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IMKONIYATHOI SISTEMAI OPERATSIONII WINDOWS

Doir ba imkoniyathoi sistemai operatsionii MS DOS va funksiyahoi on dar sinfi 8 mufassal sukhan ronda budem. Holo mo ba omuzishi sistemai operatsionii grafikii Windows shuru menamoem, ki on baroi kompyuterhoi hozirazamoni IBM PC sistemai standarti ba hisob meravad.

Kalimai Windows (Vindovz) dar zaboni tojiki tarjumai tirezaho, ravzanahoro dorad. Baroi chi in sistemaro Windows nomidaand? Gap dar on ast, ki dar in sistema har yak programma dar ekran dar dokhili ravzanai khud tasvir karda meshavad. Bo yorii elementhoi ravzanaho boshad, programmaho idora va ijro karda meshavand.

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Windows to imruz az varianthoi avvalai khud khele mukammaltar gardonida shudaast. Varianthoi Windows 3.1 va Windows 3.11-ro qabathoi operatsionii grafiki nom mebarand. CHaro in programmahoro na sistemahoi operatsioni, balki qabathoi programmavi meguyand? Baroi on ki pesh az omodai kor gashtani onho, boyad sistemai operatsionii MS DOS ba kor shuru namoyad va bad onhoro in sistema ba khotira jeg zanad.

Varianthoi badinai Windows, yane Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows HR boshand, sistemahoi operatsionii grafikii mustaqil ba hisob meravand, chunki hangomi kompyuterro ba quvvai barq payvast namudan, onho ba kor ogoz menamoyand. Har yak varianti badinai Windows az varianthoi peshtaraash imkoniyathoi ziyodtar dorad. Raqamhoi in sistemaho soli paydoshavii onhoro nishon medihand. Masalan, Windows 98 soli 1998 ikhtiro karda shuda, ba gayr az funksiyahoi sistemai operatsionii MS DOS va varianthoi peshtarai Windows-ro dar bar giriftanash, boz imkoniyathoi aloqai shabakavii kompyuteriro tamin menamoyad.

Kor dar har guna varianti Windows az sistemai operatsionii MS DOS dida osontar va qulaytar ast. CHaro? Avvalan, baroi ba vositai DOS idora namudani kompyuter bo yorii klaviatura komandahoi ziyodi anglisiro ba khotirai on dokhil namudan zarur ast.

Hudi komandaho, vazifahoi onho, parametrhoyashon va gayraro az yod donistan lozim ast, vagarna baroi ijro namudani yagon amaliyot hujjathoi tekhnikii ziyodro doimo mutolia namudan va dar nazdi khud nigoh doshtan lozim meoyad. Badan, har yak DOS-programma dar ekran namudi zohirii ba khud khos va majmui komandahoi khosi khudro dorad, ki onho az komandahoi programmahoi digar ba kulli farq mekunand.

Masalan, amaliyoti yakkhelai nuskhabardori yo nestkunii fragmenti matni hujjat va yo giriftani malumot oidi in yo on jabhai programma, ki qarib baroi hamai programmaho khos meboshand, dar har yak programma ba vositai komandahoi gunogun ijro karda meshavand. Baroi hamin ham lozim meoyad, ki omuzishi har yak DOS-programma az sifr sar karda shavad.

CHunin norasoi va kambudiho dar sistemai operatsionii grafikii Windows halli khudro yoftaand. Windows baroihamai programmahoi khud muhiti yagonai koriro (interfeys) tamin menamoyad. YAne amaliyoti yakkhela dar hamai programmaho bo yorii komandahoi yakkhela ijro karda meshavand. Hatto komandahoi Windows ham az komandahoi DOS ba kulli farq dorand. Dar Windows har yak komanda az ruykhati makhsusi menyu nomidashavanda, bo yorii mush intikhob va ijro karda meshavad va hamin tariq, zarurati komandaro az yod donistan az bayn meravad.

Az tarafi digar, har yak Windows-parogramma dar ekran dar shakli nishonae inikos karda meshavad va baroi onro ba kor darovardan tanho ba hamon nishona tasir rasonidan kifoya ast. Azbaski nishonaho doimo dar ekran namudorand, binobar hamin nomi programmahoro az yod donistan shart nest.

Bartarii digari sistemai operatsionii Windows az DOS dar on ast, ki dar in jo yakbora yakchand programmaro ba kor darovarda, bo onho kor kardan mumkin ast. Ilova bar in informatsiyai yak programmaro dar programmahoi digar istifoda burdan mumkin ast.

Hamin tariq, sistemai operatsionii Windows:

 Interfeysi grafikii bayni kompyuter va istifodabarandaro tamin menamoyad.

 Taminoti programmavii bazavi ba shumor meravad, ki dar asosi on tahrirgaroni matni (masalan, Microsoft Word), tablitsahoi elektroni (masalan, Microsoft Excel), bazai malumotho (masalan, Microsoft Access) va digar programmahoi amali kor mekunand.

 Idorakunii khotirai kompyuter va amaliyoti dokhilkuni va khorijkunii informatsiyaro ba uhdai khud megirad.

 Programmahoi khidmatii makhsusro dar bar megirad, ki onho doimo durustii khudi sistema, programmahoi on, faylho, katalogho va diskhoro mesanjand va ba onho khizmat merasonand.

Savolho:

  1. Windows chi guna sistemai operatsioni ast?
  2. Kadom varianthoi sistemai operatsionii Windows-ro medoned?
  3. Sistemai operatsionii Windows az MS DOS chi bartari dorad?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Mukhtasar vazifahoi sistemai operatsionii Windows-ro dar daftaraton navised va bartarihoi onro dar muqoisa bo sistemai operatsionii MS DOS nombar kuned.

 

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