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QAFASI SINA

kafasi-sinaQAFASI SINA (Thorax, pectus), sanduqi sina, yak qismi skelet. Q.s. az bakhshi sinagii sutunmuhra, 12 juft qaburga va ustukhoni tush (sarsina) iborat ast. Q. s. shakli konusi sarburidaro doshta, az boloyu poyon surokh meboshad. Vobasta ba jins, sinnu sol va jussa shakli Q. s. niz tagyir meyobad. Q. s.-i mardho konusshakl, Q. s.-i zanho silindrshakl ast.
Javfi sinaro az poyon diafragma az javfi shikam judo mekunad. Javfi sina gufta fazoero menomand, ki bo devorai sina va diafragma ihota shudaast. Dar on miyonadevor bo raghoi khun, asabho, surkhruda va khirnoy, perikard bo dil va du khaltai plevra bo shushho joy giriftaand. Ba Q.s. mushakhoi bozu va takhtapusht, nafaskashi va sina payvast shudaand.
Dar Q. s.osebu bemorihoi gunogun ba mushohida merasand. YAke az osebhoi mamuli Q. s. deformatsiyai on ast. Deformatsiya modarzodi va gayrimodarzodi meshavad. Deformatsiyai gayrimodarzodi nisbatan beshtar duchor meoyad. Sababi on skolioz, rakhit, sili ustukhon, bemorihoi rimnoki shush va plevra meboshand. Bazan Q. s. ba darajae deformatsiya meshavad, ki faoliyati uzvhoi nafaskashi va gardishi khun tagyir meyobad.
Q. s.-i bisyor odamon pahn ast. On faqat nuqsi andaki kometiki mahsub meshavad. Q.s.-i qifshakl nuqsi modarzodi buda, ar har sinnu sol ba mushohida merasad. Q. s.-i «murgmonand» beshtar hangomi kifoz duchor meoyad (sarsina jasta berun mebaroyad). Q. s.-i bochkashakl bar asari bemorii emfizemai shush paydo meshavad.
Dar Q. s. mumkin ast osebhoi kushoda va pushida ba vujud oyand. Osebhoi pushidai Q. s. latu fishor khurdani onro darbar megirand. Dar natijai osebhoi Q. s. mumkin ast qaburga, sarsina va muhraho shikanand, uzvhoi daruni sakht zarar binand (mas., daridani plevra, kafidani shush, diafragma va g.). Alomathoi bolinii osebi pushidai sina paydo shudani dard, ikhtiloli nafaskashi va faoliyati dil meboshand. Bisyor vaqt shoki sadamavi niz rukh menamoyad.
Zakhmi Q. s. mumkin ast shikofanda va sathi boshad. Dar asnoi zakhmi shikofanda dil, raghoi khungard, shush, khekirtak, bronkhho, surkhruda va dig. uzvho niz oseb meyoband. Dar mavridi zakhm bardoshtan va osebhoi Q. s. az ragho khun shorida, dar javfi plevra jam megardad. Dar natija gemotoraks ba vujud meoyad. Hangomi ba javfi plevra roh yoftani havo boshad, mujibi pnevmotoraks meshavad.
Bemorihoi rimnoku iltihobi metavonand ham dar uzvhoi javfi sina (dumbal, plevrit, perikardit) va ham dar tamomi qabathoi devorai sina inkishof yoband. Hususan osteomielit, sil va aktinomikozi qaburgahoyu sarsina vaznin meboshand. Dar Q. s. hamchunin imkon dorad omoshoi gunoguni gayrisaratoni (limfangioma, lipoma, rabdomioma) va saratoni (melanomai pust, sarkoma, sinovioma) tashakkul yoband.
KL
Qafasi sina; namud az pesh: 1 – surokhi boloi qafasi sina; 2 – kunji tahtichanogi; 3 – surokhi poyoni qafasi sina.

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