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Islohoti avvali asri XX dar IMA

Harakati islohotkhohi dar IMA dar natijai norozigii doirahoi vasei aholii mamlakat az faoliyagi inhisorho ogoz yoft. Qismi peshqadami burjuaziya ba siyosati islohotkhohi guzasht. Ba in roh nomzadi Hizbi Jumhuriyatkhohon T. Ruzvelt dar intikhoboti prezidentii soli 1904 golib baromad. U badi intikhobot islohot guzarond. In islohot na ba guruhhoi alohida, balki ba nafi hamai azoyoni Jomeai Amerika nigaronida shuda bud.

Kongress dar borai zakhirahoi tabiii mamlakat yakchand qonun qabul kard. To in vaqt zakhirahoi tabii, az on jumla, zaminro inhisorho berahmona gorat mekardand. Muvofiqi qonunhoi nav 235 mln gkr zamin fondi dakhlnopaziri davlati elon karda shud. Qonuni digar dar borai az boloi tayyor kardani mahsuloti khurokvori va doruvori tashkil kardani nazorati davlati bud. Bo in rohho peshi rohi korhoi gayriqonunii shirkathoi inhisori girifta meshudand.

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Vale, vaqte ki soli 1909 nomzadi digari Hizbi Jumhuriyatkhohon Uilyam Taft dar intikhoboti prezidenti golib baromad. Islohoti sarkardai T. Ruzveltro davom nadod. Taft imkoniyat dod, ki in inhisorho daromadi kalon ba dast darorand. In kor norozigii yak qismi mardumro ba vujud ovard.

Harakati islohotkhohii ibtidoi asri HH-i IMA murakkab bud. Qismi peshqadami burjuaziyai dar in harakat ishtirokkarda ziddi suistemol kardani faoliyati trestho bud. Qismi digarash baraks, jonibdori ozodii komili inhisorho bud. Vale aksariyati islohotkhohoni in davra arzishhoi iktisodi bozorgoniro himoya mekardand. Umuman islohoti ibtidoi asri XX imkonnit dod, ki IMA az rakiboni asosii khud pesh guzashta, ba mamlakati puriqtidori jahon tabdil yobad.

Sistemam bisyorhizbii IMA. Dar ibtidoi asri XX dar IMA asosan 3 hizb baroi dar mamlakat hukmron shudan dar bayni khud raqobat mekardand: demokrata, jumkhuriyatkhohon va sotsialisty. Faoliyati onho makhsusan dar davrai intikhobot baland meshud.

Sistemai bisyorkhizbi ba intikhobkunandagoni IMA imkoniyat medod, ki nomzadi sazovorro prezidenti mamlakat intikhob kunand, ba Kongress va maqomoti qonunguzorii digari markaziyu iyolot niz ashkhosi sazovorro intikhob namoyand. Hamin khel ham meshud, ki nomzadi ba mansabi prezidenti sohibshuda ba vadahoi pesh az intikhobot dodaash vafo namekard. Ba hamin sabab az jumhuriyatkhoh Uliyam Taft, ki soli 1909 ba ijroi vazifan prezidenti shuru karda bud, intikhobkunandagon norozi budand. In holati jumhuriyatkhohon ba oppozitsiyai demokrati imkoniyat medod, ki dar intikhoboti dar peshistoda dastbolo shavad, yo ki ba in maqom namoyandai hizbi sotsialisti sohib meshud, yane onho metavonistand nomzadi khudro ba mansabi prezidenti guzaronand. “Musobiqa” baroi mansabi prezidenti dar Qasri Safed asosan dar bayni hizbhoi jumhuriyatkhohon va demokrati surat megirift.

Dar intikhoboti soli 1912 har se hizb ham nomzadhoi khudro ba mansabi prezidenti peshnihod kardand. Hizbi Sogtialisti YUchin Debsro peshnihod kard. Hizbi Demokrati ba in mansab Vudro Vilsonro loiq donist. In vaqt dar Hizbi Jumhuriyatkhohon judoi ba amal omad. Baroi hamin in hizb nomzadi yagonaro peshnihod karda natavonist. On du nomzad peshnihod namud. U. Taft va T. Ruzveltro. Dar natija ovozhoi intikhobkunandagoni jumhuriyatkhohon dar bayni du nomzad taqsim shudand. Umuman ovozhoi intikhobkunandagon chunin taqsim shudand: V. Vilson – 6.286.214 ovoz, T. Ruzvelt – 4.126.020 ovoz. U. Taft – 3.483.922 ovoz va YU. Debs – nazdiki 1 mln ovoz. Hamin tariq nomzadi Hizbi Demokrati professori tarikhu huquqi donishgohi Prinston Vudro Vilson ba muhlati 4 sol prezidenti IMA intikhob gardid.

Vale mumkin bud, ki nomzadi Hizbi Jumhuriyatkhohon golib baroyad. Sababi asosii shikasti in hizb dar du nomzad peshnihod kardani on bud. Jami ovozhoi ba dast darovardai har dui onho 7609942 nafarro tashkil kard. In az shumorai ovozhoi giriftai nomzadi demokratho, ki golib baromad, qarib 1,5 mln nafar ziyod ast. Hamin tariq, soli 1912 namoyandai Hizbi Demokrati ba muhlati 4 soli oyanda sohibi Qasri Safed gardid.

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