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Inqilobi Eron. Harakati demokrati

Tezutundshavii mukholifathoi dokhilii ijtimoi, ziddiyatho dar bayni imperialistoni khoriji va neruhoi millii Eron va inqilobi burjuaziyu demokratii Rusiya ba rushdi harakati inqilobi dar Eron sababgor shudand.

Mohi dekabri soli 1905 dar Tehron bar ziddi suistemolkunii hukumati shoh namoishi ommavi ruy dod va dar masjidi SHoh Abdulazim best ba amal omad. Namoishchiyon istefoi nakhustvaziri irtijoi Aynuddavla, Nausi belgiyagi va tashkili “adolatkhona”-ro talab mekardand. SHoh vada dod, ki in talabhoro qone khohad kard. Dar barobari vada u ba taqiboti namoishchiyon roh dod. Mardum javoban ba in riyokorii shoh korpartoii umumi elon kard. Bozorho va dukonho basta shudand. YAkchand hazor nafar odamon dar bogi namoyandagii anglisi best elon kardand. Guruhi kaloni ruhoniyon az Tehron ba shahri Qum rafta, az shoh talab kardand, ki Aynuddavlaro ba istefo gusel namoyad, konstitutsiyaro jori kunad va ba Majlis (parlamenti Eron) intikhobot guzaronad. Harakati inqilobi Tabrez, Isfahon, SHeroz va shahrhoi digari mamlakatro ham faro girift. Dar sharoiti baamalomada Muzaffariddinshoh majbur shud, ki guzasht kunad. 29 iyuli soli 1906 Aynuddavla ba istefo raft, ba joi u shakhsi nisbatan ozodandeshgar Nasrullohoi Mushiruddavla nakhustvazir tanin gardid. 5 avgust dar borai jori karda shudani Qonuni asosii Eron farmoni shoh elon gardid. Badi in korpartoiyu namoishho qat gardidand. Vale bo vujudi in Neruhoi irtijoi ba jori karda shudani konstitutsiyai vadakardai shoh khalal merasonidand. Az hamin sabab shoh nizomnomai intikhobotiro tasdiq nakard. In raftori irtijoparaston va shoh mavji navi qahru gazabi khalqro ba vujud ovard. Dar zeri fishori ommai khalq Muzaffariddinshoh oqibat majbur shud, ki nizomnomai intikhobot ba Majlisro tasdiq namoyad. On az rui sistemai tabaqavi (6 tabaqa shohzodagon va kojorho, ruhoniyon, ashrofoni feodali, tojiron, zamindoron va kishovarzon, kosibon) intikhoboti duzinagiro dar nazar dosht.

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7 oktyabri soli 1906 jalasai nakhustini Majlisi Avval barguzor gardid. Mohhoi oktyabr – dekabr Majlis qarorhoi qobili tavajjuhi ommaro qabul kard. Az on jumla oid ba muqarrar namudani narkhhoi nihoi ba joi raddiyai qarordod dar borai vombargi navi khoriji va tashkili Bonki millii Eron qarorho qabul kard. Dar yak vaqt Majlis ba tahiyai Qonuni asosi mashgul shud. 30 dekabri soli 1906 Muzaffariddinshoh Qonuni asosiro tasdiq namud, ki on qismi avvali Qonuni asosii Eronro tashkil mekard. Dar on huquq va vakolathoi Majlis ifoda yofta budand. Muvofiqi Qonuni asosi hokimiyati shoh tavassuti Majlis mahdud karda meshud. Dar nazar doshta shuda bud, ki dar barobari palatai poyoni Majlis, palatai boloi Senat niz tashkil karda shavad. Vale in fikr tanho dar boloi kogaz mond.

7 yanvari soli 1907 Muzaffariddinshoh vafot mekunad va ba joi u ba takhti podshohii Eron pisari ruhiyai ifrotidoshtaash – Muhammadalishoh menishinad. SHohi nav dushmanii khudro nisbati harakati demokrati va Majlis oshkoro ifoda namuda, neruhoi harbiro bar ziddi muzaffariyathoi inqilob jam kard. In kori Muhammadalishoh dar Tehron, Rasht, Isfahon va shahrhoi digari Eron harakati ommavii etiroziro ba vujud ovard. Dar in sharoit irtijopeshagon va shoh majbur shudand, ki aqibnishini karda, talaboti Majlis dar borai istefoi Naus va Primai belgiyagiro qabul kunand va tavassuti amri makhsusi shoh bori digar rizoiyati khudro dar bobati dar Eron jori karda shudani konstitutsiya tasdiq namoyand.

Bo qabuli Qonuni asosi va voqeahoi yanvar – fevrali soli 1907 davrai avvali inqilobi Eron ba okhir rasid. Davrai duyumi on ba boloravii etirozi omma bar ziddi zulm va suistemolkunii hukumatdoroni irtijoi ogoz meyobad. Dar natijai in shoh majbur meshavad, ki general-gubernatori irtijopeshai Isfahon, amaki khud Zillassultonro az vazifaash sabukdush kunad. Mohi apreli soli 1907 az Tabrez sarvari ruhoniyoni mujohid Mirzo Hasan, ki ba tarafi irtijopeshagon guzashta bud, ronda shud. Inchunin boykoti molhoi khoriji niz ogoz yoft. Harakati ziddianglisi khususan dar janubi mamlakat, az on jumla, dar Isfahon,SHeroz, Bushir va baze shahrhoi digar ba amal omada, ba zadukhurd mubaddal gasht.

Dar hama jo anjumanho sozmon meyoftand. Dar baze shahrho anjumanho ba hukumathoi mahallii shohi nazorat jori namuda, vazifahoi dodgohro niz ado mekardand, ba non narkh meguzoshtand va qiroatkhonayu maktabho mekushodand. Dar shimol va mintaqahoi digari mamlakat sozmonhoi pinhonkori mujohidon tashkil meyoftand, ki ba onho kosibon, tojiron, zamindoroni khurd, korgaron va kishovarzon dokhil meshudand. Barnomahoi onho jori karda shudani huquqi nntikhoboti umumii bevosita, barobar va makhfi, ozodii sukhan, jamiyatho, korpartoiho, musodirai zaminhoi shoh, kharida giriftani zaminhoi khonho va taqsimi onho dar bayni kishovarzon, ruzi korii 8-soata va talimi umumii hatmii bepulro dar nazar doshtand.

Soli 1907 dar zeri tasiri jamoatchigii demokrati Majlis qaror kard, ki nafaqai feodali kam va unvonhoi feodali bekor karda shavand. Majlis inchunin qonuni muboriza bar ziddi rishvakhuriyu khannoti, qonun dar borai anjumanhoi muzofotho va viloyatho va baze qonunu qarorhoi mohiyati demokratidoshtai digarro niz qabul kard.

SHoh umed dosht, ki dar hayati jonibdoroni konstitutsiya judoi ba amal khohad omad. Haminro ba hisob girifta, soli 1907 neruhoi khudro ba hujumi ziddi Majlis tayyor kard, baroi in kor u az khorija Aminussulton nom irtijopesharo davat karda, ba joi Mushiruddavla nakhustvazir tayin namud. Bahor va tobistoni soli 1907 dar Arak (Sultonobod), Qum, Qaradog, Tehron va SHeroz bar ziddi harakati demokrati baromadhoi feodalhoi irtijoi ba amal omadand, mohi mayi soli 1907 shoh az imzo guzoshtan ba ilovaho ba Qonuni asosi sarkashi kard. In raftori shoh dar Tehron namoishi ommavi va dar Tabrez korpartoii umumiro ba vujud ovard. Badi in dar zeri fishori harakati khalqi 7 oktyabri soli 1907 shoh ilovahoro ba konstitutsiya, ki qismi nisbatan muhimi Konstitutsiyai Eron budand, imzo kard. Ilovaho ba konstitutsiya ozodiho va digargunihoi digari demokratiro dar Eron dar nazar doshtand. Barobarii mardum dar nazdi qonun, dakhlnopazirii shakhsi ba molikiyat, ozodii sukhan, matbuot, jamomadho, majlisho, prinsipi taqsimoti hokimiyat dar bayni maqomoti ijroiya, qonunguzor va dodgoh az jumlai onhoand. Konstitutsiya ba shoh huqukhoi vase dod: ozodi va javobgari, sarfarmondehi quvvahoi musallah, eloni jang va bastani sulh, tayin va ba istefo guselonidani vaziron va gayra. Konstitutsiya islomro hamchun dini davlati muqarrar namud. Az hisobi ruhoniyoni olimartabai islomi iborat az 5 nafar hayati makhsus tashkil karda shud. On huquq dosht, ki ba islom muvofiq budan va yo nabudani qonunu qarorhoero, ki ba Majlis peshnikhod meshavand, muayyan kunad.

Badi qabuli ilovaho ba Konstitutsiya az inqilob durshavii yak qismi ozodandeshon va bo irtijopeshagon nazdikshavii onho cap shud. Muvofiqi fahmishi in ashkhos aknun maqsadhoi inqilob ijro shudand. Baroi hamin az idomai on dast kashidan lozim ast.

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