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ILMU ADABI TOJIK DAR ASRI HI– AVVALI ASRI HIII

Tagyiroti siyosii okhirhoi asri H, yane az bayn raftani davlati somoni, ba Movarounnahr sohib shudani Qarokhoniho va ba dasti Gaznaviyon guzashtani Huroson ba hayoti fanni va adabii khalqi tojik tasir nakarda natavonist. Taraqqiyoti ilm va madaniyati khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona, peshrafti zaboni dari va adabiyoti tojik dar natijai janghoi pay dar pay va zadukhurdhoi dokhili to yak daraja bozdoshta shud.

Ba vujud omadani davlati buzurgi Mahmudi Gaznavi va ba yak markaz muttahid gardidani tamomi khoki Huroson, CHagoniyon, Hatlon, Takhoriston, qismi asosii Eron va shimoli hinduston baroi ravnaqi ilmu fan va adabiyot az nav baze sharoit va imkoniyatho faroham ovard.

Dar in davra munosibati Osiyoi Miyona, makhsusan Huroson va Takhoriston bo Bagdod taqviyat yofta, nufuzi Bagdod dar davlati gaznavi, dar Movarounnahr va Huroson khele afzud. In munosibat, dar navbati khud, boisi on shud, ki dar ayyomi Gaznaviyon zaboni arabi nihoyatdaraja pahn gardid. Agar dar avvalho korhoi devon (idorai roje ba mukotibahoi davlati) bo zaboni dari anjom meyofta boshad, aknun komilan ba zaboni arabi guzasht. Dar devon beshtar odamoni arabidon ba kor kashida shudand. Az in jost, ki az davrai Gaznaviyon sar karda kalima va iborahoi arabi besh az pesh ba zaboni tojiki dokhil shudan giriftand.

Dar on zamon adabiyoti tojik asosan dar poytakhti davlati gaznavi markaziyat paydo namud. CHi nave ki sarchashmahoi adabi qayd kardaand, ba darbori sulton Mahmud chandin dahho shoiron gird omada budand. Sulton Mahmud mahz baroi shuhrat yoftan va mavridi madhu sitoish qaror dodani kornamoihoi khud homii adabiyot gardid. Az hamin sabab ham, janri qasidai madhiya dar in davra khele rivoj girift.

YAke az shoironi buzurgi qasidasaro, ki dar darbori sulton Mahmud ba unvoni «Malikushshuaro» musharraf gardida bud, Abulqosim hasan ibni Ahmad Unsurii Balkhi meboshad, ki dar solhoi 60-umi asri H tavallud yofta, soli 1039 vafot namudaast. U pas az tahsili ilmu hunar, ba vositai barodari sulton Mahmud amir Nasr ba darbori davlati gaznavi roh yoft. Unsuri dar aksariyati lashkarkashihoi sulton Mahmud ishtirok namuda, qismi asosii qasidahoi khudro ba vasfi galabahoi sulton bakhshidaast. Muosironash uro chun ustodi zabardasti sukhan bisyor tarif va tahsin kardaand. Ba qalami u chand masnavii oshiqona, ki porchahoi parokandai onho to zamoni mo rasidaand, az jumla, masnavii «Vomiq va Uzro» taalluq dorand. Unsuri sabki bayoni murakkab va puristiorai qasidai madhiyaro ba adabiyoti forsu tojik tatbiq namud.

ilmuadabAbulhasan Alii Farrukhi (vafotash soli 1038) va Abunajm Ahmadi Manuchehri (vafotash soli 1041) niz az namoyontarin shoironi darbori gaznavi budand.

Umuman mavzuhoi madehavi va ayshi ba nazmi doirai Gazna khos ast. SHoironi in davra janrhoi adabii ahdi Somoniyonro inkishof medodand. Onho makhzani vositahoi tasviri badeii adabiyoti forsu tojikro ganitar gardonida, sabku sanathoi navi sheriro niz ba miyon guzoshtand.

Nashunamoi ilmu fani asri H, ki dar sharoiti istiqloliyati davlati ba amal meomad, dar asri HI niz davom namud. Namoyandai barjastai ilm va donishmandi buzurgi in davra Abuali ibni Sino bud, ki tavsifi u dar fasli guzashta ovarda shud.

Digar az olimoni marufi in davra Aburayhon Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Beruni (973–1051) meboshad. Beruni dar yake az dehoti atrofi shahri Horazm tavallud yoftaast. Az rui naqlu rivoyatho, u tamomi umri khudro baroi azkhud kardani donish sarf namuda, gayr az jashnhoi Navruz (idi soli nav, 21 mart) va Mehrgon (idi hosilgundori, 21 sentyabr) digar hama vaqt mashguli korhoi ilmi budaast.

Beruni ba sayohat shavqi ziyode dosht va asosan bo maqsadhoi ilmi musofirat menamud. YAke az mahalhoe, ki u to yak andoza beshtar istiqomat kardaast, Jurjon (Gurgon) nom viloyati kanori bahri Hazar meboshad. Dar vaqti ba Jurjon omadani u Qobus ibni Vushmgir (976-1012) hukmroni on jo bud. Qobus yake az odamoni fozil, donishmandi adabiyot va homii ilm hisob meshud. Hudi u niz yakchand asar talif namudaast. Beruni dar solhoi 999– 1000 «al-Osor-ul-boqiya an al-qurun-il-holiya» nom asari khudro ba poyon rasond. U dar in asar taqvim va sanaho, inchunin jashnhoi sugdiyon, khorazmiyoni qadim, forsho, yunoniyon, yahudiyon, isaviyon va musulmononro tasvir namudaast. In asar muhimtarin sarchashmai tarikhi khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona va tamomi SHarq meboshad.

Beruni dar soli 1010 az sayohat bargashta ba Horazm omad. Dar in jo u bo bisyor olimone, ki dar natijai tabadduloti siyosii okhirhoi asri H az Bukhoro va soiri shahrhoi Movarounnahr va Huroson gurekhta, ba Horazm jam shuda budand, muloqot kard. Sarchashmaho khotirnishon mekunand, ki khorazmshoh -Mamuni Soni ahli ilmu fan, az jumla, Beruniro ba tahti himoyai khud girift. Vale dar soli 1017 sulton Mahmudi Gaznavi pas az zabt kardani Horazm Beruniro hamrohi khud ba Gaznin burd. Ba in tariqa, faoliyati minbadai ilmii Beruni dar Gaznin davom kard.

Beruni dar lashkarkashihoi sulton Mahmud ishtirok namud va hangomi dar hinduston budanash zaboni sanskriti, urfu odat va khulqu atvori khalqhoi in mamlakatro omukhta, pas az bozgashtan az musofirat «Tahriri moli-l-hind min maqala maqbula fi-l-aqlahu marzula» nom asare navisht, ki yake az muhimtarin sarchashmahoi doir ba tarikhi hinduston ba shumor meravad.

Beruni doir ba masalahoi ilmi hayat, handasa va nujum du asari mashhur dorad. YAke az in asarho dar soli 1024 dar Gaznin ba zaboni arabi talif yofta, ba Rayhona nom dukhtari al-hasan (az khonadoni khorazmshohi) bakhshida shudaast. Digari «al-Qonun-ul-Masudi fi-l-haya va-n-nujum» meboshad, ki muallif onro dar bayni solhoi 1030–1036 ba nomi sulton Masud navishtaast. In asar dar olami sharq oid ba in soha avvalin asari ilmi bud, ki baroi tartib dodani kharitahoi jugrofi hamchun dasture khidmat namud.

Gayr az talifoti nombarshuda Beruni boz chandin asari ilmi ba vujud ovardaast, lekin, mutaassifona, aksariyati onho to davrai mo omada narasidaand. Olimi sayyohi asrimiyonagii arab YOqut menavisad, ki u dar yake az masjidhoi Marv dar bayni vaqfnomaho ruykhati az 60 sahifa farohamomadai asarhoi Beruniro paydo namudaast. «Nomai donishvaron», ki dar miyonahoi asri HIH dar Eron tartib doda shudaast, shumorai asarhoi boqimondai uro 27 adad nishon medihad. Dar solhoi okhir az baze kitobkhonahoi jahon asarhoi hanuz nomalumi Beruni yoft shudaand.

Ahamiyati asarhoi Beruni bagoyat buzurg meboshad. U ba vositai yak qator tadqiqot va kashfiyoti khud na faqat ba peshrafti ilmu fanni zamonaash musoidat kard, dar ayni zamon az saviyai donishi ondavra chunon pesh guzasht, ki aksar vaqt dar asarhoi khud ba baze dalel va madrakhoi fanni imruza nazdik meshavad. CHunonchi, nazariyai u doir ba tarikhi namudi sathi zamini (landshafti) pastii shimoli hinduston va oid ba sayri tagyiroti jarayoni daryoi Amu ba in iddao shahodat medihad.84a

Beruni az taassubi dini va munosibati dushmanona nisbat ba madaniyati mardumi gayrimusulmon tamoman dur bud. Masalan, hamai asarhoi ba hinduston bakhshidai u az ruh va ehsosoti olii ehtirom ba madaniyati buzurgi hind sarshorand. Az hamin sabab ham Beruni dar hinduston va Pokiston shuhrat va mahbubiyati ziyode paydo kardaast.

Dar nimai avvali asri HI tarikhnavisi ham taraqqi kard. Abunasri Utbi (yake az darboriyoni Mahmudi Gaznavi) ba nomi sulton «Tarikhi YAmini»[1] nom asare ba zaboni arabi talif namud, ki on dar borai davrai hukmronii Sabuktegin va Mahmud bisyor malumoti muhimero dar bar giriftaast.

YAke az muarrikhoni mashhuri davrai Gaznaviyon Abusaidi Gardezi[2] bud. U dar bayni solhoi 1048–1052 ba zaboni tojiki kitobe bo unvoni «Zayn-ul-akhbor» navishtaast.

Nihoyat, buzurgtarin muarrikhi davrai Gaznaviyon — Abulfazli Bayhaqi (995–1077) meboshad. Abulfazl muddati nuzdah sol dar devoni rasoili Gaznaviyon vazifai munshiro ado namuda, taqriban tamomi voqeahoi muhimi on davraro bo chashmi khud did, pas iborat az 30 jild kitobe ba zaboni tojiki talif namud.[3] Vale az in kitobi muhimi tarikhi faqat yakchand jildi noqis va parokandae boqi mondaast, ki dar sharhi ahvolot, saltanat va voqeahoi davrai sulton Masud buda, bo nomi «Tarikhi Masudi» yo khud «Tarikhi Bayhaqi»[4] mashhur ast. In jildho tanho kamtarin qismate az on asari buzurgi tarikhii in muallif hisob meshavand.

Dar davlati Qarokhoniho ilmu fan va adabiyot dar in davra khele aqib meravad. CHi nave ki Muhammadi Avfi dar tazkirai asri HIII menavisad, az khonhoi qarokhoni faqat yak Qilich Tamgochkhon ba taraqqiyoti ilm va adabiyot andake ahamiyat dodaast. Bo vujudi in, yakchand asarhoero, ki dar asri HI dar Movarounnahr ba maydon omadaand, nom burdan mumkin ast. CHunonchi, «Tarikhi mulki Turkiston»-i Majduddin Muhammad ibni Adnon va gayra, ki az onho ba juz baze porchahoi judogona to davrai mo chize omada narasidaast.

Ba har hol, dar in davra adabiyoti tojik dar Movarounnahr ham baze shoironi boistedod, monandi Amaqi Bukhoroi (vafotash soli 1149), Suzanii Samarqandi (vafotash soli 1173), Rashidii Samarqandi va gayraro ba kamol rasonid. Vale in shoiron az jihati ahamiyati ejodiyoti khud bo guzashtagonashon barobar shuda nametavonistand.

Amaq va Suzani dar sabk va tafakkuri badei az yakdigar khele tafovut dorand. Ejodiyoti Amaq, ki shoiri darbor ast, pur az zarofat buda, shakli sheriro ba avji takomul rasonidaast. Besabab nest, ki donishmandoni adab ashori uro dar dasturnomahoi ilmi bayon, hamchun namunai taqlid va payravi zikr kardaand. Suzani, baraks, shoiri berun az darbor, namoyandai nazmi doirai hunarmandoni shahr ast. Albatta, goho ba u ham lozim meomad, ki baroi daryofti maosh qasidahoi madhiya guyad, vale u besh az hama bo hajviyahoi khud, ki bo zaboni soddai ba sabki guftugu nazdik navishta shudaand, mashhur ast. Marom va ohanghoi demokratii ejodiyoti uro shoironi davrahoi badina davom dodaand.

Nimai duvumi asri HI va ibtidoi asri HIII dar tarikhi tamadduni khalqhoi Osiyoi Miyona mavqei buzurge ishgol menamoyad. Ba atrofi yak markaz muttahid gardidani Movarounnahr, Huroson va Takhoriston, ki dar zamoni Saljuqiyon ba amal omad, dar shahrhoi Nishopur, Marv, Balkh va qisman hirot faoliyati fikriro ehyo namuda, baroi dar in markazhoi navi madani jam shudani ahli ilmu adab imkoniyathoi farovon muhayyo sokht.

hayot va faoliyati adabii chunin namoyandagoni marufi adabiyoti tojik, monandi Asadii Tusi, Nosiri Husrav, Umari Hayyom, Fakhriddini Gurgoni, Avhadiddini Anvari, Masudi Sadi Salmon, Muizzi, Sobiri Tirmizi va gayra dar hamin davra jarayon yoftaast. Albatta, ejodiyoti in adibon az jihati mazmuni goyavi ba yak daraja nabuda, balki doroi tafriqahoi kulli meboshand. Dar bayni shoironi nomburda khususan Nosiri Hisrav, Umari Hayyom va Fakhriddini Gurgoni, ki dar osori onho tamoili khalqi va taraqqikhohi bartari paydo kardaast, maqomi barjastae dorand.

Nosiri Husrav (1004–1080) barguzidatarini shoironi in davra meboshad. U dar nohiyai Qabodiyon, voqe dar Tojikistoni kununi, tavallud yofta, bad az guzaronidani davrai kudaki ba tahsili ilm, khususan ba omukhtani adabiyot va masalahoi dinivu falsafi shugl varzid.

Nosiri Husrav dar ayyomi javoni darbori sulton Mahmud va Masudi Gaznaviro did va chand vaqt dar darbori Saljuqiyon ba sifati dabir khidmat namuda, sipas, ba musofirat baromad. U hanuz hangomi javoni hinduston, navohii Turkiston va Afgonistoni kununiro sayohat namud. Nosiri Husrav bo hamin niyat musofirat mekard, ki ahvol va aqidahoi mazhabii khalqhoi gunogunro tahqiq namoyad. Vay dar zarfi haft soli musofirati khud hijoz, Osiyoi Sagir, Suriya va Misrro dida, bo zindagonii mardumoni on jo va urfu odati onho shinosoi paydo kard. Nihoyat, dar Misr bo tarafdoroni khalifahoi fotimi, sarvaroni tariqati ismoili vokhurda, khudash niz payravi bogayrati aqidai ismoili gardid.[5]

Nosiri Husrav pas az bozgashtan ba Huroson va tavaqquf kardan dar Balkh oshkoro talimoti ismoiliro tablig va mardumro ba in mazhab davat namud. Dar natijai chunin faoliyati khud u ba taqibi ulamoi islomi va umaroi saljuqi duchor gardid. Vay gayr az ba tarzi pinhoni zindagoni kardan va ba holati gurezagi gashtan chorai digar nayoft, az shahre ba shahre rafta, dar gurbat umr ba sar burd.[6]

CHi nave ki khudi Nosiri Husrav khotirnishon mekunad, in davrai zindagi baroi u khele ba sakhti meguzasht.

Ozurda kard kajdumi gurbat jigar maro,

Gui zabun nayoft zi geti magar maro.

Dar holi kheshtan chu hame jarf bingaram,

Safro hamebaroyad z-anduh ba sar maro.

Guyam: charo nishonai tiri zamona kard,

CHarkhi balandi johili bedodgar maro?

Gar ba qiyosi fazl bigashti madori dahr,

Juz bar maqarri moh nabudi maqar maro.

Donish beh az ziyou beh az jonu molu mulk,

In khotiri khatir chunin guft mar-maro.

Bo lashkari zamonavu bo tegi tezi dahr

Dinu khirad bas ast sipohu sipar maro.

Nosiri Husrav pas az musofirat asari mashhuri tarikhiyu jugrofii khud «Safarnoma»-ro navisht[7] va ham roje ba masalahoi aqidai ismoili risolahoi falsafii «Zod-ul-musofirin», «Vajhi din», «Jome-ul-hikmatayn» va soiri asarhoro talif namud. Alalkhusus devoni sher va masnavihoi «Rushnoinoma», «Saodatnoma» va gayra qimati buzurge dorand.[8] U dar ashori khud gayr az masalahoi dini va falsafi bisyor fikrhoi peshqadami tarbiyavi va akhloqiro joy dodaast. Dar sherhoi u, inchunin afkori insonparvari va dahriyona niz dida meshavand. Nosiri Husrav dar yake az sherhoi khud ba Hudo ru ovarda, meguyad:

Kase gar tukhmi jav dar kor dorad,

Zi jav gandum nayobad bidravidan.

Tu dar ruzi azal ogoz kardi,

Uqubat dar abad boist didan.

Tu gar khilqat namudi  bahri toat,

CHaro boist shayton ofaridan?

Sukhan bisyor boshad, juratam nest,

Nafas az tars natvonam kashidan…

Agar mekhosti, k-inho napursam,

Maro boist hayvon ofaridan.

Agar dar hashr sozam bo tu davo,

Zabonro boyad az komam kashidan…

Bifarmo, to sui duzakh barandam

CHi masrif dorad in guftu shunidan?..

Tu dodi rakhna dar qalbi basharho

Fani iblisro bahri makidan…

Agar rege ba kafshi khud nadori

CHaro boist shayton ofaridan?…

Ba mo farmon dihi andar ibodat,

Ba shayton dar ragu jonho davidan…

Agar nekam va gar bad khilqat az tust,

Haliqe khub boyad ofaridan.[9]

SHoir dar khususi mardumi zahmatkash bo harorat va samimiyati tamom sukhan ronda, podshohon, amaldoron, shaykhoni riyokor, khususan shoironi maddohi harisro sakht malomat kardaast.

Nosiri Husrav to okhiri umri khud az taqib khalos nashud. Pas az on ki u ba tarzi pinhoni chand goh dar Huroson, Tabariston va Mozandaron iqomat kard, ba Badakhshon azimat namuda, dar YUmgon nom dehai kuhistonii on jo panoh burd va baqiyai hayoti khudro dar gushanishini guzaronid.

Umari Hayyom (1048–1131) dar Nishopur tavallud yofta, dar hamon jo tahsili khudro ba itmom rasonid va yake az buzurgtarin olimoni asri HI gardid. U dar aksari ilmhoi zamoni khud, makhsusan dar hayat, riyoziyot va falsafa mahorati ziyod paydo kard va doir ba in sohaho yak qator asarhoi ilmi az khud boqi guzosht. Vay dar ahdi Malikshohi Saljuqi hamrohi munajjimoni vaqt ba kori islohoti taqvim sardori namud.

SHoiri barjastai SHarq Umari Hayyom, alalkhusus bo ruboiyoti khud shuhrat paydo kardaast. Miqdori ruboihoi u ziyod nest, ammo ahamiyati onho, chi az nuqtai nazari adabi va chi az jihati mazmuni falsafi, khele buzurg ast. Mahorati adabi, muhokimai faylasufona va mayli ba haqiqati hayot materialistona nazdik shudani Hayyom natijae dod, ki ruboiyoti u to kunun az garonbahotarin durdonahoi adabiyoti jahoni ba shumor meravand.

In ast yake az ruboiyote, ki zodai tabi in shoiri zakovatmand meboshad:

Gar bar falakam dast budi chun YAzdon,

Bardoshtame man in falakro zi miyon.

V-az nav falake digar chunon sokhtame,

K-ozoda ba komi dil rasidi oson.[10]

Dar ruboiyoti Umari Hayyom odami sarbalandi ozodmanishe tasvir yoftaast, ki na az etibori hukmdoroni zamon va na az harzahoi dini dar borai okhirat andesha nadorad.

Dar bayni shoironi asri HI az jihati quvvai ifodai kayfiyati doirahoi shahr va tanqidi feodalon mavqei makhsusro Fakhriddini Gurgoni ishgol menamoyad. Dar dostoni romantikii «Vis va Romin», ki dar qaribihoi soli 1055 talif yofta, rivoyati qadimai oshiqonai pahlavii porthoro naql menamoyad, hajvu tamaskhuri tundutezi khulqu atvori podshohon va darboriyoni onho nuhuftaast.[11] Dar intihoi doston manzarai utopiyai sotsiali az lihozi tasavvuroti shahriyoni onvaqta tasvir karda meshavad.[12]

Abunasr Asadii Tusi (vaf. 1070) ba nazirai «SHohnoma»-i Firdavsi «Garshospnoma»-ro talif kard. «Garshospnoma» yake az dostonhoi qadimai khalqhoi eroninajod ast.

Asadi dar adabiyoti tojiku fors avvalin kasest, ki shakli munoziraro ejod kardaast. U dar in bobat panj asar navishta, dar onho zaminu osmon, shabu ruz, nayzavu kamon, mugu musulmon, arabu forsro bo hamdigar munozira kunonidaast. Ilova bar in, Asadi lugate ham tartib dodaast, ki az osori taqriban hashtod nafar shoironi on zamon namunaho ovarda shudaand. holo ahamiyati tarikhii in lugat khele buzurg ast: vay namunai bisyor asarhoi azbaynraftai shoironi on zamon va guzashta, az jumla, porchahoi «Kalila va Dimna»-i manzumi Rudakiro dar bar dorad.

Masudi Sadi Salmon (1046–1121) shoiri darbori Gaznaviyoni okhir bud. U qismi ziyodi umri khudro dar Lohur, shimoli hinduston, guzaronid. Ba in tariqa, vay yake az avvalin namoyandagoni adabiyoti forsu tojik dar hindus-ton ba shumor meravad, ki badtar dar in jo nazm ba zaboni forsi khele rivoj va intishor yoft. U dar natijai buhtoni dushmanoni khud chandin martaba ba zindoni sultonho aftoda, umuman, beshtar az 18 soli umrash dar mahbusi guzashtaast.

Masudi Sadi Salmon dar ejodiyoti khud ba ehyo kardani ananai madhu sitoishi iqtidori Gaznaviyon say namuda, hatto dar sherhoyash az Unsuri – malikushshuaroi sulton Mahmud iqtibosho meovard. Vale u madhiyahoi khudro ba zaboni soddavu faseh ofarida, onhoro bo pandu hikmat, andeshahoi falsafi va tasviri lavhahoi zeboi zindagi oro medihad.

SHoir dar solhoi mahbusi marsiyahoi pursuzu gudozi «habsiya» ejod namuda, ahvoli toqatshikani khudro bayon menamoyad va az beadolatihoi zamona zaboni shikoyat mekushoyad. Taqdiri in shoiri boistedod khele fojiaangez ast. ham hayot va ham ejodiyotash tahti fishori shikanjahoi istibdodi feodali qaror giriftaand.

Amir Muhammadi Muizzi (vaf. qaribihoi soli 1140) aslan az Nishopur meboshad. Aksari asarhoi uro qasidahoi madhiya tashkil mekunand, ki ba Malikshoh va sulton Sanjari Saljuqi bakhshida shudaand. U dar vaqti hukmronii sulton Sanjar ba martabai balandi shoiri darbor rasida, ba unvoni «Malikushshuaro» sarfaroz gardid.

Adib Sobiri Tirmizi shoiri gazalsaroi khushtabe bud. Vay ijboran ba khizmati sulton Sanjari Saljuqi kashida shuda, harguna suporishoti uro ado mekard. Ruze sulton Sanjar bo kore uro ba Horazm firistod. Dar on jo bo farmoni Otsizi Horazmshoh vayro dastgir karda, ba josusii Saljuqiyon aybdor namudand va dar soli 1151 ba daryoi Amu garq kunonidand.

Adib Sobiri Tirmizi devoni qasoid va gazaliyot dorad.

Avhadiddini Anvari (1126–1190) dar dehai Badna, nazdikii Maykhona, voqe dar shimoli Huroson, tavallud yoftaast. U ham monandi bisyor shoironi peshina dar ovoni javoni tamomi ilmhoi zamonashro azkhud menamoyad va dar  shoiri nom barovarda, ba darbori sulton Sanjari Saljuqi davat meshavad. Anvari qasidahoi ziyode ofaridaast, ki qarib hamai onho ba sultoni Saljuqi bakhshida shudaand. Bar tibqi aqidai aksari adabiyotshinoson janri qasida tavassuti ejodiyoti Anvari ba darajai balandi kamoloti khud merasad. Qasidahoi bo mahorati favqulodda ejodkardai u az tagazzuloti ishqi, tafakkuroti falsafi, tavsifoti oli va dar barobari in az madhu sanoi sulton Sanjar faroham omadaand. YAke az qasidahoi mashhuri u, ki az tarafi guzho kharob gardidani Horazmro tasvir mekunad, bo ehsosoti samimonai vatanparvari faro girifta shudaast. Gazalhoi Anvari ba lirikai khalqi hamohang ast.

Anvari dar solhoi okhiri hayoti khud bemazmuni va fasodii nazmi darboriro fahmida, az in muhit khudro kanor mekashad va sherhoe meofarad, ki ba muqobili madhiyasaroi nigaronida shudaand.

Dar barobari peshrafti nazm dar adabiyoti klassikii forsu tojik behtarin namunahoi asarhoi nasri niz ba vujud meoyand. CHunonchi, «Siyosatnoma»-i Nizomulmulk, «CHahor maqola»-i Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi, «hadoiq-us-sehr»-i Rashidaddini Vatvot, «Sindbodnoma»-i Zahirii Samarqandi va «Maqomoti hamidi»-i hamidaddini Balkhi az hamin qabil asarho ba shumor meravand.

«Siyosatnoma» sarchashmai khele muhimi tarikhist, ki muallifi on tartibi idorai davrai Saljuqiyonro az mavqei tarafdori davlati markaziyatnoki feodali tanqid kardaast. Pas az favti Nizomulmulk «Siyosatnoma» az nav tahrir yofta, ba matni on ilovaho dokhil shuda bud. Bo vujudi in, asari mazkur dar hamon shakle, ki to zamoni mo rasidaast, osori khele purarzishi nasri okhiri asri HI ba shumor meravad. Zaboni on sodda va ravon ast.

«CHahor maqola»-i Nizomii Aruzi dar tahqiqi hayoti madani va adabii asri muallif va davrahoi pesh az on sarchashmai garonbahoest. Faslhoi asosii «musohiboti» on ba tavsifi peshahoi tabib, munajjim, shoir va munshii darbor bakhshida shudaand. Dar har fasl yake az in peshahoro tavsif namuda, doir ba namoyandagoni barguzidai in pesha dah hikoya ba tariqi misol naql karda meshavad. In kitob beshtar az har guna sarchashmahoi digar dar borai sharoiti zindagii khodimoni madaniyati on zamon malumot medihad. Hususan hamon fasle, ki ba shoiron va ahvoli badi onho dar davlati feodali bakhshida shudaast, qimati ziyode dorad.

«hadoiq-us-sehr»-i Rashidaddini Vatvot asarest, ki shaklhoi sheri onvaqta, alalkhusus obrazho va sanathoi sheriro daqiqona tadqiq va tavzeh namuda, fikru mulohizahoi khele muhimi estetikiro dar bar giriftaast.

«Sinbodnoma»[13]-i Zahirii Samarqandi dar yake mavzuhoi mamuli qissahoi akhloqii adabiyoti SHarq, ki az makri zan bahs mekunad, navishta shudaast. Tariqi naqli qissa dar qissa ba muallif imkoniyat dodaast, ki bisyor hikoyathoi tamsiliro ba syujeti asar dokhil namoyad. Dar in hikoyatho ba shakli jolibe mohiyati «ilmi idorai mamlakat» bayon karda meshavad. Dar aksari onho sarzanishi hokimon va istehzoi neshdori khulqu atvori onon ba tariqi pardapush bayon yoftaast.

Kitobi «Maqomoti hamidi» ba shakli nasri musajja navishta shuda, az 24 maqomi shavqangez iborat meboshad, ki in maqomho az majmui masal, muammo, hikam va hikoyathoi ibratomuz faroham omadaand.

Dar in davra dar qatori adiboni buzurg khele namoyandagoni barjastai ilmu fan ham ba kamol rasida, har yake dar taraqqiyoti fikri khidmathoi muayyane ba jo ovardand.

Imom Fakhriddin Muhammad ibni Umari Rozi (1148–1210) dar hirot iqomat namuda, ba faoliyati mudarrisi va voizi mashgul budaast. U doir ba tib, hayat va riyoziyot asarhoi ziyode talif namudaast.

Abulqosim Mahmud Zamakhsharii Horazmi (1074–1143) yake az muhaqqiqoni marufi sohai lugat va sarfu nahvi arabi buda, farhangi arabi-forsi ba qalami u taalluq dorad.

Abubakr Abdulqohir ibni Abdurrahmoni Jurjoni (vaf. soli 1108) az donishmandoni sarfu nahv buda, dar in soha «Kitobi avomil»-ro talif kardaast.

Zayniddin Ismoili Jurjoni (vafotash dar bayni solhoi 1135 va 1137) bo davati Qutbiddin Muhammad Ibni Anushtegin ba Horazm omad va soli 1110 dar on jo ba zaboni tojiki «Zakhirai Horazmshohi» nom asare navisht. In asar ba «Qonun»-i Ibni Sino asos yofta, az dah kitob iborat ast, ki dar bobati tatbiqi tib, anatomiya, sabab va alomathoi kasali, hifzussiha, tashkhisi bemori va peshbinii jarayoni on, usulhoi tabobat, zahru podzahr va dorushinosi bahs mekunad. «Zakhirai Horazmshohi» ba zabonhoi yahudii qadim, turki  va urdu tarjuma shudaast.

84a Nig.: Beruni, 1950; Beruni, 1957; 1963

[1] Manoi luuavii kalimai «yamin» dasti rost ast. YAke az larabhoi sulton Mahmud «yamin-ud-davla» bud. Manoi «yamin-ud-davla» rudrat va ruvvati davlat yo «dasti rosti davlat» meshavad

[2] Gardez – nomi joest, ki dar masofati yakruza roh durtar az Uazna, dar raddi rohi {induston vore shudaast.

[3] Dar sarchashmaho bo nomhoi gunogun zikr meshavad.

[4] Tarjumai rusii on: Abulfazl Beyhari, 1962, 1969

[5] Farze hast, ki guyo Nosir to ba Misr raftani khud ba tavri makhfi payravii ismoilihoro rabul karda budaast.

[6] Dar borai hayoti Nosiri Hisrav nig.: Bertels A.E., 1959. Inchunin nig. Nosir Hisrou, 1954; Nosiri Hisrav, 1957; Nasir-i Husrau, 1935; Nasir-i Husrau, Safar-name; Ashurov U., 1965

[7] Nig.: Nasir-i Husrau. Safar-name;

[8] Takhmin mekunand, ki «Saodatnoma» ba ralami u taallur nadorad, balki moli muallifi digar ast, ki vay ham Nosiri Hisrav nom doshta, dar asri HIV dar Isfahon umr ba sar burdaast.

[9] Hisrav N., 1957, s. 40-45.

[10] Umari Hayyom, 1963.

[11] Bertels E. E., 1960, s. 284–285.

[12] Fakhriddini Gurgoni, 1963. Muraddima.

[13] Zahirii Samarrandi, 1960

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