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ISTILOI OSIYOI MIYONA AZ TARAFI ARABHO

ISTILOI OSIYOI MIYONA AZ TARAFI ARABHO VA JORi NAMUDANI ISLOM VAZIYATI SIYOSi VA IQTISODII OSIYOI MIYONA DAR ARAFAI HUJUMI ARABHO

Vaziyati siyosi va iqtisodii Osiyoi Miyona dar arafai hujumi arabho. Hususan badi mustahkam shudani onho da r Eron, shikasti davlati Sosoniyon va tobeoni on, tavre bud, ki baroi peshrafti arabho musoidat menamud . parokandagii siyosi, pastravii iqtisodiyot, shiddat giriftani ziddiyatho bani davlathoi khurde, ki dar in mintaqa vujud doshtand, nizomi doimii onho imkon namedod, ki ittihodi ba vujud omada, sadi azime baroi giriftani peshi hujumi arabho shavand. Nohiyavu mintaqahoi Osiyoi Miyona har kadom mustaqil budand, davlati yagonai mutamarkaze vujud nadosht.

arabskoe-vojsko-v-pohode

Faqat dar yak sarzamin hozirai Tojikiston chandin davlathoi khurd, az qadilai dalatchahoi Usturushan / Uroteppa /, rutam, Bargar / Mastchlhu Falgar /, CHagoniyon / vodi Hisor /, Ahorun va SHumon / dar garbtari CHagoniyon /, Vashtgird/Fayzobod, Kofarnihon/, Qubodiyon, Huttalon, Rasht /Garmi hozira/, Darvoz, Vakhon, SHugnon, Rushon va gayra. Har kadomi in davlatchaho imkoni mustaqilan tashkili artishi purquvvat nadoshtand. Ittihode, ki dar muqobili arabho onho har sari vaqt ba vujud meovardand, zaif buda, bo andake mushkili va guzashthoi arabho ba yake az onho pareshon megasht.

Arabho metavonistand har yake az onhoro bar ziddi digar ravona kunand. Davlathoi nisbatan puriqtidor dar bayni onho Sugd, Huttalon budand. Osiyoi Miyona doroi shahrhoi buzurg nisbat ba on zamon/ va mashhur bud. Az jumla Bukhoro, Samarqand, Tirmiz, CHoch, Toshkand, Marv, Qubodiyon, Munk, Bundjikat nazdikii SHahriston va gayra. Dar onho madaniyati baland az jihati inkishofi ilmu farhang va ham moddi, qasru imoratho, sistemai kanalizasioni, vositahoi obyori va sardkuni va gayra vujud doshtand. SHahrho taqriban ba se qismat taqsim meshudand; SHahriston, Rabot, Kuhandiz, yane havolii nazdi-shahri, gushayu atrofii shahr va markaz. Dar markaz binohoi mamuri, qasri hokim qaror dosht.

Ulamo, udabo, ashkhosi bomarifat, hunarmandoni nomi dar darbori shoh, amir yo hokim jam shuda budand. Onho ba kori ejodi mashgul buda., az jihati moddi az tarafi amir yo hokim dastgiri meyoftand. Dar shahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona hunarmandi, tijorat, bofandagi va digar kasbu kor khele taraqqi karda bud. Matohoi istehsoli Sugd, Horazm va digar mahsuloti hunarmandiyu kishovarzi kharidoroni ziyode doshta, dar digar kishvarho shuhrat doshtand.

Avvalin barkhurdi mardumi Osiyoi Miyona ba arabho badi shikasti davlati Sosoniyon solhoi 651-654 surat giriftaast. Masalan, az rui malumoti sarchashmaho soli 654 arabho ba Maymurgi Sugd hujum mekunand. Vale tokhtu tozhoi arabho dar in davra khususiyati muvaqqati doshta, zadukhurdhoi jiddii harbi nabudand. Az solhoi 673-674 sar karda kushishi arabho baroi giriftani Osiyoi miyona beshtar megardid. Soli 673 arabho ba Bukhoro hujum karda, Romitanro gorat mekunand va boz aqib megardand.

Taqriban dar hamin solhoi 70-um arabho ba Huttalon, Sugd hujum mekunand, badi daryofti ganimat boz aqib megardand. Az ibtidoi asri VIII arabho baroi istiloi purrai Osiyoi Miyona shuru menamoyand. Soli 705 Qutayba ibni Muslim ba istiloi Movarounnakhr ogoz kard. U hamon sol bisyor nohiyahoi atrofi Balkhro tobei khud sokhta, soli 706 bo quvvai kalon dokhili Movarounnahr gardid, Bukhororo zabt namuda, onro gorat namud. Badi giriftani ganimat boz ba aqib bargasht. Soli 709 Qutayba dubora ba Bukhoro hujum karda, soli 710 Bukhororo tobei khud sokhta, ba SHumon hujum menamoyad. Nasafu Kesh / SHahri sabz /-ro ishgol menamoyad. Tarkhun / shohi Sugd / bo arabho muohidai sulh imzo kard, vale soli 710 shohi navi Sugd Guron muohidaro bekor mesozad. Muborizai duru darozi mardumi Isyoni Muqana muqobili arabho manzarai maydoni harb Su bar ziddi arabho bo rohbarii Gurak va Devashtich /farzandi digari Tarkhun / ogoz meyobad ba arabho badi muborizai 10-sola muyassar megardad Samarqandro fath karda, Sugdro tobei khud sozand.

Ba zudi muborizai ziddi arabho dar Sugd, Fargona dubora avj megirad. Soli 720 mardumi Sugd bo kumaki turkho muvvaqatan boshad ham arabhoro az Sugd berun mekunand.

Ba arabho mardumi Huttalon muqovimati jiddi nishon dodand. Istiloi Huttalon az soli 725 ogoz meshavad. Hokimi arab Asad ibni Abdullo badi Balkh ba Huttalon hujum mekunad. Mardumi Huttalon ba muborizai ziddi arabho barkhezand va arabho noiloj aqibnishini mekunand. Ba in munosibat Balkh bar istehzon arabho misrahoi zerinro ejod namudaand:

Az Huttalon omadiya

Bo ru taboh omadiya

Obora boz omadiya 

Dar natija arabho to soli 737 digar ba Huttalon hujum namekunand. Vale badi gird ovardani quvvai ziyod ba arabho soli 737 muyassar meshavad, ki Huttalonro fath kunand. Garchi arabho tamomi Osiyoi Miyonaro fath karda boshand ham, muborizai ziddi onho qat namegardid. Bazan on khele quvvat girifta, mintaqahoi gunogunro az itoati onho berun mesozad. Dar har surat to solhoi 40-um ba arabho muyassar megardad, ki Osiyoi Miyonaro ba tasarrufi khud darorand. Galabai arabo sababhoi ziyod dorad. Dar har surat on afzaliyati harbi va ideologii arabho va bartarii dini islomro ba dinhoi dar in jo jori nishon medihad. Dar arafai hujumi arabho dar Osiyoi Miyona davlathoi khurd-khurde budand, ki bo ham ikhtilof doshtand va jabhai yagonai muboriza bar ziddi istiloi arabhoro tashkil karda natavonistand. Parokandagi yake az sababhoi shikasti onho shud.

Mardumi Osiyoi Miyona doroi tamadduni boyu gani budand. Kishovarzii peshrafta, sistemai jolibi obyori, shahrhoi zebo va taraqqikarda ba shuhrati in diyor afzuda budand. Sanoati memori va tasviri khele taraqqi karda bud. Dar in bora yodgorihoi toislomii kuhi Mug, tasvirhoi rui devorhoi qasrho va binoho shahodat medihand.

Mardumi in jo asosan ba oini zardushti etiqodmand budand. Digar dinho, az jumla nasroniyu buddoi niz tasiri muayyane doshtand. Dokhil shudani Osiyoi Miyona ba khilofat, qabuli dini islom aloqai in joro bo kishvaru tamaddunhoi gunogun taqviyat bakhshid, to hadde nizohoi dokhiliro az bayn burd, sharoiti musoid baroi peshrafti tamaddun ba vujud ovard.

Mardumi Osiyoi Miyona chun digar kishvarhoi dokhili khilofat az muboriza baroi ozodii kishvarashon dast nakashidand. Hilofatro muborizahoi sakhti siyosii ham bayni guruhhoi mukhtalifi arabho, ham janghoi ozodikhohi faro girift. Az buzurgtarin harakate, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona va Eron rukh dod va boisi az bayn raftani sulolai Umaviyon gardid, harakati ozodikhohona bo sardorii Abu Muslimi Hurosoni bud. Harakati mazkur qarib tamomi khilofatro faro girift va soli 750 ba digar shudani sulolai hukmron dar khilofat, yane ba hukmronii sulolai nav Abbosiyon ovard. Digar shudani sulola vaziyatro chandon tagyir nadod, norozigii omma az hukmronon kam namegardid, vadahoi rohbaroni shurish ijro nashud, hatto rohbari voqeii in harakat-Abu Muslimro Abbosiyon ba qatl rasonidand.

Dar natija muborizai mardum bar ziddi khilofat dar shaklhoi nav davom yoft. YAke az hamin guna shurishhoi ommavi va khele purquvvat shurishi Muqanna yo khud harakati safedjomagon bud. Rohbari shurish qosib Muqanna sobiq yake az sarlashkaroni Abu Muslim soli 776 mardumro ba muborizai ziddi khilofati Abbosiyon va dastnishondagoni onho davat namud. Davati uro mardum, khususan aholii Sugd dastgiri kard. Ba qavli Narshakhi, yake az muarrikhoni mashhuri on davr, ba Muqanna muyassar gardid, ki quvvai ziyode gird ovarad. Markazi shurish Narshakh, yake az mahalhoi nazdi Bukhoro bud. Dar chandin zadukhurdhoe, ki bayni qushunhoi khilofat va shurishgaron Rukh dod, ba shurishgaron muyassar shud, ki ba quvvahoi khilofat zarba zanand. Badi 4 soli muboriza va jam ovardani lashkari ziyod ba arabho muyassar gardid, ki shurishro pakhsh kunand.

Hamin tavr, to nimahoi asri HIII islom dar sarosari Osiyoi Miyona pahn garid. To islom dar in jo asosan ba oini zardushti, mazdakiya garavida budand. Arabho tamomi chorahoro baroi targibi dini islom didand. Az jumla, hatto dar Bukhoro dar khonaho joy girifta, ba mardum toatu ibodat meomuzondand, badi qabuli islomaz dodani jizya ozod megardand va gayra.

Bo vujudi in dinhoi mahalliro man nakarda budand. Mardum metavonist dar dini khud boqi monad va jizya suporad. Payravoni dinhoi gayri islomro zimmi meguftand. Islom az har jihat ba dinhoi mahalli afzaliyat doshtva in nametavonist tavajjuhi mardumro jalb nakunad.In afzaliyat onhoro vodor mesokht,ki ba islom bigaravand va az dinhoi toislomi muddati ziyode dar Osiyoi Miyona tasiru nufuzi khudro nigoh doshtand. Dar har surat islom dar Osiyoi Miyona komilan piruz gashta, dini mardumi in mintaqa gardid.

Suporish va savolho.

  1. CHaro mardumi Osiyoi Miyona ba lashkari Arab muqobilat karda natavonis?
  2. Kadom nishonahoi dini Zardushtiya dar ruzgori imruzai mardumi mo boqi mondand? 
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