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QADIMTARIN TASVIRHOI RUI SANG

Tasvirhoi rui sang, ki baroi dark namudani tafakkuri bashari qadim va tasavvuroti nisbat ba muhit paydokardai u kumak merasonand, mavridi tavajjuhi muhaqqiqoni tarikhi boston qaror giriftaand.

Dar bisyor nohiyahoi Osiyoi Miyona hazoron tasvirhoi dar sakhraho kandashuda mavjudand, ki mashhurtarini onho tasvirhoi Saymalitosh dar Fargona[1] va Langarkisht dar Pomiri garbi meboshad[2]. Dar Tojikiston ham chandin mahalli in qabil yodgorihoro metavon nom burd. CHunonchi, dar qaddi sohili Zarafshon va shokhahoi on[3], dar silsilakuhi Qurama[4] va digar mahalho miqdori ziyodi tasvirhoi rui sang paydo gardidaand. Dar Pomir taqriban 50 mahalli chunin yodgori qayd shudaast[5]. Aksari in tasvirhoi rui sang ba davroni tarikh va qisman ba zamoni skifu sarmatho taalluq dorad. Az tadqiqi onho masalahoi khele jolibe ba miyon meoyand, ki ehtimol, chand nasli donishmandon – arkheologho va sanatshinoson ba halli onho mashgul khohand shud.

Vale az hama jolibtar qadimtarin tasvirhoi rui sakhraho ofaridai odamoni asri sang meboshad. In qabil tasvirho hamagi faqat dar yakchand nuqtaho duchor omadaand. Onho chi az jihati mavzu va chi az jihati tarzi ofarinishi khud az chunin osori hunarii davrahoi bad farq mekunand. YAke az farqhoi muhimi tasvirhoi qadima in ast, ki onho bo rang kashida shudaand.

rasmi_sang-300x225Tasvirhoi khele diqqatangezi Zaravutsoy (voqe dar Uzbekiston) kayhost, ki shuhrati jahoni paydo kardaand. Dar bayni in tasvirho khususan sahnai shikori govoni vahshi, ki shikorchiyon rui khudro bo abo pushidaand, jolibi tavajjuh meboshad. Dar natijai tadqiqoti solhoi okhir malum gardid, ki in suratho ba davrahoi neolitu eneolit taalluq doshta, ehtimol, baze qabathoi qadimtari onho ba zamoni mezolit ham rafta merasida boshand[6].

CHunin ba nazar merasad, ki qadimtarin tasviri rui sang dar Osiyoi Miyona surathoi magorai SHakhta meboshad, ki dar Pomir kashf shudaast. Dar devori magorai nachandon kalone, ki dar balandii 4200m az sathi bahr voqe gardidaast, surathoi ba du rang kashidashuda mahfuz mondaand. Tasviri odamoni ba zeri qanoti murgon panohburda, gurozho va khirsho khele khub namoyon ast. hayvonho dar lahzai zakhmi shudan az tiri shikorchiyon tasvir shudaand. Bino ba sabki nigorishi in suratho, qazovat kardan mumkin ast, ki onho nazar ba surathoi Zaravutsoy qadimtarand va metavonand ba davrahoi avvali neolit yo khud mezolit nisbat yoband[7].

Surathoe, ki az du mahalli digari kuhistoni Osiyoi Miyona – dar nahri Sarijas[8] va Kurtikisoi nazdiki magorai SHakhta yoft shudaand, ba davrahoi badtar, ba ahdi okhiri neolit yo birinji taalluq dorand[9].

[1] Bernshtam A. N., 1952.

[2] Ranov V.A., 1960 a.

[3] Dalskiy A. N., 1949; Mandelshtam A. M., 1956.

[4] Ranov V. A., 1960 b.

[5] Ranov V. A., Gurskiy A. V., 1960.

[6] Formozov A. A., 1966; 1969, s. 60–78.

[7] Ranov V. A., 1961.

[8] Okladnikov A. P., Rasek V. I., 1954.

[9] Ranov V. A.. 1961.

[10] Ranov V. A., 1961.

[11] Okladnikov A. P., Rasek V. I., 1954.

[12] Ranov V. A.. 1961.

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