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IMPERIYAI TURKIYA. Ba nimmustamlika tabdil yoftani imperiyai Usmoniyon

Ba davrai imperializm sabzida rasidani jahoni sarmoyadori rafti ba nimmustamlika tabdil yoftani imperiyai Usmoniyonro tezonid. Baroi tezu tundshavii muborizai mamlakathoi abarqudrat baroi dar SHarqi Nazdik ba tavri inhisori az khud kardani manbahoi ziyodshavii sarmoya niz ba in sabab shud.

Badi Jangi Qrim (solhoi 1853 – 1856) az ahvoli vaznini iqtisodii Turkiya istifoda burda, bonkdoroni Evropa tavonistand, ki in mamlakatro ba domi tobeiyati moliyavii khud darorand. Dalelhoi farovone dar in bora shahodat medihand.

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Soli 1854 az 3,3 mln. lirai turkie, ki bonki Angliya vada karda bud, khazinai Usmoniyon tanho 2,5 mln. lira girift. To soli 1875 jami mablagi vombargi khorijii Turkiya to ba 242 mln. lir rasid, vale Istambul tanho 175 millioni onro istifoda burda tavonistu khalos. Mablagi boqimonda dar khazinai qarzdihandagon mond. Qarzi khorijii Usmoniyon chunon ziyod bud, ki baroi pardokhti on qarib nisfi hamam mablagi harsolai kharojoti davlati sarf karda meshud. Soli 1879 vaziyati moliyavii Turkiya boz ham vaznintar shud. In dafa hukumat shikasti purrai moliyavii imperiyai Usmoniyonro elon kard va az davlathoi khoriji madad pursid. Soli 1881 dar bayni hukumati Turkiya va qarzdihandagon az hisobi namoyandagoni bankhoi kalontarini Evropa “Idorai qarzhoi Ottoman” tashkil doda shud, ki on az boloi manbahoi muhimtarnni daromadi davlatii Turkiya nazorat jori namud. Baroi ba khazina intiqol yoftani mablag hukumati Turkiya majbur shud, ki boz ba vombarg ru ovarad. Solhoi 1890-1914 mablagi az in hisob jamomada ba 166 mln. lirai turki rasid, ki qismi ziyodi on baroi pardokhti qarzi khoriji va foizi on sarf meshud.

Ohista-ohista sarmoyai khoriji ba moliyai mamlakat nazorati purra muqarrar kard. Badi kushoda shudani bonki Ottoman (soli 1856) shubahoi mahallii banki faronsavii qarzdihii Lion, bankhoi Nemisi va Vena, bonki Salonikai Faronsayu Avstriya va Vengriya kushoda shudand. Dar ogozi asri XX dar Turkiya 15 shubai bankhoi evropavi faoliyat mekardand. Turkiya boshad, tanho soli 1888 yak bonki millii Kishovarzi kushodu khalos.

Vobastagii moliyavii imperiyai Usmoniyonro mamlakathoi imperialisti baroi giriftani ijorahoi foidanok istifoda meburdand. Tavajjuhi onhoro makhsusan sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan ba khud jalb menamud. Huquqi sokhtani rohhoi ohani Turkiyaro Angliya hanuz dar solhoi 50-um ba dast darovarda bud. Vale muborizai asosi baroi ijorahoi rohi ohan dar dahsolahoi okhiri asri XIX shiddat girift, hamon vaqte ki mablagguzorii faolonai Germaniya ba khojagii khalqi Turkiya surat girift. SHirkathoi Germaniya avval baroi sokhtmoni rohi ohani Anatoliya – az bandari Izmir to Anqararo ijora giriftand. Sokhtmoni in roh soli 1892 anjom yoft. Soli 1898 hukumati sulton sokhtmoni qitai avvali rohi ohani Bagdodro ba bonki Germaniya supurd. Sokhtmoni rohhoi Turkiya bo surat pesh meraft. Az soli 1855 to soli 1908 darozii onho ba 4 hazor km rasid.

Dar barobari rohhoi ohan naqliyoti bahri va bandarhoi kalontarin niz ba zeri nazorati inhisorii davlathoi Evropa dokhil shudand. Onho baroi istehsoli angishtsang, kandanihoi digari foidanok, istifodai korkhonahoi kommunalii Istambul va Anqara, sokhtmonn khati telegraf va namudhoi digari aloqaro ijora giriftand.

Hamin tariq, imperiyai Usmoniyon ba nimmustamlika tabdil yoft.

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