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Inqilobi soli 1908-i javonturkho

Ishtirokchiyoni Kongressi Parij ogozi baromadi inqilobiro ba 33-solagii ba takhti sultoni nishastani Abdulhamid muvofiq kunondand. Vale rafti voqeaho onhoro vodor namud, ki shurishro barvaqttar ogoz kunand. Mohi iyuni soli 1908 hangomi vokhuri dar Tallin shohi Angliya Eduardi VII va imperatori Rusiya Nikolayi II oidi chorahoi ziddi Avstro-Vengriya va baze masalahoi digar ba tafohum omadand. Angliya va Rusiya ba jonibdorii “az germaniyavikuny” najot dodani Makedoniya baromad karda, ba hukumati sulton naqshai islohotro peshnihod namudand. In naqsha ba Makedoniya darovardani artishi 10- 12-hazornafarai mamlakathoi imperialistiro niz dar nazar dosht. Maqsadi in naqsha az Turkiya judo kardani Makedoniya va dar on jo barham dodani markazi asosii javonturkho bud. Baroi hamin Kumitai “Ittihod va taraqqqi”-i javonturkho, ki qarorgohash dar Salonika bud, majbur shud, ki dar borai ogozi betakhiri shurish qaror qabul kunad…

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3 iyuli soli 1908 komendanti garnizoni shahrchai Makedonii Resna afsari javon Ahmad Niyozbey dastai inqilobii iborat az 200 nafararo tashkil namuda, bar ziddi rejimi sulton bayraqi muborizaro baland bardosht. Tashabbusi uro sozmonhoi digari javonturkho dastgiri kardand. Dere naguzashta garnizonhoi dar Salonika, Monastir, Skopr va shahrhoi digari kalon mustaqarbuda ham ba tarafi shurishchiyon guzashtand va dar yak muddati kutoh qismi ziyodi mulkhoi mustamlikavii evropavii Turkiyaro harakati iikilobi faro girift. Ahmad Niyozbeyro dastahoi chirikii dar Makedoniya va Albaniya amalkunanda va aholii mahalli dastgiri kardand. 23 iyul Kumitai “Ittihod va taraqqi” ba sulton talabi qati peshnikhod kard, ki u az nav chori karda shudani konstitutsiyaro elon kunad, vagarna tavassuti artishi inqilobi ba Istambul lashkar mekashad. Vaqte malum gardid, ki shurishgaronro chuzu tomhoi dar nazdikii Istambul, Izmir. Afon va Qarakhisorbuda va hayati shakhsii floti harbi dastgiri mekunad. Abdulhamid majbur shud, ki shabi 24 iyul az nav barqaror karda shudani konstitutsiya va intikhobot ba parlamentro elon kunad. Bo shunidani in khabar dar shahrhoi kalontarinn imperiya namoishhoi serodami muhtasham barguzor gardidand. Ruhiyai inqilobii khalq sultonro ba guzashtkunihoi nav majbur sokht. U afvi ishtirokchiyoni harakati inqilobiro elon kard, ki on 40 hazor nafar mahbusoni siyosi va mukhojironi ichboriro dar bar girift. Senzura bekor karda shud. Ruznomahoi makhfi ba faoliyati oshkoro baromadand.

Inqilobi javonturkho be khun galaba kard. Vale onho bar khilofi qarorhoi Kongressi Parij Abdulhamidro az takhti sultoni nafarovardand. Ba hayati hukumati u dokhil ham nashudand.

Lekin az vaziyati munosibi siyosi istifoda burda, Kumitai “Ittihod va taraqqi” dar palatai vakilon baroi khud aksariyatro tamin namud. Raisi palata namoyandai javonturkho Ahmad Rizobey intikhob gardid. Vale dere naguzashta tasiri javonturkho dar artish sust shud. Gayr az artishi 3-yumi dar Makedoniya mustaqarbuda yagon qismi harbi onhoro dastgiri namekard. Dar masalahoi gunogun dar bayni khudi javonturkho judoi ham ba amal omad. Bo hamin sabab to mohi apreli soli 1909 parlamenti Turkiya yagon qaror va yo qonuni chashmrasro qabul karda natavonist. In boshad, ba pastshavii obruy va etibori on sabab shud In holati parlament bazai ijtimoii javonturkhoro zaif gardonid. Dar siyosati khorijii Turkiya niz nokomiho mushohida shudand. Sulton hamai in kambudihoro ba gardani javonturkho bor karda ba hujum guzasht. 13 apreli soli 1909 bo rizoiyati Abdulhamidi II va bo dastgirii ruhoniyonu sarvaroni hizbi “Ahror” bar ziddi hukumat va parlament baromadi qismhoi garnizoni Istambul doir gardid. Harbiyon talab kardand, ki palatai qonunguzorro barham doda, shariat va hokimiyati sulton az nav barqaror karda shavad. Az hamin lahza dar poytakht taqiboti javonturkho va jonibdoroni onho ogoz yoft.

Dar yak muddati kutoh Abdulhamidi II sokhti mutlaqro az nav barqaror kard. Vale javonturkho tavonistand, ki isyoni aqsulinqilobiro zud pakhsh kunand. Bo yorii qismhoi artishi 3-yum va dastahoi musallahi inqilobi, ki dar “artishi amal” muttahid shuda budand, 26 aprel nazorati khudro dar poytakht az nav barqaror namudand. Ruzi digar parlament qaror qabul kard, ki sulton Abdulhamidi II az takhtu toj va martabai khalifai Turkiya mahrum karda shavad. Ba takhti sultonii Turkiya Mahmadi V Rashid (1909 – 1918)-i beiroda shinonida meshavad. Ba hayati hukumati nav yakchand arbobi javonturkho niz dokhil shudand. Gayr az in javonturkho mansabhoi gubernatorho, safiron, vazifahoi ziyodro dar artish va darbor ishgol namudand. Komiteti “Ittihod va taraqqi” dar idorai mamlakat maqomi khalqunanda dosht.

Hamin tariq, dar Turkiya hokimiyat ba dasti javonturkho meguzarad. Onho dar siyosati dokhili dar mamlakat jori namudani arzishhoi demokrati va dar siyosati khoriji baroi az tobeiyati davlathoi khoriji baromadani Turkiyaro barnomai amaliyot intikhob namudand. Natajai faoliyati onho bud, ki Turkiya ba rohi evropaii taraqqiyot dokhil gardid, harchand javonturkho dar idorai davlat, yane demokratikunonii jomea bo qatiyat amal namekardand. Az in ru, dar bayni khalq obrui onho pasg meshud, ki inro raqiboni siyosiashon istifoda meburdand. Ba har hol inqilobi javonturkho peshqadam bud. On Turkiyaro ba davrai navi tarikhi vorid sokht.

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