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INKISHOFI FARDII ORGANIZMHO (ONTOGENEZ)

Ontogenez inkishofi fardii organizmho, yane takrori filogenez dar shakli kutohu zud va yo inkishofi tarikhii namud ast, ki in fard ba on dokhil meshavad.

Qonuni biogenetiki Ibtidoi organizmi navi hayvonot va rastani novobasta az tarzi afzoish az yak yo chand hujayra ogoz meyobad, ki onho faqat doroi hissachahoi irsi buda, yagon khosiyat, khususiyat va alomathoi organizmi butunro nadorand.

Inkishof gufta, zina ba zina amali gardidani akhbori irsii az volidon giriftaro menomand. Masalahoi inkishofi fardiro embriologiya (az lotinii embri – janin) yo janinshinosi meomuzad.

ONTOGENEZ

Asosguzori embriologiyai hozira akademiki Akademiyai Fanhoi Rossiya K.M.Ber meboshad.

Soli 1828 Ber kitobi «Tarikhi inkishofi hayvonot»-ro nashr namud. Ber inkishofi janini murg va hayvonoti shirkhurro omukhta, ba ilm qonuni monandii janinhoro dokhil kard. U isbot kard, ki inkishofi janini odam niz az rui yak

naqshai umumi, ki ba hayvonoti muhrador khos ast, surat megirad. Dar tashkili embriologiyai evolyutsioni sahmi olimoni digari rus A.O.Kovalevskiy va I.I.Mechnikov arzanda ast. Tasavvuroti hozirazamon oidi qabathoi janin ba Ko-

valevskiy taalluq dorand. U qabathoi ektoderma, entoderma va mezodermai hama guruhhoi khordadoronro nishon dod. Bo sharofati korhoi Mechnikov va Kovalevskiy, hamchunin olimoni digari nimai duyumi asri HIH qonuni inkishofi hayvonoti bemuhra va muhrador muayyan gardid.

Embriologiyai evolyutsioni, anatomiyai qiyosi, paleontologiya dalelhoi muhimi evolyutsiyai hayvonotro isbot karda, ba ham qarobat doshtani guruhhoi gunoguni onhoro muayyan namud. Tadqiqoti CH.Darvin, korhoi K.M.Ber, A.O.Kovalevskiy, I.I.Mechnikov va olimoni digar baroi ba miyon omadani qonuni biogenetiki zamina faroham ovard va on az jonibi olimoni olmoni F.Myuller va E.Gek-

kel peshnihod shud. Muvofiqi aqidai onho, ontogenez inkishofi fardi – shakli kutohi takroryobii filogenez ast, yane inkishofi tarikhii namude, ki fardho ba on dokhil meshavand. Miyonahoi asri HH bo masalai tanosubi ontogenez va filonegez olimi buzurgi rus, akademik A.N.Seversov mashgul shud. Holo dar misoli baze jonvaroni khordador ravandi ontogenez va khususiyathoi onro dida mebaroem, ki natijai on ba marhilahoi gunoguni inkishofi fardi ovarda merasonad. Ontogenez chist? Ontogenez yo inkishofi fardi gufta tamomi davrai hayoti fardro menomand, ki az omekhta shudani nutfa bo hujayratukhm va tashakkuli zigota sar shuda, to mahv shudani organizmhoro dar bar megirad.

Ontogenez ba du davra judo meshavad: 1) davrai janini – az paydoishi zigota to tavallud yo az tukhmparda baromadani fardro dar bar megirad; 2) davrai badijanini – az lahzai baromadan az tukhm yo tavallud to faro rasidani marg.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Inkishofi fardii organizmho chist?
  2. Inkishofi fardi ba kadom davraho judo meshavad?
  3. Olimonero nombar kuned, ki dar peshrafti embriologiya hissai arzanda guzoshtaand.
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