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Inkishofi ilm dar asrhoi XVII-XVIII

Dar asri XVII va nimai avvali asri XVIII bo vujudi haraju maraji siyosi va vaznin shudani sharoit ilmu fanni tojik rivoj doshta yak zumra olimon ba talifu tasnifi asarhoi ilmi va tadris dar madrasaho mashgul budand. Baze az olimon barobari faoliyati ilmi ba sheru adab niz sarukor doshtand. Dar davroni mazkur natanho ulumi rasmii dini, balki ilmhoi sirf dunyavi, monandi hayat, zich, handasa, jabru muqobala (algebra va muodilaho), kimiyo va gayra niz inkishof meyoftand.

Namoyontarin olimi in davr Mullo Tursuni Faroizi Samarqandi bo ilmhoi dunyavi va daqiq mashgul bud. U dar sohai gunoguni ilmhoi matematika, astronomiya, khimiya va gayra mahorat dosht. Va dar ulumi dini — fiqh (qonunhoi dini), hadis va tafsir niz sohibfan bud. Faroizi asarhoi ziyod ejod kardaast. CHande az onho chunin nomho doshtand: “Masoili hisobiya” (“Masalahoi hisob”), “SHarhi sirojiyat ul-jabriya” (oid ba algebra va muodilaho), “Jome-ul-hisob”, “SHarhi viqoya” (oid ba fiqh) va gayra budand.

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Olim va shoiri namoyoni in davr Qozi Lutfullo SHokiri Bukhoroi niz dar ulumi dini va gayridini zabardast buda, dar fiqhu hadis, kalomu tafsir, hikmatu hayat, mantiq va nahvu sarmf mutasaddi bud. Vay dar madrasahoi Bukhorovu Samarqand dars ham meguft. In olim ba fanhoi falsafa (hikmat va mantiq) va tabiatshinosi niz tavachjuh dosht. U hamchun shoir shuhrati beshtare paydo kardaast.

Olim va shoiri boistedodi asr Mirsharifi Muisifi Samarqandi bud. U dar madrasai Bukhoro ba mashqi handasa (geometriya), tanzim (sitorashinosi), arqomi zich mashgul shudaast.

Dar in davr mashhurtarin olimi sohai din Mirmuhammadsharifi SHahrisabzi, ki mudarris va alami Bukhoro bud, bo takhallusi SHarif sher niz ejod mekard.

Dar asri XVII – nimai avvali asri XVIII barobari namoyandagoni buzurgi adabiyot va ilm tarikhnavisoni buzurg niz budand. Mahmud ibni Vali yake az tarikhnavisoni marufi in davra meboshad. Asari u “Bahr- ul-asror fi manoqib-ul-akhbor“ yak nav ensiklopediyaest, ki az chor jild iborat buda, tarikhi davrai az CHingizkhon to Joniyonro darbar megirad. Muallifi digar Hochi Muhammad Salim asari tarikhiro bo nomi “Silsilat-us-salotin” talif kardaast. U bo khonhoi Bukhoro kheshutabori doshta, solhoi daroz dar darbori sulolai Ashtarkhoniyon hayot ba sar meburd, Asari mazkur veqeahoi tarikhiro az soli 1468 to soli 1711 dar bar karda, soli 1730 navishta shudaast.

Azbaski Muhammadsalim az kheshovandoni khonhoi Bukhoro bud, voqeahoi ziyodi darbori, kharkhashahoi baynihamdigarii khonadoni sulolai Ashtarkhoni va munosibathoi onho bo davlathoi hamsoya, makhsusan bo Eronu Hinduston va khokhoi qazoqu Horazm jabru istismori aholii zeridasti onho, oshubhoi khalqi va monandi inhoro, ki az peshi nazari muallif guzashtaand, khelo khub bayon kardaast.

Digar asari muhime, ki dar in davra talif yoftaast. “Tarikhi Sayid Roqim” meboshad. Muallifi asar Mullo SHarofuddini Samarqandi vokeahoi tarikhiro bo yak tartibi muayyan tasvir nakarda boshad ham dar borai odamoni mashhur, dar khususi binokori va osori adabii asrhoi XV- XVIII malumoti khele purqimat medihad.

Az talifoti digare, ki dar in davra navishta shudaast, asari Muhammadyusuf Munshi “Tarikhi Muqimkhoni” meboshad. In asar dar solhoi hukmronii naberai Subhonqulikhon—Muhammad Muqimkhon (1702-1707) dar Balkh navishta shud. Binobar on muallif bobhoi alohidai asarashro ba masalahoi mukhtalifi hayoti iqtisodiyu ijtimoi va siyosii viloyati Balkh, tarikhi khonhoi Bukhoro, khususan, sulolai Ashtarkhoniyon, munosibati bayni Bukhoro va Balkh bakhshidaast.

Muhimtarin asari tarikhii ii davra “Ubaydullonoma”-i Mirmuhammadamini Bukhori ast, ki komilan ba davri hukmronii Ubaydullokhon ( 1702 -1711) bakhshida shuda voqeoti gunogunro, az jumla, islohoti pul, ki boisi norozigii aholi dar Bukhoro va cap zadani shurish gardid, dar bar giriftaasg.

Dar in davr asarhoi digari tarikhi niz navishta shudaand, ki yake az onho asari Hujamqulbeki Balkhi “Tarikhi Qipchoqkhoni” meboshad. In asar sarchashmai tarikhii sudmand ba shumor meravad. CHunki muallifi on shohidi voqeahoi tasvirkardaash meboshad.

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