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Ilmi Biologiya dar nimai duyumi asri XIX — avvali asri XX

Biologiya. Dar in ilm inkishofn nazariyai evolyutsioni idoma yoft. Soli 1871 asari CHarlz Darvin “Paydoishn odam” az chop baromad. Az in peshtar u nazariyai inkishofro kor karda baromada, dar in bora asar navisht. Darvin dar asosi tahlili yak qator ilmho dar borai az maymunhoi odamshakl paydo shudani odam fikr bayon kard.

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Asosguzori uslubi evolyutsioni dar paleontologiya V. A. Kovalevskiy ba shumor meraft. U isbot namud, ki protsesshoi evolyusionii shirkhuron ba ivazshavni mukhiti zisti onho vobasta ast. Kori uro badtar olimi belgiyagi L. Dollo davom dod.

Olimp chekh Gregor Mendel qonuniyati az nasl ba nasl guzashtann nishonahoi irsiyatro kor karda baromad. U isbot namud, ki irs az chizhoi tarkibie iborat ast, ki asosi moddii onro tashkil medihand. Dar ibtidoi asri XX olimoni digar peshguihoi G. Mendelro isbot namuda, maqomi khromsomahoro dar irsiyat muayyan kardand. Onho ba khulosa omadand, ki har yak khromosoma az vohidhoi ziyodi foidaovar iborat ast.

Olimi rus I. P. Pavlov dar sohai sistemai fiziologiyai dil va raghoi khungard va fiziologiyai hazm tadqiqot guzaronid. U maqomi faoliyati sistemai asabhoro dar protsesshoi fiziologi sanjid. Bo hamin roh I. P. Pavlov nazariyai reflekshoi sharti va gayrishartiro kor karda baromad.

Odimi holandi G. da Friz va olimoni rus K. A. Timiryazev va I. V. Michurin ham dar inkishofi ilmi biologiyai okhiri asri XIX – avvali asri XX sahmi kalon guzoshtaand.

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