tarzi gunogun tayyor mekunand. Hangomi tayyor kardani qahva dar khotir boyad dosht: qahvaro bisyor jushondan yo chand marotiba garm kardan lozim nest, chunki tamashro gum mekunad.
Qahvai talkh. Q.-i talkhro jushonda mepoland, bad ba on shir va qand andokhta, kame mejushonand va pesh az ba piyolacha rekhtan qahvai garmro lat medihand, to ki kafk kunad.
Baroi tayyor kardani 1 istakon qahva nim istakon qahvai talkh, 2/3 hissai istakon shir, 1 qoshuqcha shakar lozim ast.
Qahva bo sarshir. Q.-i talkhro bo qand jushonda, ba istakonho merezand. Ba har istakon 1 qoshuqcha sarshire, ki dar on 1 qoshuqcha khokai qand omekhta shudaast, meandozand.
Qahva bo yakhmos. Q.-i talkhro jushonda mepoland va qand hamroh karda khunuk mekunand. Ba jom 50 g yakhmosi qaymoqiro andokhta, az boloyash qahvai khunuk merezand.
Qahvai sharqi (yake az dasturho). Dar qahvapazaki makhsus obro bo shakar jushonda, ba on Q.-i kuftaro meandozand va hamin ki Q. jushida damid, qahvapazakro az boloi otash girifta, badi furu nishastani kafk onro boz to jushidan boloi otash meguzorand. Q.-i tayyorro napolida, bo qahvapazak ba sari dastarkhon meorand. Vaqte ki Q. takshon meshavad (baroi tez takshon shudan 1 qoshuqcha obi jushonidai khunuk merezand), onro ba piyolachaho merezand. Baroi 1 qoshuqcha qahva, muvofiqi tab shakar lozim ast.
Q.-ro mahsuloti tafdodayu kuftai rastani (mas., jav, chalguzai bulut, kastona) ivaz karda metavonad. Ivazkunandahoi Q. az rui tarkib ba du guruh judo meshavand – ba guruhi yakum Q. ilova mekunand, guruhi duyum boshad, Q. nadorad. Dar tamgakogazho tarzi tayyor kardani Q. zikr shudaast.
Nig. niz Darakhti qahva.
Ad.: Nuraliev YU., Lekarstvennie rasteniya, D., 1988; Zohidov H., Kanzi shifo, D., 1998.

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