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Istiora chist?

Istiora kalimai arabist, manoi asliash ba oriyat, amonat va garavgon giriftan ast, ammo dar ilmi bade az jumlai sanathoi manavist, ki ba joi yak kalima kalimai digarro istifoda mebarand. Istiora ham ba majoz va ham ba tashbeh nazdik ast. Donishmandoni ilmi bade istioraroyak navi majoz medonand ba in mani, ki dar istiora kalima az manoi aslii khud khele dur meravad. Istioraro tashbehi pushida niz menomand va istiora dar asosi inkishofi minbadai tashbehi pushida ba vujud meoyad. Farqi istiora az tashbeh on ast, ki dar istiora tashbehshavanda zikr nayofta, faqat tashbehkunanda nom burda meshavad.

Masalan, dar bayti:

Guli man, idi navruzat muborak,

CHunin jashni dilafruzat muborak. 

kalimai «gul» ba manoi yor omadast va istiora ast. Agar biguem, ki «yori man misli gul ast», mo yorro ba niholi gul monand kardem, ki in tashbeh ast. Ammo agar biguem, ki «guli man omad», dar in ifoda «gul» istiora meshavad, zero ba joi kalimai «yor» istifoda shudaast.

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Maqsad az istifodai istiora, pesh az hama, haqqiqatro barjastatar va bofasohat bayon kardan ast. Az misoli bolo malum shud, ki rui yor misli gul ast, ammo naguftem , ki «yori man, ki u misli gul ast, omad», baraks kutohakak «guli man omad» guftem va dar in jo «gul» kinoya az yor meboshad.

Hamin tariq, «gul», ki dar ifodai avval tashbehkunanda bud, dar ifodai soni joi khudi tashbehshavandaro girift va ba istiora tabdil yoft.

Dar bayti:

Meraviyu girya meoyad maro, Soate binshin, ki boron bigzarad. guzashtani boron istiora ast. Ba manoi obi chashm, yane shoir guftan mekhohad, ki az raftani tu chunon gamgin meshavam, ki obi didagonam misli boron merezad. Dar in ifoda boron joi tashbehshavandaro girift va istiora shud.

CHand misol:

Maro az giryai shabho nashud juz dardi sar hosil,

Ba khuni dal abas parvardaam in tifli badkhuro.

(Mulhami Bukhoroi)

Ay ki bar kori shikasti dili mo mekushi,

Bokhabar bosh, ki in shisha sadoe dorad.

(Hofiz)

Dar bayti avval iborai «tifli badkhu» (ba joi obi dida omadast) va dar bayti duyum «shisha» (ba joi dil omadaast) istiora meboshand.

Istiora du khel meshavad:

  1. Istiorai ravshan. Dar in navi istiora tashbehsha vanda, yane sohibistiora zikr nashuda, istiorashavanda ovarda meshavad.

Misol:

Barafrukht on moh chun oftob,

Furu rekht bar gul zi nargis gulob.

(Nizomi)

Kalimahoi «moh», «gul», «nargis» va «gulob»- i bayt istiorai ravshanand, zero onho ba manoi aslii khud naomadaba joi sohibistiora — yor, ruy, chashm va ashk omadaand.

  1. Istiorai pushida (istiorai izofi). In navi istiora chunon ast, ki shoir istiorashavandaro umuman zikr nakarda, yagon sifat, alomat, khislat va uzvi onro ba tavri izofat sohibistiora mesozad. Misol:

Misrai barjastai oham onchunin istodaast,

Ob gardad sham, gar dar anjuman binad maro.

Dar in bayt sohibistiora ohu nola ast, ba manoi sher omadaast va «misrai barjasta» chun istiorashavanda bo sohibistiora dar shakli izofi payvastaast.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH:

  1. Istiora chand khel meshavad?
  2. Manoi lugavi va istilohii istioraro gued.
  3. Tafovuti tashbehu istiora dar chist?
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