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IMPERIYAM AVSTRO-VENGRIYA DAR NIMAI DUYUMI ASRI XIX – AVVALI ASRI XX

Dar imperiya ba miyon omadani irtijoi siyosi. CHy tavre ki ba shumo malum ast, inqilobi burjuazii solhoi 1848- 1849 dar imperiyam Avstriya shikast khurd. Az hamin sabab dar on jo irtijoi sakhttarini siyosi hukmron gardid. Hukumati Bakh (1852- 1860) bar ziddi harakati milliyu ozodikhohy berahmona muboriza meburd. Matbuot ba zeri nazorati sakht girifta shud. Bo ijozati makhsus va be ishtiroki politsiya doyr gardonidani girdihamoiho man karda shud. Har guna sozmonu tashkilothoi jamiyatiyu siyosie, ki baroi faoliyat az jonibi hukumat ijozatnoma nadoshtand, parokanda karda shudand. Mamlakat ba 15 mulk taqsim karda shud, ki ba har kadomi onho generalhoi avstriyagi hukmroni mekardand.

Idorai irtijoii Avstriya makhsusan dar Vengriya bedodgary mekard. Horvatiya, Sloveniya, zaminhoi Serbiya va Ruminiya az Vengriya judo karda, ba muzofothoi Avstriya tabdil doda shudand. Horvatiya boshad, bevosita ba sh. Vena tobe karda shud. Transilvaniya khudmukhtor elon gardid. Qismati boqimonlai Vengriya ba 5 mulk taqsim karda shud. Dar Vengriya hokimiyati oli ba ikhtiyori generad-gubernatorn Avstriya guzasht.

CHekhiya niz ba domi bedodgary va taqiboti ommavy giriftor shud. Habarnigori marufi chekh Karel Gavlichek, ki bar ziddi mutdaqiyat muboriza meburd, badarga karda shud. Dar donishgokhi Praga deksiya khondani isdokhotkhokh F. L. Riger man karda shud.

Dar in lavra siyosati nemisikuionii aqalliyatkhoi millii imperiya purzur shud. Zaboin nemisy dar tamomi qalamravi imperiya davlaty elon gardid. Korguzorii mamury, sudi va hatto maorifi khalq dar hama jo boyal bo zaboni nemisy surat megirift.

Vazi iqtisodii imperiya dar solhon 50-60 asrn XIX.

 Dar ogozi in davra dar imperiya surati ba amal omadani tabadduloti sanoaty afzud. Sanoat ba tezy taraqqy kard, makhsusan baze sohahoi sanoaty vaznin va sokhtani rohhoi ohan. Soli 1869 istehsoli angisht 3,5 mln tonna, ohan 0,7 mln. tonna va chuyan 0.25 mln tonnaro tashkil namud. Bekor karda shudani sarhadhoi dokhilin gumruky imkoniyat dod, ki dar Avstriya tijorat ham taraqqy kunad. Hajmi tijorati khorijy niz afzud. Agar dar soli 1850 on 187 mln guldenro tashkil karda boshad, pas soli 1860 ba 293 mln. gulden rasid. Moli asosin sodiroti imperiyam Avstriyaro asosan galla, chub va gazvoru mohut tashkil medod.

Dar barobari in boyad guft, ki surati taraqqiyoti sarmoyadory dar qismathoi adohidai Avstriya yak khel nabud. Agar sanoati CHekhiya va Moraviya taraqqy karda boshad, pas dar Vengriya, Gali, Horvatiya, Sloveniya va digar gushayu kanorhoi imperiya rushdi on khele sust Surat megirift. Onho misli zamoni qably asosan mulkhoi kishovarzii Avstriya budand. Kullan khudi imperiyam Avstriya voqean davlati kishovarzi bud.

Vazi moliyavii imperiyam Avstriya vaznin bud. Dar bujai on kharojot nisbat ba daromad mablagi nihoyat kalonro tashkil menamud. Az hamin sabab qurbi arzi avstriyagy sol to sol pasttar mefaromad.

Harakatn millihio ozodikhohi dar Veshriya va CHekhiya dar solhoi 50 va 60 asri XIX. YAke az rohbaroni harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalqi major, yane venterho Mtkach bud. U machorho va khalqhoi digari makhchumi imperiyai Avstriyaro davat menamud, ki ba muqobili istilogaron ba muboriza barkhezand. Baroy faoliyati inqilobiash Tkach az tarafi hukumatdoroni Avstriya ba makhbas partofta shud. Badi dar natijai afv az habs ozod shudan u faoliyati muborizai ozodikhohonai inqilobii khudro davom dod. Dar qatori Tkach dakhkho shakhsiyathoi millim digari Vengriya ba muborizai milliyu ozodikhokhy barkhostand. Onho dar qalamravi Vengriya sozmonhoi milliyu siyosii ziyod tashkil namudand. Baroi past namudani shiddati vaziyati muborizai milliyu ozodikhohi dar Vengriya mamuriyati avstriyagii imperiya har guna choraho meandeshid. Masalan, ijozat dod, ki dar Vengriya baseym intikhobot guzaronida shavad. Badi intikhobot malum gardid, ki seymi mazkur baroi mamuriyati imperiyavy gapdaro pest. Az hamin sabab on parokanda karda shud.

Dar CHekhiya niz muborizai milliyu ozodikhohona surat megirift. Dar in jo ham hukumati Avstriya baroi past gardonidani shiddati vaziyat choraho andeshid. Hukumat soli 1860 ba seymi CHekhiya huquqi tashabbusi qonunguzory dod. Vale misli peshtara zaboni nemisi zaboni davlaty mondan girift. In chorai juzy va baroi khalqi chekh beahamiyat harakati milliyu ozodikhohiro dar CHekhiya past karda natavonist. CHunin holati chamiyatiyu siyosi dar qalamravi sukunati tamomi khalqhoi digari gayriavstriyagi ham ba nazar merasid. Dar in holat hukumati Avstriya mamlakatro ba tarzi kuhna idora karda nametavonist. Baroi hamin hukumati nav bo sardorii SHmerling (1861  – 1865) khost, ki nemisgardonii khalqhoi gayrinemisro bo usuli konstitutsiony ijro namoyad. In bud, ki soli 1861 bo nomi “Patenti Fevral” Konstitutsiyai umumiimperii Avstriya qabul karda shud. On ba parlamenta dupalatagi hokimiyati qonunguzory dod konstitutsiya intikhobotro az run molu mulk, nobarobar va duzinagy elon namud. In konstntutsiya ba burjuaziya va ashrofoni zamindori Avstriya imkoniyat medod, ki dar imperiya hokimiyati qonunguzorro dar zeri nazorati khud doshta boshand. Az konstitutsiyai mazkur khalqhoi gayrinemis norozi budand. Az in ru siyosati markazonidai hokimiyati davlati va nemisgardonii khalqhoi imperiya komilan shikast khurd.

 Dar chunin sharoit vaziyati khorijii imperiyai Avstriya sust shudan girift. Soli 1866 Avstriya dar jangi ziddi Prussiya ba shikast duchor shud. In jang harakati milliyu ozodikhohonai khalqhoi imperiya va makhsusan khalqi Vengriyaro boz ham purzurtar kard. Havfi barham khurdani imperiyai Gabbsburghoi Avstriya ba miyon omad. Baroy hamin hukumati imperiyavy majbur shud, ki guzasht kunad. In hukumat soli 1867 bo Vengriya qarordodero ba imzo rasonid, ki muvofiqi on imperiyai Avstriya nomi dugona Avstro-Vengriyaro girift. Hudi hamon sol konstitutsiyai nav qabul karda shud. In konstntutsiya sokhti davlatii har du kism i in mamlakatro muqarrar namud.

Avstro-Vengriya davlati nqilobi bud. Onro imperatori Avstriya idora mekard. Dar yakvaqt u shohi Vengriya niz ba hisob meraft. Konstntutsiya ba imperator huquqkhoi nomahdud dod. Imperator azoi palatahoi boloii parlament (reykhsrat va seym)-ro tayin mekard, dar bayni majlishoi parlament qaroru amrhoro intishor menamud, ki huquqi qonunro doshtand. Konstntutsiya dar nazar dosht, ki se vazorat harby, khoriji va moliya baroi har du qismathoi imperiya – Avstriya va Vengriya umumy meboshand.

CHy tavre, ki mushohida namuded, konstitutsiyai soli 1867-i imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya ziddikhalqy va istibdody buda, sokhti mutlaqiyatro dar imperiya nigoh medosht. Dar natijai tatbiqi in konstitutsnya khalqhoi in imperiya az zeri zulmi mustamlikavi ozod nashudand. Az hamin sabab harakati milliyu ozodikhohii khalqhoi mazlumi imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya dar dahsolahoi okhiri asri XIX va ogozi asri XX ham davom kard.

Vazn iqtisodii Avstro-Vengriya dar dahsolahoi okhirini asri XIX. Taraqqiyoti sarmoyadory dar qismathoi gunoguni mamlakat nobarobar bud. Az chihati sanoat qismati nisbatan taraqqi karda imperiya CHekhiya ba hisob meraft. Avstriya» SHimoly va Januby niz az in jihat ba CHekhiya qarib barobar bud.

Dar taraqqiyoti sanoat Galitsiya, Bukovina va yak qator viloyatho digar az onho khele aqib monda budand. Dar solhoi 70-90 CHekhiya dar sanoati chuyangudozi maqomi asosiro ishgol namud. Dar in jo on vaqt 86 foizi chuyani imperiya istehsol karda meshud. Sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan niz surat girift. Sanoati korkardi mahsuloti kishovarzi ham pesh raft. Istehsoli qand, sharob va pivo maqomi beshtar paydo namud. CHekhiya ba markazi asosii sanoati bofandagii imperiya tabdil yoft. Az 137 korkhonai bofandagii imperiya 67-toyash dar CHekhiya sokhta tuda bud.

Sozishnomai Avstro-Vengriyai soli 1867 to darajae sababgori rushdi iqtisodii Vengriya gardid. Dar in jo ba istehsoli mahsuloti filizy va korkardi on qadamhoi avvalin guzoishta shudand. Ba in kor istehsoli angisht dar CHekhiya musoidat mekard. Vale sohai asosii sanoati Vengriya khurokvory bud. Soli 1898 mahsuloti galladona, sharob, kand va sohahoi digari khurokvori 47,3 foizi isteheoli mahsuloti khurokvorii imperiyaro tashkil menamud.

Siyosati khorijii Avstro-Vengriya dar seyaki okhirini asri XIX Avstriya bisyor mekhost, ki intiqomi shikast dar jangi soli 1866-ro az Prussiya bigirad. Vale bo vujudi in az Rusiya tarsida, dar jangi dar peshistodai Prussiya bar ziddi Faronsa mavqei betarafiro ikhtiyor karl. Soli 1873 Avstro-Vengriya bo hamrohii Germaniya va Rusiya bo nomi “Ittifoqi se imperator” qarordod ba imzo rasondand. Soli 1876 boshad, bo Rusiya Sozishnomai “Reykh – shtat”- ro imzo kard. On ba Rusiya imkoniyag medod, ki be daholati Avstro- Vengriya bo Turkiya jang kunad. Baroy jubroni in betarafy Avstro- Vengriya boyad qismi Horvatiya va baze navohii nazlisarhadii Bosniyaro ba dast medarovard. Dar Kongressi baynalkhalqii Berlin» soli 1878 ba Avstro-Vengriya ijozat doda shud, ki Bosniya va Hersogovinaro istilo kunad. Az in ru, munosibat dar bayni Avstro-Veshriya va Rusiya bad shud. In holat Avstro-Vengriyaro majbur sokht, ki bo Germaniya nazdik shavad. 7 oktyabri soli 1879 dar bayni Avstro-Veshriya va Germaniya sozishnomai makhfie ba imzo rasid, ki on bar ziddi Rusiya isharonida shuda bud.

Dar in davra dar masalai Tunis munosibathoi bayni Italiya va Faronsa tezutund shudand. Az in ru, ba ittifoqi Avstro-Vengriya va Germaniya Italiya niz dokhil shud, ki bo hamin on ba Ittifoqi Segona tabdil yoft.

Rushdi iqtisodii Avstro-Vengriya dar ibtidoi asri XX. Dar in davra rushdi iqtisodii Avstro-Veshriya hanuz az davlathoi peshqadami sarmoyadori aqib monda bud. Sarfi nazar az in dar navohii sanoatii mamlakat va pesh az hama dar Avstriyai Janubi va CHekhiya istehsoloti sanoaty bo surati tez markazonida shuda, shirkathoi inhisori ba vujud meomadand. Dar solhoi 1905 – 1912 shumorai korkhonahoi kalon ziyoda az nim barobar afzud, shumorai korkhonahoi sahhomy boshad, az soli 1885 to soli 1910 az 380 to ba 587 adad rasid. Sarmoyan in korkhonaho afzud. CHunin ravand makhsusan dar sanoaty kuhi ba nazar merasid.

Istehsoli ohan va pulod asosan dar dasti 6 ittihodiyai inhisori markazonida shud. Konserni madani jamiyati ‘SHkoda” dar Pdzeni CHekhiya ba yake az korkhonahoi kalontarini sanoatii Evropa tabdil yoft. Digar sohahoi istehsoloti sanoaty ham zud taraqqi mekardand va markazonida meshudand.

Markazonida shudani sarmoyai banky niz ba amal meomad. Dar ogozi asri XX sarmoyai qarzy asosan dar yakchand banki kaloni Vena markazonida shuda bud: “Banki milli”, “Kredita shtadt” va “Ittihodi bankhoi Vena”. Bankhoi buzurgi Vena na tanho sanoat, balki kishovarziro niz ba zeri nazorati khud darovarda budand.

Avstro-Vengriya ba marhalai imperializmi khud rasida, besh az pesh ba sarmoyai khoriji tobe meshud. Bankhoi Faronsa, Belgiya va Germaniya dar shakli vombarg (zayom) va yo mablagguzory qarib tamomi mamlakatro faro girifta budand. Vale dar bayni in bankho bankhoi Germaniya Avstro-Vengriyaro beshtar karzdor karda budand. In ravand badi ba itmom rasida ni jangi Faronsayu Prussiya surati ziyodtarro kasb namud.

Ba iqtisodiyoti Avstro-Vengriya sarmoyai Faronsa niz tasiri kalon dosht, Qisme az rohhoi ohan, tonkoy angisht, korkhonahoi chuyangudozi va zavodhoi ’’SHkoda” ba sarmoyadoroni Faronsa taalluq doshtand.

Vale vobastagii Avstro-Vengriya ba sarmoyai khoriji ba sarmoyadoroni in mamlakat dar kori sarmoyaguzory ba sohahoi gunoguni sanoat, az on jumla, ba sanoaty mintaqahoi az jihati iqtisody susttaraqqikarda – Galitsiya, Horvatiya, Sloveniya, Bosniya va Hersogovina khalal rasonda nametavonist.

Purzurshavin muborizai milliyu ozodikhohi dar imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya dar okhiri asri XIX – avvali asri XX. Dar in Davra ham muborizai milliyu ozodikhohii khalqhoi gayrinemisi imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya idoma dosht. In muboriza, pesh az hama, dar mintaqahoi slavyaninishin beshtar ba nazar merasid. Bo sababi boloravii muborizai ozodikhohona dar CHekhiya hukumat majbur shud, ki baze guzashtkho kunad. Soli 1880 hukumati Avstro-Vengriya bo nomi “Murosoi Vena” qarordodero ba imzo rasonid. Muvofiqi on hukumati Badeii (1895   1897) majbur shud, ki az Mohi apreli soli 1897 dar

CHekhiya zabonhoi nemisi va chekhiro barobarhukuq elon namoyad. In chora dar qismati nemisii parlamenti imperiya etirozi buzurgro ba miyon ovard. Vakiloni mardumy az in qismati parlament talab kardand, ki Badeni ba istefo ravad. Ba hukumati nav Gauch (1897 – 1900) rohbary karda, majbur shud, ki qonuni zabonro dar CHekhiya barham dihad. Akiun dar parlamenti Avstro – Vengriya qismati chekhii vakiloni mardumy etiroz bayon mekardand, ki dar natija parlament ba yak maqomi hokimiyati voqean kornoshoyam tabdil yoft. Hukumati nav be sardorii Karber (1900- 1904) tashkil yoft. Ba u ham muyassar nashud, ki muhodifathoi ziddihukumatiro dar CHekhiya bartara4 namoyad.

Harakati milliyu ozodikhokhy dar mulkhoi digari sukunatt aqaldiyatkhoi millim mamlakat ham davom meyoft, khususan dar mintaqahoi slavyannishini imperiya.

Markazi safarbarkuni va mutgahidsozii hamai slavyanhoi januby Serbiya bud. Dar harakati milliyu ozodkhohii khud khalqhoi Horvatiya. Bosniya va Hersogovina ba Serbiya hamchun ba tashabbuskori tashkil namudani davlati yagonai slavyanhoi januby nigoh mekardand. Dar Transilvannya harakati ozodikhohi (rivoch) ravnaq yoft. In muboriza bar ziddi shlyakhthoi lakhy va hukumati Gabbsburgho, dar Ukrainai Zakarpat-ba muqobili ashrofong machor va zulmi milli ravona karda shuda bud.

Slovakiya va Ukrainai Zakarpat guyo mustamlika» kishovarzii Vengriya budand. Doirahoi vasei aholii in qismati slavyankhhi januby baron on mekushidand, ki dar muboriza»- yakjoyai ziddi tabaqahoi hukmroni Avstro-Vengriya ba khalqi chekh nazdik shavand.

Dar Horvatiya, ki dar dokhili shohigarii Vengriya badi mukhtoriyatho dosht, burjuaziya vase namudani mukhtoriyati- Horvatiya, mahdud kardani hududi zamindorii pomeshiki va ba hamai sohiboni zamin dodani huquqi intikhobotiro talab menamud. YAk qismi burjuaziyam Horvatiya baroi ba Serbiya nazdik shudan va tashkil kardani davlati yagonai slavyanhoi janubi baromad mekard.

Taraqqiyoti ijtimoiyu iqtisody va siyosii sarzaminn Polsha nobarobar surat megirift. YAk qismi on dar yakjoyagy bo zaminhoi Ukrainai Garbi muzofoti Galitsiyai imperiyam Avstriyaro tashkil medod. Galitsiya mukhtoriyat dosht va sohibi seym» khud ham bud. Mardumi polyak va Ukrainai Garbi az jonibi hukumati imperiyavii Avegro-Vengriya berahmona zulm karda meshud.

Dar qismati digari zaminhoi Polsha, ki dar ikhtiyori Germaniya bud, zamindoron va muhochironi nemis dehqononi polyakro az zaminhoyashon mahrum mesokhtand. Sanoati vaznini in mintaqa va makhsusan sanoati dar Sileziya mavjudbuda mutaalliqi sarmoyadoroni nemis bud.

Qismi taraqqikardai zaminkhoi Polsha bo nomi SHohigarii Polsha dar zeri hokimiyati Rusiya bud. Sanoati kaloni Varshava. Lodz. havzai Dombrovskiy va inchunin sarmoyai kaloni Polsha dar rushdi iqtisodii Rusiya maqomi kalon paydo namud. Burjuaziyam SHohigarii Polsha ba bozori Rusiya ekhtiyoj dosht. Burjuaziya va zamindoroni Polsha ba fishori hukumati Rusiya nigoh nakarda, dar simoi on ittifoqchii muborizai ziddi khalqi polyakro medidand. Onho baron barqaror namudani istiqloliyati mamlakat va muttahidkunii zaminkhoi Polsha kushish namekardand. Tanho baron mukhtoriyat i SHohigarii Polsha jiddu jahd ba kharj medodandu bas. 

Siyosati khorichin imperiyam Avstro-Veshriya dar ibtadoi asrn XX.

Siyosati khorijii Avstro-Vengriya dar ibtidoi asri XX sol to sol irtijoitar megardid. Samti asosii siyosati khorijiash dar on davra ba Balkan nigaronida shuda bud. Ba aqidai doirahoi hukmroni mamlakat peshi rohi harakati milliyu ozodikhohi va barham khurdani iperiyai Avstro-Vengriyaro Mahz hamin siyosat girifta metavonist.

Iqdomi kaloni imperiyam Avstro-Vengriya baron ishgol kardani Balkan 5 oktyabri soli 1908 zabt iamudani Bosniya va Hersogovina bud. In iqdom munosibati tezu tundi ittifoqi Rusiyayu Serbiyaro ba muqobili Avstro -Vengriya ba vujud ovard. Muboriza dar bayni Avstro-Vengriya va Serbiya dar davrai janghoi yakumu duyumi Balkan (1912- 1913) az nav avch girift. Baroy hamin Avstro-Vengriya ba muqobili Serbiya ba jang tayyory did, Lekin in jang ba amal naomad – Avstro-Vengriya az doyr gardonidani on khuddory kard. Dar in surat zarur meshud, ki ba Rusiya ru ba ru shavad. Bo sababi ba muqobili slavyankhoi januby nigaronida shudani siyosati balkanii Avstro-Vengriya munosibati in davlat bo Rusiya tezu tund gardid.

Imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya dar arafai Jangi yakumi jahoni. Dar arafai Jangi yakumi jahoni dar imperiyai sermillati Avstro-Vengriya muborizai milliyu ozodikhohonai khalqhoi tobe qat nagardid. In muboriza badi ba Avstro-Vengriya hamroh karda shudani Bosniya va Hersogovina va purzurshavii zulmi avstriyagy boz ham purzurtar shud. Dar in muboriza slavyanho nisbat ba digar khalqho faoltar budand.

Soli 1912 dar imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya bukhroni shadidi iqtisodi ba amal omad. Korkhonahoi ziyodi kaloni sanoaty va muassisakhoi tijoraty khonakharob shudand. Dar baze sohahoi sanoat istehsol mahdud gardid. Janghoi Balkan buhroni iqtisodiro dar Avsgro-Vengriya boz ham shadidtar gardonidand. Buhron sathi zindagii mardumro past kard. Natijai hamin bud, ki korpartoii ommavii korgaron va safi bekoron afzud.

Dar arafai jang harakati ommavii khalq makhsusan dar Vengriya purzur shud. Doirahoi hukmroni on dar siyosati tajovuzkoronai Avstriya faolona shirkat mevarzidand. Qismati digari aholy ziddi chunin siyosati ziddikhalqii ashrofoni hukmroni Vengriya bud. In bud, ki dar solhoi 1911-1913 dar Budapesht va shahru mintaqahoi digari Vengriya harakathoi ommavii etirozii mardum ba amal omadand.

Siyosati khorijii imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya, ki az bisyor jikhat ba Germaniya vobasta bud, besh az pesh tajovuzkortar megardid. Rohbaroni Sitodi kulli lashkari Avstriya baroi kharojoti harbi mablagi kalonro taqozo mekardand.

Imperiyai Avstro-Vengriya dar qatori davlathoi digari du ittifoqi harbi hamachoniba ba jang tayyory medid. Tiramohi soli 1913 dar in mamlakat bo rizoiyatn Berlin ba artish safarbarkunii juzy amaly shud. Mohi marti soli 1914 hukumati SHtyurgk javoban ba boloravin harakati ziddihukumatii korgary va oppozitsiya reykhsro parokanda namud. Dar chunin sharoiti tezu tund 28 iyuni soli 1914 dar shahri Saraevo vorisi takhtu toji Avstro-Vengriya Frans-Ferdinand dar suiqasd kushta shud, ki in hodisa hamchun bahona baroi ogozi Jangi yakumi jahoni istifoda burda shud.

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