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ISPANIYA: DAR TARIH – ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

Vaziyati Ispaniya dar nimai avvali asri XIX. Muborizai milliyu ozodikhohii mustamlikahoi Ispanii Amerikai Lotini vaziyati siyosiro dar Ispaniya tagyir dod. SHoh majbur shud, ki soli 1812 dar mamlakat konstitutsiyaro jory namoyad. Muvofiqi on ba kortesho (parlamenti mamlakat) intikhobot guzaronida shud. Vale khudi shoh Ferlinandi VII jonibdori mutlaqiyati shohy bud. Az in ru, harakat mekard, ki mamlakatro be konstitutsiya va kortesho idora namoyad. Hamin bud, ki dere naguzashta in konstitutsiya bekor karda shud.

Vale zamona digar shuda bud. Dar mamlakat munosibathoi sarmoyadori sol to sol tashakkul meyoftand. Tabaqai navi doro – burjuaziya ba voya merasid. On ba hokimiyati shohy fishor meovard

aksulmutlaqa muvaqqatan golib baromada, hokimiyati qonunguzorro ba dast darovarda, chandin chorahoi inqilobii mutadili iqtisodiro amali namudand, ba khusus oid ba kishovarzi.

Az siyosati dokhilii  neruhoi inqilobi norozi budand. Baroy hamin kushish menamudand, ki shoh Ferdinanda VII-po bo barodari u Don Karlos, ki qatiyan ziddi hokimiyati mutlaqi shoh bud, ivaz namoyand.

Soli 1823 “Igtifoqi Muqaddas” bar ziddi Ispaniya tajovuzi aksulinqiloby kard. Mohi aprel lashkari 100- hazornafarai Faronsa ba Ispaniya zada daromad. Dar natijai in inqilobi Ispaniya shikast khurd. Ferdinandi VII konstitutsiyai mamlakatro bekor karda ishtirokchnyoni inqilobro shadidan takib mekard. Bo hamin dar mamlakat irtijo hukmron gardid.

Mutlaqiyatkhohoni ashaddi dar atrofi barodari khurdii Ferdinandi VII Don Karlos muttahid shudand. Dar tarikh in ashkhos karlchiyon ( az nomi Don Karlos) nomguzory shudaand.

Soli 1833 shoh vafot kard. Dukhtari khurdsoli u Izabella shohi Ispaniya zlon karda shud. Majlisi makhsusi kortesho, ki bo hamin maqsad davat karda shuda bud, ba Izabella savgand yod kard. Malika Kristina (hamsari Ferdinandi VII) pushtiboni Izabellai khurdsol zlon gardid. Karlchiyon boshand, badi in Don Karlosro shohi qonuny zlon namudand va ba jangi ifroty dast zadand, ki on to soli 1840 idoma yoft.

Diktaturam Narvaes (1843-1851). Dar zarfi 8 sol sarvari Hukumati Ispaniya generali karlchiyon Narvaes bud. U dar mamlakat Diktaturam shakhsii khudro jory namud. Bo farmoni Narvaes tanho soli 1844 –um 214 nafar odam qatl karda shud. U az kortesho huquqi tashabbusi qonunguzoriro girift. Narvaes qatlkuniro vositai yagonai muboriza bar ziddi raqiboni siyosii khud medonist. Sarfi nazar az in vaziyati hokimiyati u on qadar mustahkam nabud. Az in ru, u oqibat majbur shud, ki soli 1851 ba istefo ravad. Hukumati nav boshad, korteshoro tamoman parokanda kard.

Inqilobi solhoi 1854 – 1856. Mamlakatro be kortesho idora Kardan, nadoshtani khohish baroi ba amal barovardani islohoti navi iqtisody va idorai davlaty, rishvatkhuriyu badakhloqy dar darbor qahru gazabi ommahoi vasei aholii Ispaniyaro ba vujud ovardand, ki dar bayni onho zamindoroni ozodandesh va burjuaziya niz budand. Vakhte ki farmoni hukumat dar borai 6 moh peshaki pardokhgtani andoz intishor gardid, generali ozodandesh O’ Donnel Mohi iyuni soli 1854 dar sh. Madrid shurish bardosht. U bo hamrohii hamsafonash ba khalq murojnatnoma qabul kard. Dar on taqozo karda meshud, ki «shulluk»-hoi darbory az hokimiyat dur, qonunho rioya va andozho kam karda shavand. Dar murojiatnoma fikr dar borai tashkil namudani politsiya niz zikr yofta bud.

SHurish dere naguzashta shahrhoi kalontarini mamlakatro faro girift. Dar hama jo dastahoi politsiya va khuntahoi inqilobi tashkil karda meshudaid. Qisme az inkilobchiyon baron Ispaniya jumhury talab mekard. Baroi past gardonidann shiddati inqilob shoh (malika) general Esparterero, ki qablan sardori hukumat bud, az nav ba in vazifa tayin kard. Vale u chun peshtara az jory namudani islohoti qatii demokraty dar mamlakat dast kashid.

Inqilob hamono davom mekard. Soli 1855 dar Kataloniya korgaron korpargoin umumy karda, to yakdaraja ba maqsadkhoi khud noil shudand. Soli 1856 general O’ Donnel ba on muvaffaq shud, ki Espertere ba istefo biravad. Vale Espertere hokimiyatro gasb namuda, mamlakatro dar holati harby elon kard. Javoban ba tabadduloti aksulinqiloby dar Madrid va shahrhoi digari Ispaniya shurishho cap zadand. Lekin badi janghoi nachandon kalonu tulony onho az tarafi hukumati Espertere pakhsh karda shudand. Hamin tariq, inqilobi solhoi 1854- 1856 shikast khurd. Dar mamlakat az nav irtijo va takibot hukmron gardidand.

Inqilobi solhoi 1868- 1874. SHurishi 18 sentyabri soli 1868 dar floti dar Kadis mustakarbuda ogozi inqilobi navi Ispaniya gardid. On dar mamlakat chunon bosurat pahn shud, ki badi 2 ruz Izabella, malikai Ispaniya majbur shud, ki ba Faronsa firor kunad. Hukumati Ispaniya az hisobi mutadilon va ozodandeshoni chap tashkil doda shud va Mohi iyuni soli 1869 kortesho Konstitutsiyai navi Ispaniyaro elon kardand. Moddahoi dakhldori on jory namudani huquqi intikhoboti umumy (baroi zanu mard). ozodii vijdon, sozmon va majlishoro elon doshtand. Konstitutsiya dar mamlakat nikohi shahrvandiro ijozat dod, merosy nigoh doshta shud. Burjuaziyai ozodandeshu mutlaqiyatkhoh hokimiyatro dar dasti khud nigoh dosht.

Konstitutsiyai mutlaqa etirozi oppozitsiyai inqilobiyu demokratiro ba vujud ovard. SHurishhoi demokratiyu jumkhurikhohy dar Saragosa, Valensiya va mahalhoi digari mamlakat ba amal omadand. Baroy hamin kortesho sarosema budand. Onho mekhostand, ki teztar hokimiyati shohro mustahkam sozand va khudashon dar sari hokimiyati Ispaniya monand. Baroy hamin kortesho sarosemavor shohzodai italiyavy Amadei Savoiro shohi Ispaniya intikhob namudand. U soli 1870 ba takhti shohy nishast, lekin ruhoniyon va ashrofon Amadei Savoiro dushmanona istiqbol namudand. Artish va vaziron ham Amadei Savoiro khub dastgiri nakardand. Az in ru, u majbur shud, ki Mohi fevrali soli 1873 az takhtu toji shohii Ispaniya dast kashad. Dar sharoiti baamalomada kortesho majbur shudand, ki Ispannyaro jumhuri elon namoyand. Vale dushmanoni jumhury dar mamlakat nihoyat bisyor budand. Onho obruyu etibori jumhuriro bo har rohu vosita merezonidand. Zamindoron va burjuaziya boshand, az shurishkho sakht tarsida budand. Binobar in baroi ehyo namudani hokimiyati Burbonho dast zadand va 24 yanvari soli 1874 kortesho ba takhti shohii Ispaniya pisari Izabella Alfonsi HII-ro shinondand.

Besalohiyaty va dar tatbiqi maqsadkhoi khud qaty nabudani jumhurikhohon ba on ovarda rasonid, ki inqilobi solhoi 1868- 1874 ham oqibat shikast khurd. Dar Ispaniya hokimiyati mutlaqi dvoryani mondan girift, ki aknun ba on sulolai Burbonho hukmrony mekard.

 

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