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IQLIM

Iqlim chist? Faslhoi solro nombar kuned va muhlati takhminii farorasii onhoro dar mahalaton naql namoed. Bahoru tobiston, tiramoh, zimiston chi khel obu havo msshavad? SHerkhoero ba yod ored, ki obu havoi faslhoi gunogunro vasf karda boshand (masalan, sheri Abuabdullohi Rudaki “Omad bahorn khurram”. “Bahor omad”-i Ozod Aminzoda…).

Mafhumi iqlim. Baroi har mahal in yo on navi obu havo khos ast. Dar har mahal nizomi muayani obu havo mushohida megardad. Dar baze joyho ivazshavii obu havo kam ba nazar rasida, dar digar mahalho havo yakbora tagyir meyobad. CHunonchi, dar nazdikii khati istivo tamomi sol harorati baland, tagyiryobii kamu beshi harorat (az 10 to 50) mushohida meshavad, har ruz nisfiruzy abrho ziyod shuda, dar nimai duyumi ruz boroni sakht meborad.

iqlimDar marzi Tojikiston boshad, ivazshavii chor fasli sol va obu havoi az hamdigar farqunanda az tobistoni garm to zimistoni khunukiash mutadil khos ast. Dar kuhhoi baland, makhsusan. dar Pomiri SHarqi, zimiston khele khunuk, bardavom va kambarf meshavad, harorati havo to 40″S… – 60″ S past mefaroyad. Tobiston kutohi salqin, harorati miyonai mohi iyul dar vodii Murgob 13.5° S meshavad. Dar janub, dar hamvorii Vakhsh tobiston khele garm (harorati miyonai mohi iyul 29°S), zimiston nisbatan muloim ast (harorati miyonai mohi yanvar 1,5° S), barf agar borad, zud ob meshavad.

Har mahal nizomi ba khud khosi obu havo dorad. Masalan; dar Tojikiston tobiston Oftob bar ufuq az hama baland buda, ruzho daroz, obu havo khushki garm meshavad, zimiston nisbatai khunuk buda, ba on tafovuti kaloni harorati bayni shabu ruz khos ast. Obu havoi yak sol obu havoi Solhoi guzashtaro aynan takror namekunad, bazan az nishondihandahoi miyona farq mekunad. Vale, bo vujudi in, dar vodihoi Tojikiston tobistonro hamesha fasli garmtarin, zimistonro fasli khunuki sol menomand. YAgon vaqt obu havoi zimiston garm va tobiston khunuk nashudaast.

Nizomi bisyorsolai ba yagon mahal khosi obu havo  mahali mazkur nomida meshavad. Manoi kalimai iqlim (lafzi yunoni) moili, tamoyul meboshad. YUnoniyoni qadim tafovuti iqlimro bevosita ba tamoyuli nurihoi Oftob ba sathi Zamin vobasta medonistand,

Hususiyathoi iqlimi mahal az rui hisobi miyonav bisyorsolai harorati havo, fishori atmosferi, rutubat, abrnoki va borishot muayyan karda meshavand (Dar borai ahamiyati in unsurhoi iqlim ba mahali khud naql kuned).

Tavsifi iqlim. Mushohidai iqlim va tasviri on kori murakkab va mehnatgalab ast. Iqlim az rui malumoti obu havoi moh, mavsim va sol ne, balki az rui mushohidaho» bisyorsolai obu havo tasvir karda meshavad. Onro az rui nishondikhandakhoi bisyorsolai harorati miyona, rutubat, abrnoki va miqdori solonai borishot hisob mekunand. Odatan, ba tasviri iqlim malumothoro az khususan harorathoi balandtarin va pasttarnn, miqdori ziyodtarin va kamtarini borishot va gayra dar hamai davrahoi mushohida dokhil menamoyand.
Baroi tavsifi iklim donistani on muhim ast, ki az boloi marzi mahal kadom navhoi anbuhi havo meguzarand. CHunonki shumo allakay mushohida karded, anbuhi havo garm va khunuk».

Omilhoi asosii iqlimhosilkunanda arzi mahal, relef, nazdikii bahru uqyonusho va bodhoi doimi meboshand. Vobasta ba arzi mahal iqlim garm, mutadil va khunuk meshavad. Nurhoi Oftob dar mintaqai garm ba rui Zamin hamesha mustaqim, dar arzhoi muadil andake moil meaftand. Dar arzhoi qutbi boshad, mohhoi ziyod Oftob qarib namudor nest, binobar in iqlimi on jo nihoyat khunuk ast.

Vobasta ba nazdik yo dur budani bahru uqyonus iqlim bahri va kontinentali meshavad.

Zarurati donistani khususiyathoi iqlim. Iqlim baroi inkishofi hayot dar rui Zamin nihoyat muhim meboshad. Inkishof va joygirshavii hamai unsurhon tabiat – khok, nabotot, olami hayvonot, daryo va kulho, nizomi obhoi zerizaminy va gayra ba iqlim zich vobasta ast. Iqlim ba relefi mahal ham tasir merasonad. Masalan. dar sharoiti iqlimi khushku amplitudai kaloni harorati shabonaruzi dar Tojikiston hatto jinshoi kuhii sakht (monandi sangi khoro) nisbatan tez vayron meshavand, Bodhoi sakhti garby regi biyobonro ba masofai khele ziyod intiqol medihand. Gizogirii daryo, paydoishi obkhezi, ba vujud omadani bod ss.1 ba miqdori garmi va namy vobasta ast.

Dar kuhho va vodihoi Tojikiston olami farovoni nabotot va hayvonot mavjud ast, ki onho  ham ba iqlim vobastaand.

Unsurhoi muhimi iqlim – harorat, borishot, bodho dar ayni zamon quvvahoi buzurge meboshand, ki sathi Zaminro tagyir medihand (Doir ba nn masala az mushohidakhoyaton dar mahali istiqomati khud dalelho ored).

Hususiyatkhoi iklimro nadonista joi sokhtmoni shahr, roh. sarbandu obanborhoro intikhob kardan nomumkin ast.

Ahamiyati iqlim dar khar navi faoliyati khojagi, az jumla sohai kishovarzi nihoyat kalon meboshad.

Ba salomatii inson khususiyathoi iqlim tasiri kalon merasonand. Onhoro hangomi intikhobi joi kor va istirohat ba nazar giriftan lozim ast. Makhsusan. dar sharoiti kuhhoi baland (monandi Pomir, Tiyonshon) na har kas zista va kor karda metavonad, zero organizmi hama kas ba sharoiti iqlimi kuhhoi baland ba zudy mutobiq shuda nametavonad.

Savol va suporish

  1. Iqlim chist?
  2. Unsurhon asosii iqlim kadomhoand? L. Hususiyathoi iqlimi mahalatonro az run naqshai zerin naql kuned: a) harorati miyonai bisyorsolai mohhoi yanvar va  iyul, amplituda: harorati balandtarin va pasttarini davrai mushohida: b) borshpot (miqdori miyonai solona, mohhoi serborish va kamborish); v) bod (samthoi asosii vazidani bod dar mohhoi yanvar, mart, iyul); g) navhoi obu havoi zimiston, bahor va Tobiston. Malumotro az muallim bigired.
  3. Bazan, masalan, tiramoh ba joi obu havoi sof, beabru khushk obu havoi nisbatan khunuki serborish khos ast, hatto barfi tar meborad. Baze odamon meguyand: “CHi khel iklim tagyir yoft!” SHarh dihed, ki oyo in durusg ast?
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