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Ilm dar nimai duyumi asri XIX – avvali asri XX

Ilm dar nimai duyumi asri XIX – avvali asri XX bo du rohi asosi taraqki mekard – ba sohahoi maydatar taqsim shudani ilmhoi alohida va toraft mustahkamtar shudani robitai bayni ilmho. Tadqiqi sokhti modda, omuzishi energiya va sokhti navi manzarai fizikii olam samthoi asosii taraqqiyoti ilmho budand.

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Olimoni mamoliki gunoguni jahon harakat mekardand, ki be hamdigar hamkori karda, dar in va yo on sohai ilm muvaffaqiyat ba dast darorand. Baroi hamin maqsad soli 1875 Byuroi baynalkhalqii tarozu va chenakho, soli 1896 Ittihodi baynalkhalqii zaminchenkuni, soli 1900 Ittihodi baynalkhalqii akademikho va soli 1912 dar shahri Parij Byuroi baynalkhalqii vaqt tasis doda shudand.

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MUNOSIBATHOI IJTIMOIYU IQTISODI. Kishovarzi dar asri XVI

Dar asri XVI asosi khojagii qishloq dehqoni bud. Zamin bsshtar dar dasti davlat bud. Hon …