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IMMUNITET

immunitetIMMUNITET (Immunitas), masuniyat, majmui aksulamalest, ki ba muhofizati organizm az angezahoi siroyat va mavodi khosiyathoi jinsiashon baroi jism begona nigaronida shudaast.
Ba chunin moddaho bakteriyaho va zahri onho, virusho, soddatarinho, kirmhoi parazit, bofta yo uzvhoi payvandi, hujayrahoi aslii tagyiryofta (mas., hujayrahoi saraton) va g. mansuband, ki podzoho – antigenho (unsurhoi khimiyavii baroi organizm begona) dorand. Mahz tasiri antigenho hangomi ba organizm roh yoftani onho (mas., dar natijai suzandoru kardan, bemorii siroyati, payvandi uzvu boftaho) sababi hosil shudani podtanho yo yagon navi digari aksulamali immuni megardad.
Podtanho qobiland bo podzoho tasir rasonda, onhoro bezarar gardonand. Gayr az hosil shudani podtanho (ba istiloh shakli khiltii I.), tarzi digari reaksiyai immunii organizm ba tazriqi antigen, yane shakli hujayravii taassuri immuni niz vujud dorad.
Tagyiri immuniero, ki dar organizm zeri tasiri antigen ba vujud meoyad, «immuniteti gayrimodarzodi menomand. On du nav – faol va nofaol meshavad. CHunonchi, I.-i faol dar natijai bemorii siroyati yo tazriqi vaksina paydo megardad; badi 1 – 2 haftai tazriqi antigen hosil shuda, solho yo dahsolaho (hangomi surkhcha – umrbod) barjo memonad. I.-i nofaol dar mavridi intiqoli podtanho ba tavassuti mashima az modar ba janin paydo shuda, kudaki navzodro ba tasiri baze bemorihoi siroyati, mas., surkhcha, ustuvor megardonad. Ba organizm zardobhoi masuni guzaronida, chunin I.-ro ba tavri suni ba vujud ovardan mumkin ast. Zardobhoi masuni ziddi hamon mikrobho yo zahrhoe, ki bakteriyaho hosil mekunand, podtan dorand.
Dar muhofizati organizm az angezandahoi amrozi siroyati, gayr az I.-i gayrimodarzodi, omilhoi nomakhsusi muhofizat niz ahamiyati kalon dorand. Mas., az pusti solim va luobpardaho naguzashtani bisyor mikroorganizmho; dar usorai pust va muhtavoi turshi meda mavjud budani moddahoe, ki ba mikroorganizmho tasiri noguvor merasonand, dar khun va moeoti organizm (obi dahon, ashk va g.) vujud doshtani fermenthoe, ki mikroorganizmhoro mahv mekunand (mas., lizosim, properdin va g.).
Hamchunin muqarrar shudaast, ki virusho, zahr va mahsuli tajziyai mikroorganizmho az organizm ba tavassuti araq, balgam, peshob, pasafkand va g. ikhroj meshavand.
Dar asnoi siroyati bemorihoi virusi chunin omilhoi nomakhsusi muhofizat, az qabili interferon (safedai ziddivirusie, ki hujayrahoi siroyatyofta hosil mekunand) va ingibitori virusho (moddahoe, ki dar khun, obi dahon, tarashshuhi rohhoi boloi nafas vujud doshta, tarkibi khimiyaviashon ba tarkibi pardai hujayraho monand meboshad) ahamiyati kalon dorand. Intibitorho misli podtanho ba virusho tasir rasonda, saddi chaspidani onho ba sathi hujayrahoi hassosi organizm va roh yoftan ba hujayra megardand. Istifodai interferon boisi kam shudani hujayrahoi ba virus hassos gashta, inkishofi bemorihoi siroyatiro bozmedorad. Interferon khususan baroi peshgiri va sabuk kardani jarayoni bemori (mas., dar mavridi gripp) samarabakhsh ast.
Baland shudani harorati badani bemorro niz ba qatori omilhoi nomakhsusi muhofizat dokhil mekunand. Mas., on hangomi bemorihoi virusi mujibi shifoi bemor megardad. Tarzi tasiri muhofizatii harorat dar asnoi amrozi virusi purra muayyan nashudaast.
Dar I. komplement va fagositho mavqei makhsus dorand. Komplement majmui safedahoi zardobi khun, limfa va moei boftaho ast. YAke az juzhoi tarkibii komplement ba molekulai podtanho payvasta, boisi ikhtiloli hujayrahoi antigendore megardad, ki ziddi onho podtanho tashakkul yoftaand. Hosil shudani komplement aksulamal ba tazriqi antigen nest. On dar organizm doimo vujud dorad, mas., komplement yakjoya bo podtanho bahri angezandai bemorihoi siroyatiro mahv sokhtani fagositho yori merasonad.
Ahamiyati fagosithoro bori nakhust olimi rus I. I. Mechnikov muqarrar kardaast. S. 1883 u isbot namud, ki muqobilati organizm ba bemorihoi siroyati ba qobiliyati angezandahoro doshtanu hazm kardani hujayrahoi makhsusi khun va boftahoi organizm vobastagi dorad. (I. I. Mechnikov onhoro fagositho nomid). In amal «fagositoz» nomida shud. Fagositozro opsoninho (podtanho ki bo mikroorganizmho payvasta az jonibi fagositho doshtanu hazm kardani onhoro oson menamoyand) taqviyat mebakhshand. Fagositozro du navi hujayraho – leykosithoi khun va makrofagi boftaho ba amal meorand.
Mavqei omilhoi nomakhsusi I., ki ba onho komplement va fagosithoro niz mansub medonand, dar tamini tobovarii organizm ba bemorihoi siroyati khele kalon ast. I.-i nomakhsus mumkin ast hangomi sukhtan, sarmo zadan, talafi khun, gurusnagi va sadama sust shavad (on goh organizm ba tasiri bemorihoi siroyati, amrozi gunoguni rimnok va iltihob khele hassos megardad). Doruhoe mavjudand, ki darajai I.-i nomakhsus va dar robita ba in tobovarii organizmro ba tasiri muhit meafzoyand.
Tariqai muhofizii immunitet. Aksulamali masuniro silsilai limfamonandi organizm amali megardonad. Ba tarkibi on magzi ustukhon, timus (nig. Gadudi jogar), ispurch, pulakchahoi peyer (limfoidi)-i ruda, girehhoi limfavi dokhil meshavand. Onho bayni hamdigar tavassuti shabakai raghoi khun va limfa ba silsilai yagona payvast shudaand. Tashkilahoi judogonae, ki dar tarkibi silsilai limfamonand vujud dorand, az jihati vazifa gunogun meboshand. Onho du nav – markazi va kanori meshavand. Hosilshavii podtanho va balogati komili limfositho dar uzvhoi kanori (sipurz, girehhoi limfavi) ba amal meoyad, ki rushdu faoliyati doimii onho ba tashkilahoi markazii limfamonand – magzi ustukhon va timus vobasta ast. Dar magzi ustukhon hujayrahoi bunyodi – saromadi navhoi gunoguni hujayrahoi khun mavjudand.
Timus dar pasi ustukhoni sari sina joygir ast. Dar on limfosithoi khurd – timositho (hujayrai gadudi jogar) mavjudand. Mavqei timusro dar tashakkuli silsilai masuni s. 1961 olimi avstrali D. Miller isbot kard. u muqarrar namud, ki burida partoftani timusi mushbachaho boisi kam hosil shudani podtanho va afzudani davomati hayoti boftai jisman begonai payvandshuda megardad. Az in barmeoyad, ki timus dar du navi taassuri masuni shirkat mevarzad: khilti – hosil kardani podtanho va hujayravi – judo gashtan (khushkidan)-i boftai begonai payvandshudae, ki bo ishtiroki guruhhoi gunoguni limfositho ba amal meoyad. Baroi tashakkuli podtanho V-limfositho, baroi kanda shudani transplantat T.-limfositho masuland. Onho bo rohi tabdili gunoguni hujayrahoi bunyodii magzi ustukhon hosil meshavand. Hujayrai bunyodi badi ba timus guzashtan, zeri tasiri gormonhoi on avval ba timosit, sipas ba sipurz yo girehhoi limfavi vorid shuda, ba T.-limfositi faol tabdil meyobad. Tabdili hujayrai bunyodi ba V-limfosit, ehtimol, dar magzi ustukhon surat girad.
V-limfositho podtan – safedahoi makhsus (immunoglobulinho) hosil mekunand, ki qodir ast angezandai bemorihoi siroyati va zahri onhoro bezarar gardonad. Panj guruhi podtanho malumand: immunoglobulinhoi M, G, A, E va D. Javoban ba antigen avval immunoglobulini M (vazni molekulaviash khele kalon ast) hosil meshavad. Sipas immunoglobulinhoi G, ki bakteriya va zahri onhoro bezarar megardonand, ba vujud meoyand. Dar usorai luobpardai ruda, obi dahon va dig. moehoi organizm miqdori ziyodi immunoglobulini A gun meshavad. On baroi az berun ba organizm vorid shudani mikroorganizmho moneai avvalin ast.
Vale baroi on ki dar organizm miqdori kofii podtanho gun shuda, antigenhoi begona (hujayrahoi begona, virusho, bakteriyaho, zahrho)-ro mahv sozand, vaqt lozim ast. Muddate, ki az dokhil shudani antigen to gun gashtani podtanho yo T.-limfosithoi faol sipari meshavad, davrai nihoni nom dorad. Mahz dar hamin davra tagyiroti asosie, ki inkishofi bemayloni taasuri I.-ro tamin menamoyad, ba vujud meoyad. In, dar navbati avval, majmui taassuri V- va T- limfositho ba antigen ast. Baroi on ki hujayraho ba antigen mutaassir shavand, onho boyad onro «donand», baroi organizm begona budanashonro «fahmand». Dar sathi T- va V- limfositho tashkilahoi makhsuse vujud dorand, ki bo antigenho tasiri mutaqobila menamoyand. Inho ba nom retseptorhoi antigenshinos meboshand. V-limfosit az antigen khabari makhsus va az T-limfosit (yordamchi dar podtanofari) khabari nomakhsus girifta, meafzoyad va ba hujayrai plazmavie tabdil meyobad, ki on faolona podtan hosil mekunad. Podtanho (ba nom immunoglobulinhoi makhsus), ki ba vositai hujayrahoi plazmavi ba jarayoni khun roh meyoband, dar natijai hosil shudani majmui antigen-podtan antigenhoro bezarar megardonand. Minbad zeri tasiroti gunoguni nomakhsus in majmu vayron va az organizm khorij meshavad.
Dar baze mavridho T-limfositho ba tashakkuli podtan mone meshavand yo holati tobovari ba antigenro tamin mesozand. CHunin T-hujayrahoe, ki ba inkishofi I. khalal merasonand, T-supressorho nom dorand. Hamin tavr, davri komili taassuri masunii khilti (humoravi) ba amal meoyad.
T-limfosit (ishtirokchii shakli taassuri hujayravi) mavodi begona (mas., uzv yo boftai payvandshuda)-ro shinokhta, zud meafzoyad va ba hujayrai boligi faol (T-limfositi hassos) mubaddal megardad. Bazan baroi hosil shudani chunin T-limfosit yorii T-limfositi na chandon bolig zarur ast. T-limfositi hassosgashta hujayrai begonaro hangomi bevosita dar tamos budan, nobud mesozad, binobar in onro «qotil» (hujayra-killer) menomand.
Solhoi okhir boz 2 nav (subpopulyatsiya)-i digari T-limfositho oshkor karda shud: T-nerufizoho (amplifayerho), ki faoliyati onho ba taqviyati kori T-limfosithoi hassosgashta ravona shudaast va T-limfosithoi farqkunanda, ki bo hujayrahoi bunyodii khunofar tasir rasonda, boisi takhsis (differensirovka)-i onho meshavand. Dar bayni V-hujayraho niz limfosithoi khosiyatashon supressori (V-supressorho) va V-yordamchihoi taqviyatbakhshi aksulamali I.-i hujayravi oshkor shudaand.
Gayr az hujayra-effektorhoi makhsusi silsilai masuni (T- va V-limfositho) hujayrahoi limfoidie mavjudand, ki ba hadaf-hujayrahoi gunogun, az jumla hujayrahoi omosofar, tasiri mahvzsozanda merasonand. CHunin hujayraho ba T- va V-limfosithoi khos mansub nestand va baroi faoliyat sensibilizatsiyai qabliro nametalaband. Ba onho K- va NK-hujayraho (killerhoi tabii) dokhil meshavand. K-limfositho biduni shirkati komplement boisi lizis (halshavi)-i hadaf-hujayrahoi bo podtanhoi makhsus farogirifta megardand; NK-hujayraho, sarfi nazar az podtanho va komplement, halkunandai hadaf-hujayraho meboshand. Felan onho hujayrahoi asosii ziddi omos mahsub meshavand. Hujayra-killerhoi tabii va hujayrahoi limfoidie, ki hadaf-hujayrahoi podtanho farogiriftaro hal mekunand, qismati muhimi silsilai nazorati immunologi meboshand. Har yak hujayrai begona yo hujayrai tagyiryoftai khudi duchori hamlai favrii hujayra-killerhoi tabii meshavad. Hamzamon mekhanizmhoe, ki ba hosil gashtani podtanho va tashakkuli T-limfosithoi hassos ravona gashtaand, ba kor medaroyand.
In tarhi umumii faoliyati silsilai immuni ast. Vale dar daruni tarh bisyor juzu qismathoe mavjudand, ki ahamiyati onho kamtar az samti asosi nest. Bahri dark namudani mekhanizmhoi nozuki faoliyati silsilai masuni immunogenetika sahmi arzanda guzosht.
Antigenho va fardiyat. Olami antigenho gunogun ast. Inho ham bakteriya, ham virus, ham zanburug, ham rikketsiya, ham uzvu boftahoi az yak fard ba digarash payvandshuda, inchunin hujayrahoi saratonii khudi organizm meboshand, ki khususiyati antigeni giriftaand. Hamin tavr, ba antigenho hamai on payvasthoe, ki khosi organizm nestand, hamai on chizhoe, ki doroi alomathoi jisman begonai genetiki meboshand, mansubiyat dorand. Organizm niz az mavodi begona mutaassir meshavad. Az rui aksulamali organizm mo metavonem biguem, ki moddai mazkur baroi vay antigenist yo na.
Dar okh. a. 19 kormandi I. I. Mechnikov J. Borde muqarrar namud, ki nafaqat bakteriyaho, balki hujayrahoi begonai muqarrari (eritrositho) niz baroi organizm antigen mahsub meshavand. YOrdamchii digari I. I. Mechnikov F. YA. CHistovich khosiyati antigeni doshtani safedahoi zardobi khunro oshkor kard. Muhaqqiqi amerikoi G. Nattol muqarrar namud, ki darajai monandii antigeni navhoi gunoguni hayvonot bo tasnifoti zoologii onho qatiyan muvofiq ast. Vale namoyandagoni khudi hamon yak nav niz az hamdigar bo khosiyati antigeni tafovut dorand. CHunin tafovutro «izoantigeni» nomidand. Tafovuti dokhili nav az rui antigeni eritrositho makhsusan dar odam khub omukhta shudaast (nig. Guruhhoi khun).
Immuniteti transplantatsiyavi. Az sababi tahiyai masalai payvandi uzvu boftaho mafhumi fardiyati antigeni pesh omad. Muddati madid (to s. 1945) olimon aqida doshtand, ki bebarorii payvandi uzvu boftaho ba nomukammalii usulhoi jarrohi vobasta ast. S. 1945 olimi anglis P. Medavar isbot kard, ki sababi judo shudan (kuchidan)-i transplantat tafovuti irsan ustuvori fardi buda, mekhanizmi asosii on ba I. vobasta ast. Javoban ba antigenhoi begonae, ki boftai payvandgashta dorad, podtan va T-limfosithoi hassos ba vujud meoyand. Muayyan kardani tabiati immunii kuchish olimonro ba farqi on chiz vodor namud, ki kadome az antigenhoi bofta yo uzvi begona dar rushdi ikhtilofi immunologi faoliyati beshtar dorand. CHunin antigenho yoft shudand. Onho ba istiloh antigenhoi muvofiqati boftavi meboshand. CHunin antigenho dar odam beshtar az 30 adad buda, dar silsilai HLA (ba anglisi Human Leucocyte Antigenes – antigeni leykositii odam) muttahid gashtaand.
Beshtar az 30 varianti antigenii silsilai HLA sadho tavsiyai fardiro tamin menamoyand. In antigenho yakjoya bo antigenhoi eritrositho va zardobi khun fardiyati har yak shakhsro muayyan mesozand. Uzv yo boftae, ki az yak shakhs ba shakhsi digar payvand karda shudaast, binobar nomuvofiqatii irsii antigenho judo meshavad. Az in ru dar nazdi immunologho masalai bartaraf namudani moneai fardi ba miyon omad.
Samarai jarrohi hangomi transplantatsiya ba intikhobi donor (organizme, ki az on uzv yo boftaro megirand) va resipient (organizme, ki ba on uzv yo boftaro mepayvandand) az rui silsilai HLA vobasta ast. Har qadar ki onho az rui silsilai HLA bo ham muvofiq boshand, aksulamali kuchish hamon andoza sust va bartarf namudanash oson megardad. Mutaassifona, hatto mutobiqati purra az rui silsilai HLA niz manoi ayniyati fardhoro nadorad, chunki dar in hol mumkin ast antigeni digar (mas., antigenhoi guruhi khun) tafovut doshta boshad. Dar in hol kuchidan batadrij, vale hatman ba amal meoyad.
Azbaski ba uzvi payvasta asosan limfosithoi hassos (transplantatro vayron va bejo mekunand) ravona megardand, daryofti mavode zarur bud, ki inkishofi aksulamalro bozdorad. Immunologho ba ozmoishi usulhoe mashgul shudand, ki faoliyati limfosithoro khalaldor yo sust mekunand. Nurhoi rentgen va baze immunodepressantho (moddahoe, ki qobiliyati aksulamali immunologiro bozmedorand) boisi mavti limfositho va darozii umri uzvi payvandi megardand. Zardobi ziddilimfositi niz immunodepressant ast. Onro az hayvonot (khargush, asp, khar) badi immunizatsiya bo limfosithoi odam ba dast meorand. CHunin zardob limfosithoro vayron mekunad.
Vale chunin tarzi tasir khele durusht ast. On aksulamali limfosithoro ziddi uzvi payvandi sust namuda, dar ayni hol I.-ro furu menishonad. Bemore, ki az marg binobar payvandi dil yo gurda najot yoftaast, mumkin ast az siroyati virusu bakteriyaho halok gardad.
Olimon az pai posukhi chunin savolho shudand: oyo usuli kamosebi furu nishondani hujumi immunologi vujud nadorad, oyo mumkin nest, ki I. faqat antigenhoi uzvi payvandiro furu nishonida, ba digar mavodi antigeni kor nagirad. In masalai khele murakkab ast. Halli on chunin mano khohad dosht, ki muhaqqiqon darajai olii idorai aksulamali immuniro omukhta, az uhdai mahv sokhtani faqat on limfosithoe baromadand, ki onho ziddi guruhi khurdi antigenhoi uzvi payvandi faoland, ammo limfosithoero, ki ba muqobili hazorho mavodi antigenii digar nigaronida shudaand, ba holi khud guzoshtaand.
S. 1953 sanai muhime dar immunologiya ast, zero muhaqqiqon hodisai aksi I.-ro kashf kardand. Har yak navigarii genetiki dar organizm aksulamali immuniro ba vujud meorad. I. posboni fardiyati kompozitsiyai yagonai genetikii har odam meboshad. Hamin tavr tagyir dodani qonuni asosii tabiat – masuniyati shakhsiyat imkonpazir gasht. Malum shud, ki I.-i khossa khilof (antipod)-i khudro dorad (yane nohassosii khossa). P. Medavar in hodisaro toleranti – tahammulpazirii yak fardi yagona ba antigenhoi digar nomid.
S. 1953 maqolahoi olimi chekh M. Gashek va anglis P. Medavar chop shudand. Onho dar murgu mushho pajuhish guzaronda muayyan namudand, ki ba davrai avvali inkishofi janin vorid sokhtani antigeni begona boisi dar jonvaron inkishof yoftani tahammulpazirii immunologi nisbat ba antigeni tajribavi megardad. Adami aksulamal qatiyan ba tavri khosa ast, chunki hayvonoti tajribavi va antigenhoe, ki ba janin dokhil nakardaand, aksulamali muqarrari zohir menamudand. Ahamiyati in tajribaho kalon buda, onho hangomi transplantatsiya rohi furunishonii khosai aksulamali immuniro nishon medihand.
Genhoi javobi immuni va vaksinatsiya. Dar bayni dastovardhoi immunologiyai muosir kashfi genhoi javobi immuniro, ki Ir-genho (Immune Response – genho) nomida shudand, boyad qayd kard. S. 1936 zanu shavhari lahistoni S. va A. Klechnovskiyho mushohidai khudro dar borai irsi budani quvvai javobi immuni dar khargushho intishor namudand. Onho isbot kardand, ki qobiliyati organizm ba javobi zur yo susti immuni ba tavri irsi muayyan karda shudaast.
Beshtar az 20 geni javobi immuni malum ast. Miqdori ziyodi onho oid ba amali gardondani aksulamali fardii organizm ba antigen akhbor mebarad. In faoliyati khele muhim buda, ba daryofti masalai moyakubii fardi imkon medihad.
Vazninii bemorihoi siroyati aksar vaqt ba sababi faolii yak-du juzi angezanda ast. Bo maqsadi peshgirii bemori I. ba in angezanda bo rohi tazriqi moyahoe, ki az hujayrai bakteriyaho yo virusho iboratand, hosil karda meshavad. Dar natija, gayr az ba vujud ovardani I. nisbati tasiri angezanda, az hisobi mavodi ilovagie, ki dar inkishofi bemori ishtirok namekunand, zaminai muhofizati nolozimi immuni paydo megardad.
Dar immunologiya usulhoi tajribavii hosil kardani moyahoi ori az kambudihoi mazkur daryoft shudaast. Pesh az hama boyad muqarrar sokht, ki kadom qismi bemorihoi angezanda qodir ast javobi immunii muhofizatiro ba vujud ovarad va angezandaro betasir gardonad. Vaqte ki qobiliyati aksulamali immuniro angekhtani kadom determinanthoi antigenii angezandahoi gunogun malum megardad va hangome ki in moddaho az jihati khimiyavi kholis ba dast ovarda meshavand, ba istehsoli moyahoi suni shuru namudan mumkin ast. Ba molekulai sunie, ki yagon khel faoliyati immuni nadorad, ba rohi khimiyavi determinanthoi angezandahoi gunogunro payvastan mumkin ast. Polivaksinahoi suni darhol nisbati bisyor bemorihoi siroyati – khunoq, surkhcha, poliomielit, sil va g. I. ba vujud meovarand.
Tarafi duyumi moyaguzaroni bo taassuri fardii har shakhs ba antigen aloqamand ast. Taassuri immunologi mushakhkhas meboshad: ba yak antigen – yak, ba digarash – digar, ba seyumash – seyum. Javob ba har yaki in antigenhoro geni dakhldor nazorat mekunad. Az in barmeoyad, ki ba odam niz bo darnazardoshti genhoi javobi immunii u moya guzaronidan lozim ast. In dar amal boyad chi guna surat girad?
Pesh az tazriqi antigen (moya) az shakhse, ki ba u moya meguzaronand, khun girifta, az khun leykosithoro judo mekunand. Minbad bo istifodai yake az ozmoishhoi immunologi aksulamali immunii fardro nisbati hamin moya muqarrar menamoyand. Agar aksulamal dar probirka purzur boshad, pas moyai istifodashuda dar organizm niz aksulamali purzurro ba vujud meorad. Ba chunin bemor meyori kami moyaro meguzaronand. Agar aksulamal dar probirka sust boshad, dukhtur az rui naqshai purra ba amal barovardani moyaguzaroniro tavsiya medihad. In tarzi vaksinatsiyai fardi hangomi tayyor kardani polivaksinahoi sintezi ham boyad mahfuz doshta shavad.
Hamin tavr, tahlili genetikii javobi immuni, ki zohiran masalai sirf nazarist, hatto az imruz sar karda rohi dar oyanda ba vujud ovardanu kor farmudani moyahoi navro peshbini namudaast.
Muayyan kardani daleli mavjudiyati fardhoi qobiliyati aksulamalashon nisbat ba baze antigenho sust, zarurati daryofti rohu vositahoi navi halli masalai moyaguzaroniro muqarrar namud. Tarzi jadidi daryofti immunogenhoi suni ba istehsoli moyahoi nave imkon medihad, ki bar ziddi bemorihoi siroyatii mavjuda nigaronida shudaand va aksulamali organizmro ba hamin antigenho meafzoyand. Tavre ki malum ast, organizm bar ziddi omosi rushdyobanda aksulamali bosamari immuni zohir karda nametavonad. SHoyad, payvandi antigenhoi saraton bo makromolekulahoi muharriki immunologi baroi istehsoli moyai ziddi saraton imkon dihad.
Immuniteti ziddi saraton. Saraton az jumlai bemorihoi vaznin buda, aksar vaqt fojiavi anjom mepazirad. Umedi dukhturoni omosshinos imruz ba immunologiya nigaronida shudaast.
Takhmin mekunand, ki saraton bemorii dastgohi irsii hujayra ast. Illati dastgohi irsii hujayraro az rui paydoishi antigenhoi navi qablan nomalum muayyan mekunand. Hudi daleli paydoishi antigenhoi saratoni manoi ba faoliyat pardokhtani tariqi immunii ikhtiloli omoshoi saratonro dorad. CHunin mulohizai umumi az isboti komilan asosnoki kliniki barkhurdor ast. Bo guzashti sinnu sol omoshoi saratoni binobar sust gashtani samarai silsilai masuni meafzoyand. Istifodai immunodepressanthoi gunogun (moddahoi dorui, zardobi antilimfositi, nurhoi rentgen) dar bemorone, ki gurdaashon ivaz karda shudaast, boisi yakbora afzudani omoshoi badfarjom megardad.
Muoinai bemoroni masuniyatashon zaif tasdiqi bevositai maqomi I. dar inkishofi omoshoi saratoni meboshad. Kudakoni giriftori nuqsi modarzodi I. nisbat ba kudakoni solim hazorho marotiba ziyodtar duchori saraton meshavand. Saraton dar bemoron makhsusan hangomi illati T-silsila yo hamzamon illati T- va V-silsilai masuniyat paydo megardad.
In muoinai klinikiro malumoti ziyodi amalie, ki hangomi kor bo hayvonoti laboratori ba dast omadaand, tasdiq mekunad. Az tajribaho muayyan gasht, ki ba kuchidani omos (chun dar mavridi kuchidani uzv yo boftai begona) I.-i hujayravi, yane T-silsilai muhofizati immuni javobgar ast. Dar in mavrid tajribaho bo tajdidi tasiri vayronsozandai limfositho berun az organizm qobili qayd ast. Az mushhoe, ki bo yake az shaklhoi saraton siroyatnok karda shudaand, T-limfosithoro judo mekunand. Sipas chunin limfosithoro ba probirka, ki hujayrai saratoni dorad, meandozand. Badi guzashtani muhlati muayyan zeri mikroskop favti umumii hujayrahoi saratonro mushohida namudan mumkin ast.
Hamin tavr, organizm dar muboriza bo omoshoi saratoni vositai bosamari tasirbakhshero dorad, ki onro I. menomand.
Vale bo vujudi in saraton vujud dorad va omuzishi subotkoronai rohhoi nest kardani on noguzir ast. Savoli avvale, ki dukhturoni omosshinos nazdi khud guzoshtaand, chunin ast: charo muhofizati immuni hamesha natijai dilkhoh namedihad? Sababho, zohiran, bisyorand. YAkum, sust budani khudi muhofizat, ki ba sinnu sol yo garonii irsi vobastagi dorad. Duyum, antigenhoi saratoni, ki javobi immuni dar onho tashakkul meyobad, nihoyat sustand va binobar in nametavonand aksulamali purquvvati immuni (muhofizati)-ro ba vujud ovarand; aqidai immunologho dar in bobat zafi masuniyatofarii antigenho ast. Seyum, surati sabzishi omosi saratoni metavonad ba darajae boshad, ki T-limfosit-killerho az uhdai purra mahv kardani onho namebaroyand. Sababi asosii paydoishi omosi saratoni chize, ki naboshad, dar hama holat yak chiz vozehu rushan ast: ba silsilai immuni yori rasondan lozim.
CHand tarzi tahriki javobi immuniro daryoftaand, ki mavridi istifoda qaror dorad. Onho adyuvantho nom doshta, faoliyati silsilai immuniro ba tavri gayrimakhsus metezonand. Fitogemaglyutinin (FGA), vaksinai ziddi bemorii sil (BSJ) va dig. angezahoi tashakkuli purrai T- va V-limfositho az hamin qabiland.
Inchunin usulhoi makhsusi tahriki limfositho bo antigenhoi gunoguni qismi tarkibii omos tahiya megardand. Olimon kushish dorand, ki baroi tabobati omosho az gormonho va mediatorhoi silsilai immuni, az jumla timozin (gormoni gadudi jogar) va interleykin istifoda barand.
Bemorihoi silsilai immunitet. CHun har yak silsilai digari organizm, majmui immuni tarikhi paydoish va tahavvul, jarayoni inkishofi janini, rohi tashakkul, davrai faoliyati tezu tund va nihoyat davrai pirii khudro dorad. Dar in mavrid silsilai immuni misli har silsilai dig. ba bemoriho giriftor meshavad. Nuqsi modarzodi I. (ba istiloh bemorihoi norasoii masuni) illati shadide meboshad, ki az nasl ba nasl guzashta, dar davrai avvali rushdi kudak zohir megardad. Kudak dar haftahoi avvali hayot, to vaqte ki dar khun podtanhoi ba vositai hamrohak yo az shiri modar giriftaash davr mezanand, komilan solim menamoyad. Vale in nuqsi nuhufta zud zohir megardad. Amrozi gunogun – gazaki shush, gaymorit, gazaki gush sar meshavand. Kudak zaif gashta, sust mesabzad, aksar vaqt roh gashta nametavonad, aqlash raso nest. To kashf va istifoda shudani antibiotikho ikhtiloli norasoii masuni boisi margi kudak az amrozi bakteriyavi dar soli yakumi hayot megasht.
Vobasta ba on ki kadom guruhi silsilai masuni az kor baromadaast, amrozi norasoii immuniro ba chand namud taqsim mekunand. Dar baze mavridho faqat sintezi immunoglobulinho khalal meyobad, yane nuqson faqat ba V-limfositho (peshguzashtagoni hujayrahoi podtanho) taalluq dorad. Dar holathoi digar T-limfositho ham zarar mebinand. Dar natija taassuri hujayra barham mekhurad. Ba on antigenhoe, ki sintezi makhsusi podtanhoro ba tavassuti T-limfositho ba vujud meovarand, javobi khiltii immuni noravshan ifoda khohad yoft. SHakli nisbatan vaznini norasoii immuni bo illati hujayrahoi bunyodii khunofar vobasta ast. Dar in surat zafi purrai silsilai khunofar va limfoidi rukh namuda, bo margi bemor anjom mepazirad.
Oyo tabobati norasoii immuni imkonpazir ast? Tib hayoti mutadil va inkishofi kudakoni ba in bemori giriftorro tamin va khatoi fojiaangezi tabiatro isloh karda metavonad? Hangomi norasoii V-silsilai I., ki ba susti yo umuman vujud nadoshtani qobiliyati sintezi immunoglobulinho zohir megardad, tabobat az raf kardani norasoii immunoglobulinho yo bartaraf namudani norasoii V-limfositho iborat ast. Rohi avvali muolija ba bemoron muntazam guzaronidani immunoglobulinhoe meboshad, ki az odamoni solim girifta shudaand. CHunin tabobat pursamar buda, korshoyamii bemoronro tamin mekunad, onho to sinni balogat meziyand. Rohi duyum tazriqi V-limfositho ba organizm az boftai donorho ast. Azbaski manbai asosii in navi hujayraho magzi ustukhon meboshad, pas sukhan dar borai payvand kardani on meravad.
Tabobati norasoii immuni, ki T-silsilaro darbar megirad, faqat bo rohi payvandi T-hujayraho yo timus mumkin ast.
Payvand kardani hujayrahoi immunokompetenti (hujayrahoe, ki az uhdai aksulamali immunitet mebaroyand) alhol yagona tarzi bartaraf namudani sababi norasoii masuni meboshad. Vazifai on bo qismi mutadil ivaz kardani qismi noqisi silsilai immuni ast. Inchunin kushish ba kharj medihand, ki norasoii immuniro bo gormonu mediatorhoi dar uzvhoi markazii I. hosilshavanda – timozin va mediatori magzi ustukhon (angezai jismhoi hosilkunandai podtanho) tabobat namoyand.
Digar jihati masalai amrozi norasoii immuni ba onkologiya aloqamand ast. Tabiat bahri omuzishi vazifai I. dar kori inkishofi omoshoi saratoni ba dasti muhaqqiqon namunai taassufangez, vale benuqsonro dodaast. Tavre ki qayd karda shud, bemorii saraton dar kudakoni silsilai immuniashon noqis nisbat ba kudakoni solim beshtar paydo meshavad. Sababi khavf – nabudani silsilai pursamari nazorat va muboriza bo omoshoi saratonofar ast.
Tajovuzi immuni (autoimmunitet). Az kibernetika barmeoyad, ki har silsilai khudtanzim az moneai dar dokhili khudi silsila paydoshuda ozod nest. SHavquni kibernetiki jarayoni akhbori idealiro az signal to qabulkunak vayron mesozad. Silsilai immuni hamchun silsilai murakkab va khudtanzimi organizm shavqun dorad, ki kori bonizomi onro khalaldor mekunad. Goho silsilai immunii organizm qobiliyati alayhi mavodi begona muboriza burdanro az dast doda, ba tahiyai podtanho va limfosithoi ziddi antigenhoi khud shuru menamoyad. CHunin holati tajovuz, ki ba juzhoi mutadili badan nigaronida shudaast, «autoimmunitet» nom dorad.
Az jihati nazari podtanho qodirand ziddi har kadom antigenhoi khudi paydo shavand. Binobar in oseb metavonad murakkab boshad (yane hujayraho, boftaho va uzvhoi bisyorro faro girad) yo faqat juzi buda, ba hujayrayu boftahoi judogona ziyon rasonad. Osebi vaznintarin eritematoz ast. Hangomi in bemori podtanho pesh az hama ziddi mavodi irsii hujayra – kislotai dezoksiribonukleat (KDN) yo majmui KDN bo safeda nigaronida shudaand. Dar natija sari har chand vaqt baland shudani harorati badan, damidani donachaho dar pust, osebi gurda, dil, pust, boftai payvandi, raghoi khun, ikhtiloli umumii hujayra ba mushohida merasad. Misoli digar artriti tarbodmonand ast. Hangomi in bemori dar organizm holati gayriodi (paradoks) ba amal meoyad: immunoglobulini yak guruh (M) ziddi immunoglobulini guruhi digar (G) amal mekunad. Varam kardanu gazak giriftani bandu bugum, illati gurda, mushaki dil va raghoi khun zuhuroti khosi on meboshand. Jogari Hasimoto bemorii autoimmuni buda, hangomi on gadudi siparshakl illat meyobad. Antigene, ki ziddi on autopodtanho hosil meshavand, gormoni safedai gadudi siparshakl – tireoglobulin ast. Tajovuzi immuni ziddi in safeda boisi kalon gashtani gadudi siparshakl, vayron va ba limfosithoyu hujayrahoi plazmavi, ki ba muqobili gormon podtanho hosil mekunand, ivaz shudani boftahoi on megardad.
Dar surati tajovuzi autoimmuni sababi asosii bemori nomalum memonad. Vale ba dukhturi tajribador yak chiz malum ast: az organizm dur kardani on limfosithoe, ki autopodtanho hosil mekunand. Bo in maqsad tabobati khimiyavi tain karda meshavad. Istifodai moddahoe, ki limfosithoro vayron mekunand, jarayoni bemorii asosiro qadre sust namuda, bahri behtar shudani ahvoli bemor yori merasonand.
Hangomi eritematoz va artriti tarbodmonand komplekshoi immuni az jumlai omilhoi asosii osebovar mahsub meyoband. Binobar in solhoi okhir in bemoriho ba amrozi komplekshoi immuni dokhil karda meshavand. Podtanho bo antigen kompleks hosil karda, komplementro ham payvast mekunand. Dar sharoiti muayyan in kompleks, yane antigen – podtan – komplement dar boftaho tahshin shuda, boisi illati onho megardad. Baroi tabobati chunin bemori podtanho va komplekshoi immuniro bo rohi gemosorbsiya dur mesozand.
Gibridomaho va podtanhoi monokloni. Imkoniyathoi nav dar tashkhisi immuni va tabobati bemorihoe, ki bo illati silsilai immuni vobastaand, s. 1975 badi tahiyai tariqi gibridomii sintezi podtanhoi monokloni paydo shud. Tarzi hosil kardani gibridhoi hujayravi (gibridomaho)-ro az omezishi limfosithoi muqarrarii hayvonoti masuniyatdor bo hujayrahoi shtammhoi mielomavi (hujayrahoi saraton)-i dar muhiti gizoi parvarishkarda daryoft namudand. Hujayrahoi gibridomi omezish yofta, az limfosit qobiliyati hosil kardani podtanhoi muayyan va az hujayrahoi mielomavi boshad, qobiliyati muttasil afzoish yoftanro sohib meshavand. Podtanhoi az yak kalon (nasli yak jonvar, ki hangomi afzoishi gayrijinsi paydo meshavad) paydoshuda parametrhoi monand dorand (az rui guruhi molekulaho, nav va khususiyati onho). CHunin podtanho faqat bo yak antigen tasiri mutaqobila menamoyand. Hamin tavr, mavodi dar probirka, shisha yo reaktori hujayravi hosilkarda chun reagenti oli dorui behtarin baroi tashkhisu tabobat ast. Majmui reagenthoi makhsuse, ki onhoro hosil kardan imkon dorad, behudud meboshad. In podtanho metavonand ba muqobili safedahoi khun va boftaho, ziddi antigenhoi makhsusi uzvho, hujayrahoi muqarrari va saratoni, ziddi virusho, bakteriyaho, yak qator payvasthoi khimiyavi va g. boshand. Dar muddati chand sol masalai omuzish va istifodai amalii gibridomaho khele rivoj yoft. Istifodai podtanhoi monokloni dar virusologiya takon bakhshid. Ziddi virushoi gripp, paragripp va hori podtanho hosil karda shudand. Gibridomaho nafaqat dar asosi V-limfositho (ba paydoishi boftahoi sintezi podtanhoi monokloni zamina meguzorand), balki dar asosi T-limfositho niz ba vujud ovarda meshavand. Allakay boftai T-gibridoma ba dast ovarda shudaast, ki mediatorhoi muayyanro hosil mekunand; monoklonhoi gibridiro bo khosiyathoi T-supressorho, T-khelperho va T-killerho hosil namudaand. Takhmin meravad, ki istifodai tekhnikai gibridomi ba immunologiya, biologiya va tib tasiri barjasta merasonad. Hamai in, albatta, umed mebakhshad, vale baroi dar amal tatbiq kardani natijahoi tadqiqot korhoi ziyodro anjom dodan lozim ast.
Nazorati immunologi va ustuvorii biologi. Baroi darki maqomi I. ba chunin faoliyati organizm bo chashmi biolog nigoh boyad kard. Jismi odami kalonsol az 1014 hujayra iborat ast, ki onho az yakdigar bo shakl, andoza va vazifa (nig. Hujayra) farq mekunand. CHunonchi, neyron (hujayrai boftai asab, ki shokhahoi daroz – aksonho dorad) va hujayrai epiteliyai ruda (ustuvonashakl ast) ba yakdigar monand nestand, hol on ki ba yak organizm mansub buda, az yak hujayra – zigota ba vujud omadaand. Hujayrahoi pust safoli bom, hujayrai limfaguddaho donai anor, hujayrahoi magzi sar bo shokhahoyash alafi pechakro ba yod meorand. Olimon hisob kardaand, ki dar odam na kamtar az 100 navi hujayraho mavjudand, vale hamai onho dar uzvu boftaho muttahid shuda, yak chizi tom – organizm meboshand. Onho murattab va qatiyan muvofiqi barnomai tahiyakardai tabiat kor mekunand.
Malum ast, ki hujayrahoi nav qarib dar hama boftahoi organizm tavlid meyoband. Dar haqiqat surati tavlid dar hama jo yak khel nest. Mas., davomoti umri hujayrahoi luobpardai rudai rosti odam 24 soat, hujayrahoi pust 5 – 35 ruz, hujayrahoi jigar 180 ruz ast. Hujayrahoi magzi sari odami kalonsol tagyir nameyoband. Onho «darozumron»-i organizm meboshand. SHumorai umumii hujayrahoe, ki dar davomi umri inson dar organizm mavjudand, raqami astronomi – qarib 1018-ro tashkil medihand. In chunin mano dorad, ki dar davomi hayoti odam nasli hujayraho besh az 20 000 marotiba ivaz meshavad. In guna surati tavlidi hujayrahoi nav khususiyati khosi aksariyati mavjudoti zinda meboshad. Tabiat chunin makhluqi serhujayraro ba vujud ovardaast, ki kamoloti olii shakli hayot dar muborizai onho baroi zindagi muyassar gardad. Murakkabii tarkibi hujayra natijai tahavvuli hayot dar rui Zamin ast, ki natijai olii on inson meboshad.
Manoi asosii mavjudiyati har fard, khoh on meduza boshad, khoh kirm yo inson, az khud boqi guzoshtani nasl ast. Baroi ba vorisoni khud voguzoshtani har on chi ki hast (ba vositai genho va alomathoe, ki onho nazorat mekunand) ba balogati jinsi rasidan, ba khud monandro tavallud kardan va naslro ba voya rasondan zarur meboshad. Muvaffaqiyati hamai in silsilai havodis, ki «hayoti biologi» nom dorad, ba kamoloti organizm vobasta ast. Rohi hujayrahoi jinsi az nasl ba nasl boyad bemonea boshad. Ba in hujayraho, ki khususiyathoi fardro jam meorand, «hammol»-i boetimod zarur ast. CHunin «hammol» khudi organizm bo majmui murakkabi hujayrahoi jismi meboshad (onho ba hujayrahoi jinsi mansubiyat nadorand). Baroi on ki intiqol bomuvaffaqiyat surat girad, ba organizm boyad khalal vorid nashavad (aqallan dar davrai tajdid).
Agar organizmi serhujayra az ziddiyathoi dokhili emin mebud, benazir menamud. Sababi ziddiyathoi dokhili dar bisyor budani hujayrahost. Jarayoni noguziri taqsimshavii hujayraho khavf dorad. Baroi on ki hujayra taqsim shavad, duchand gashtani khromosomahoi yadro zarur ast. Genhoi har yak khromosomai muayyan boyad purra boztavlid shavand. CHunin boztavlid daqiqii komilro metalabad, to ki khosiyati hujayrai peshina ba nasl guzarad. Vale az sababi bisyorii genhoi har yak hujayra (qarib 1 mln) duchandshavii khato – mutatsiya ba vujud meoyad. Halal yoftani boztavlidi durusti genho ziddiyati asosi dar organizmi serhujayra meboshad. Nosahehii boztavlidi aynani genho hangomi taqsimshavii hujayra chi khatar dorad?
Har ruz dar organizmi odam qarib 1012 hujayra taqsim meshavad. Malum ast, ki ba har million hujayrai taqsimshavandai jism yak hujayrae rost meoyad, ki ba tavri mutatsiyavi tagyir meyobad. Az in tanosubi basomadi ikhtilol barmeoyad, ki dar organizmi odam har ruz 106 hujayrai mutanti paydo meshavad. Agar dar muddati hayot tabdili 20 hazor nasli hujayraro ba nazar girem, pas miqdori hujayrahoi tagyiryofta taqr. ba 2 mlrd merasad.
YAk qismi hujayrahoi tagyiryofta mumkin ast saratonofar shavand. Saraton va bemorihoi immuni, odatan, dar sinni piri, vaqte ki sinni biologi (na ijtimoi)-i odam ba haddi okhirin merasad, inkishof meyoband. Nerue, ki hujayrahoi mutantiro nest va bo hamin baroi anjomi davrai biologi az tavalludi yak nasl to nasli digar musoidat mekunad, I. meboshad.
Gayr az I.-i khosae, ki tomiyati genetikii hujayrahoi hayvonot va odamro nazorat mekunad, nerui nisbatan orom, vale ba hamon andoza tasirbakhshi muhofizati niz mavjudand. In ba istiloh ingibitsiyai allogeni va tavassuti limfositho furunishonii hujayrahoi bunyodii az jihati genetiki farqkunanda meboshad. Mohiyati ingibitsiyai allogeni – inkishofu sabzishi badi hujayra va boftaho dar organizmi az jihati genetiki mukammal ast. Hujayrahoi mutadili gayrilimfavi ba tavri nomalum hujayrai az jihati genetiki tagyiryofta (mutant)-ro «meyoband». Dar natija chunin hujayra dar ihotai hujayrahoi muqarrari nobud megardad. Malum ast, ki baroi inkishofi omos ba hujayrai mutanti dar navbati avval bartaraf namudani hujayrahoi muqarrari zarur ast.
Hodisai bo limfositho nofaol sokhtani hujayrahoi bunyodii gayrisingeniro, ki az jihati genetiki tafovut dorand, s. 1967 R. V. Petrov va L. S. Seslavina kashf namudand. Tajriba dar hujayrai mushhoi zotashon toza guzaronida shud. Dar natijai ba hamdigar barkhurdani hujayrahoi mushhoi gunogun malum shud, ki limfosithoi yak zoti mushon hujayrahoi bunyodii khunofari zoti digari onhoro nobud mekunand. Pas, dar organizm quvvahoe hastand (limfosithoi muqarrari), ki qodirand hujayrahoi az jihati genetiki farqkunandaro dar khudi ibtidoi paydoish furu nishonand va bo hamin ba tashakkuli hujayrahoi tagyiryofta mone shavand.
Inak, dar rohi jarayoni hujayrahoi mutanti moneai purzuri seqabata meistad: bozdorii allegoni, nofaolsozii hujayrahoi bunyodi, I.-i khossa. Ba hujayrahoi mutanti bartaraf namudani chunin monea khele dushvor ast. Hujayrahoi saratoni yo limfosithoi autoimmuni monearo faqat hamon vaqt bartaraf karda metavonand, ki sistemai limfoidi notavon boshad. Binobar in, vazifai tib ba on yori rasondan ast.

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vitaminhoi-b1

Vitamin “V1”

Vitamin V1 (tiamin) dar organizm baroi mubodilai mutadili moddaho (khususan angishtobho yo karbogidratho) zarur ast. …