Home / Gunogun / INFORMATSIYA: NAMUD VA HOSIYATHOI ON

INFORMATSIYA: NAMUD VA HOSIYATHOI ON

Mafhumi informatsiya. Informatsiya mafhumi khele vase ast. Kalimahoi arabii «khabar», «akhbor», «malumot», «ittiloot» va gayra baze pahluhoi mafhumi informatsiyaro manidod menamoyand, vale yagontoi on in kalimaro purra ivaz karda nametavonand.

Masalan, signali yagon datchik yo buyi yagon taomro informatsiya guftan mumkin ast, vale ittiloot na. Mafhumi informatsiya az kalimai lotinii informatio sarchashma girifta, manoi manidodkuni, fahmondadihi, bayonkuni, khabardorkuni va gayraro dorad. Odamon informatsiyaro ba hamdigar bo tarzhoi shifohi, khatti yo dar namudhoi imovu ishorati va yo alomati merasonand. Inson har guna informatsiyaro avval khudash dark mekunad va bad onro ba digaron irsol medihad.

Mo informatsiyaro az kitobhoi talimiyu ilmi, ruznomayu majallaho va namoishnomahoi televizionivu kinofilmho megirem. Onro dar daftar yo konspekthoyamon qayd menamoem. Dar faoliyati istehsoli, mo informatsiyaro dar namudi matnu naqshaho, malumotnomavu hisobotho, jadvalho va digar namudi hujjatho ba qayd megirem, yo intiqol medihem.

CHunin namud informatsiyahoro bo yorii kompyuter niz ba qayd giriftan, kor karda baromadan va intiqol dodan mumkin ast. Novobasta az namudi tasvirshaviash, informatsiya hamesha malumot dar borai yagon shakhs yo yagon chiz ast.

Vay hodisahoi dar hayoti mo allakay ruydoda yo ruydihandaro inikos menamoyad. Masalan, mo diruz kadom korhoro anjom dodem, yo pagoh bo chi korho mashgul meshavem, misolhoi informatsiya shuda metavonand. Dar in mavridho boyad informatsiya hatman dar yagon shakli mushakhkhas – hikoya, rasm, maqola, sher va gayra tasvir gardad, yo ba qayd girifta shavad. Asarhoi musiqi va grafiki, kitobu musavvaraho, spektaklu kinofilmho –shaklhoi gunoguni tasviri informatsiyaro tashkil medihand. Hamin tariq, informatsiya dar har guna shakl

– inikosi dunyoi voqei yo khayoli meboshad. Az in ru, informatsiyaro hamchun inikosi jahoni moddi dar shakli alomatho va signalho tasvir kardan mumkin ast.

Vale haminro qayd kardan zarur ast, ki tarifi mutlaqo aniqi informatsiya vujud nadorad. Vay hamchun mafhumhoi nuqta yo hamvori dar geometriya va yo adad dar matematika mafhumi ibtidoi ast. Informatsiyaro chunin manidod kardan mumkin ast:

Informatsiya malumot dar borai yagon hodisa, predmet, shakhs, ruydod va umuman muhiti atrof ast, ki sathi nomuayyanii donishi insonro dar hamon samti omuzish kam menamoyad.

Boyad guft, ki informatsiya obekti moddi nest:

Hangomi irsol az yak joy ba joi digar, informatsiya dar joi peshinaash niz boqi memonad.

Baroi irsol dodan informatsiya boyad dar yagon barandai moddi tasvir karda shavad.

Novobasta az namudi baranda, miqdori informatsiya betagyir memonad.

Tasviri moddi, energetiki va informatsionii olam.

namudhoi-ittilootInsoniyat dar tuli mavjudiyati khud yak zumra inqilobhoi ilmiyu tekhnikiro pasi sar namudaast, ki har kadomashon dar kamolot va khudshinosii on naqshi amiqro boqi guzoshtaand. Masalan, asri sangi ba paydoishi avvalin oloti mehnat sabab gasht, ki on zahmati insonro kullan digargun sokht. Asri birinji ba azkhudkunii gudokhtani metall ovard, ki on dar digargunshavii mohiyati hayoti jamiyati takoni buzurge bud. Va hamin zayl, asri charkh ba paydoish va istifodai arobayu avtomobil, asri barq ba ofarinish va istifodai energiyai behamtoi barqi, asri yadroi ba inkishofi omuzishi kayhon va energetikai atomi sabab gashtaand, ki onho mehnati fikriyu jismonii insonro millionho marotiba oson gardonidaand. Imruzho mo zud-zud dar khususi asri informatsioni sukhan meronem.

Dar haqiqat asri HHI asri informatika va tekhnologiyahoi informatsioni meboshad. Dar in asr tamomi samthoi faoliyati inson az dastovardhoi tekhnikai kompyuteri va tekhnologiyai navtarini korkardi informatsiya bahravar megardad. Sahmi informatsiya dar qabuli qarorhoi idorakunii istehsolot, jamiyat, tafakkur va halli masalahoi ruzmarra ba darajae meafzoyad, ki on ba qatori du omili hayotan muhimi digar – modda va energiya shomil  megardad. Omilhoi segona, yane modda-energiya-informatsiya ba zumrai on gizohoe tabdil meyoband, ki insoni qarni nav mazmunu mundarijai hayot va faoliyati aqloniyu jismonii khudro dar takya ba onho ba nizom medarorad.

Namudhoi informatsiya dar TI (tekhnologiyahoi ittilooti).

Garchande inson informatsiyaro amalan bo tamomi uzvhoi hissiyoti khud qabul namoyad ham, vale holo vay korkardi kompyuterii  na hama namudhoi informatsiyaro az khud namudaast.

Masalan, idroki estetiki yo munosibati bayni odamon az zumrai on problemahoeand, ki korkardi kompyuterii onhoro vaqt intizor ast. Dar zamoni mo kompyuter dar korkardi namudhoi zerini informatsiya ba tavri vase istifoda burda meshavad:

  1. informatsiyai matni
  2. informatsiyai adadi
  3. informatsiya dar borai tarikhi ruz va vaqt
  4. informatsiyai savtu sadoi
  5. informatsiyai grafiki, animatsiya va videofilmho
  6. informatsiyai makhsusi dui.

Dar ibtido kompyuter tanho baroi korkardi informatsiyai adadi khizmat merasonid. Vale ba zudi malum gasht, ki imkoniyathoi kompyuter khele vase budaast. Az tarafi digar, naboyad faromush kard, ki imkoniyathoi kompyuter beokhir nest. Vay dar on sohahoe samarai khub doda metavonad, ki istifodaash dar onho amalan sobit gashtaast. Sohahoi tadbiqi imruzai tekhnologiyahoi kompyuteri namudhoi dar bolo ovardashudai informatsiya ba shumor meravand.

Mutaassifona, taraqqiyoti minbadai tekhnikai kompyuteri tanho ba korkardi hajmi ziyodtari hamin namud informatsiyaho meovaradu khalos. 

Hosiyathoi informatsiya. 

Daryofti informatsiya – in ba dast ovardani dalel, malumot va dodashudaho dar borai khosiyatho, sokhtor yo aloqamandii obektho va ruydodhoi muhiti atrofi mo meboshad. Mazmuni moddii informatsiya imkon medihad, ki khosiyathoi asosii on – sahehi, mukammali, muhimmi, aktuali, aniqi, dastrasi, kutohi va fahmogi ravshan karda shavand.

Informatsiya saheh (mutamad) hisob karda meshavad, agar vay vazi aslro mutlaqo durust tasvir namoyad. Informatsiyai nosaheh boisi khatofahmii ruydod va qabuli qarorhoi nodurust megardad.

Informatsiya mukammal (purra) shumurda meshavad, agar vay baroi fahmishi vazi asl va qabuli qarori dakhldor kifoya boshad. Nopurragii informatsiya moneai qabuli qarorho va sababi rohdihi ba khatoho megardad.

  1. Muhimmii (arzandagii) informatsiya dar on zohir megardad, ki bo yorii on kadom masalaho hal karda meshavand.
  2. Informatsiya aktuali (zamonavi) hisobida meshavad, agar vay dar sharoiti doimo tagyiryobanda voqeiyatro durust inikos namoyad.
  3. Informatsiya fahmo (vozeh, ayon) shumurda meshavad, agar vay tarze ifoda shuda boshad, ki dastrasi istifodabaranda boshad.
  4. Informatsiya aniq hisobida meshavad, agar vay darajai behtari nazdikii vazi aslii obekt, ravand yo ruydodro inikos namoyad.

Hudro sanjed:

  1. Informatsiya gufta chiro mefahmed?
  2. Baroi chi asri XXI-ro asri informatika va TI menomand?
  3. Kadom namudhoi informatsiya va khosiyathoi onro medoned?

Ijro kuned:

  1. Dar borai mafhumi informatsiya, namud va khosiyathoi on malumot dihed.
  2. Sohahoero nombar kuned, ki dar onho kompyuterro istifoda mebarand.
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

kazaxstan

Iqtisodiyoti Jumhurii Qazoqiston

Jumhurii Qazoqiston. Dar mohhoi yanvar-avgusti soli jori tamoyuli musbi dar rushdi iqtisodiyoti Jumhurii Qazoqiston nigoh …